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Full text of "Questions and answers on Exodus"

U.i 



VICTORIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 
TORONTO, ONTARIO 




SOURCE: 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 

EDITED BY 
t T. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

t E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. t W. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. POST, M.A. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.r.hist.soc. 



PHILO 

SUPPLEMENT II 



PHILO 

SUPPLEMENT 
II 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 
ON EXODUS 



TRANSLATED FROM THE ANCIENT ARMENIAN 
VERSION OF THE^ORIGINAL GREEK BY 

RALPH MARCUS, Ph.D. 

PROFESSOR OF HELLENISTIC CULTURE, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MCMLHI 



1245 



NOV 4 1953 



Printed in Great Britain 



CONTENTS OF SUPPLEMENT II 

PAGE 

List of Philo's Works ..... vii 

Questions and Answers on Exodus — 

Book I 2 

Book II 35 

Appendix A : Greek Fragments of the Quaes- 

TIONES 177 

Appendix B : The Old Latin Version of QG iv. 

154-245 265 

Index 277 



LIST OF PHILO^S WORKS 

SHOWING THEIR DIVISION INTO VOLUMES 
IN THIS EDITION 

VOLUME 

I. On the Creation (De Opificio Mundi) 

Allegorical Interpretation (Legum AUegoriae) 

II. On the Cherubim (De Cherubim) 

On the Sacrifices of Abel and Cain (De Sacrificiis 

Abelis et Caini) 
The Worse attacks the Better (Quod Deterius Potior! 

insidiari solet) 
On the Posterity and Exile of Cain (De Posteritate 

Caini) 

III. On the Unchangeableness of God (Quod Deus im- 

mutabilis sit) 
On Husbandry (De Agricultura) 
On Noah's Work as a Planter (De Plantatione) 
On Drunkenness (De Ebrietate) 
On Sobriety (De Sobrietate) 

IV. On the Confusion of Tongues (De Confusione Lin- 

guarum) 
On the Migration of Abraham (De Migratione 

Abraham!) 
Who is the Heir (Quis llerum Divinaruni Heres) 
On the Preliminary Studies (De Congressu quaerendae 

Eruditionis gratia) 

V. On Flight and Finding (De Fuga et Inventione) 
On the Change of Names (De Mutatione Nominum) 
On Dreams (De Somniis) 

VI. On Abraham (De Abrahamo) 
On Joseph (De losepho) 
Moses (De Vita Mosis) 



LIST OF PHILO'S WORKS 

VOLUME 

VII. On the Decalogue (De Decalogo) 

On the Special Laws Books I-III (De Specialibus 
Legibus) 
VIII. On the Special Laws Book IV (De Specialibus Legi- 
bus) 
On the Virtues (De Virtutibus) 

On Rewards and Punishments (De Praemiis et 
Poenis) 

IX. Every Good Man is Free (Quod Omnis Probus Liber 
sit) 
On the Contemplative Life (De Vita Contemplativa) 
On the Eternity of the World (De Aeternitate Mundi) 
Flaccus (In Flaccum) 
Hypothetical (Apologia pro ludaeis) 
On Providence^ (De Providentia) 

X. On the Embassy to Gaius (De Legatione ad Gaium) 
General Index to Volumes I-X 

supplement 

I. Questions and Answers on Genesis ^ (Quaestiones 
et Solutiones in Genesin) 

II. Questions and Answers on Exodus ^ (Quaestiones et 
Solutiones in Exodum) 
General Index to Supplements I-II 

^ Only two fragments extant. 
* Extant only in an Armenian version. 



vm 



EXODUS 



SUPPL. II 



EXODUS 
BOOK I 

■'*"l. (Ex. xii. 2) <* " This month (shall be) for you the be- 
ginning of months ; it is the first in the months of the 
year." ^ 

(Scripture) thinks it proper to reckon the cycle of months 
from the vernal equinox.'' Moreover, (this month) is said 
to be the " first " and the " beginning " by synonymy,"^ 
since these (terms) are explained by each other, for it is 
said to be the first both in order and in power * ; similarly 
that time which proceeds from the vernal equinox also 
appears (as) the beginning both in order and in power, in 
the same way as the head (is the beginning) of a living 
creature. And thus those who are learned in astronomy 
have given this name ^ to the before-mentioned time. 
For they call the Ram the head of the zodiac " since in it 
the sun appears to produce the vernal equinox.'' And in 
addition to this, it was fitting for it to be (the beginning) * 

" Philo comments on this verse, without quoting it literally, 
in Be Vita Mosis ii. 222-223 and De Spec. Leg. ii. 151-152. 

* LXX o ^irjv oStos Vfjuv dpxrj fir/vcov, TrpatTos eartv Vjxlv iv tois 
fiTjalv Tov iviavTov. 

" diTO TTJs iapivTJs tcrrjixeplas. ^ Kara avvcovvfxiav. 

* Koi ra^et kol Sum/nei. •^ i.e. of " head." 
" K€<f)aX'rjv TOV t,(x)0(f>6pov . . . tov Kpiov. 

^ Cf. De Opif. Mundi 116 i^Ato? Sirra? Kad" eKacrrov iviav- 
Tov arroTcXaJv larj^eplas . . . ttjv p,€v iapLvrjV iv Kpicp. 

* I follow Aucher in supplying the words " the beginning " 
(Aucher " exordium "), to which nothing corresponds in the 
Arm. text. 

2 



EXODUS, BOOK I 

of the times that come into being during the year. Ac- 
cordingly, when the fruits of things that are sown become 
full grown on the trees, then they receive the beginning 
of bearing, in order that the gracious acts of God may be 
prolonged perpetually as they replace one another and as 
they join the ends to the beginnings and the beginnings 
to the ends." But in the first creation ^ of all things, in 
Avhich He also made the world, *= He constituted all things 
at the same time to be filled with their fruits of mated 
thoughts.'* For it was proper that this be so, since the 
Father left no appearance * at all of superfluity or deficiency. 
And this was especially for the sake of man, to whom He 
was about to entrust the beginning of customs,^ that he 
might immediately find all things perfect and perfectly 
produced." 

And that (Scripture) presupposes * the vernal equinox 
to be the beginning of the cycle of months is clear from the 
notions of time held * in the ordinances ' and traditions of 
various nations. And one may make certain of this ^ from 
the sheaves of first-fruits ^ which (Scripture) commands 

" Only slightly different is the wording of the Greek frag- 
ment (which contains only this sentence of the section), 'Orav 
oi Tu)v ajrapTcov KapTTol TeAetcu^oDatv, ol rGiv SevSpcov ycv^aecos 
^PXW ^o-fi^dvovoLV tva boXix^vcoatv at tov deov -x^apires tov alojva, 
■nap' aAAcuv aAAai 8ia8e;^o/xevat /cat avvaTTTOvaai TeXr] /xev apxcus, 
dpxas Se reXeaiv, dreXevr-qToi (Lmv. The last two words appear 
to be an addition to the original text of Philo. 

^ Prob. h-qiJLLovpyia : Aucher " productione." 

" TOV KOafMOV. 

^ The last phrase is obscure to me : Aucher " plena pro- 
priis fructibus eonnaturalis consilii." 
" Aucher " suspicionem." 
^ eOcov. TeXeioyovTjdevTa. 

^ VTTOTlOiqaL. 

* eV Twv xpovcov KaraXrulseoiv vel sim. : Aucher renders more 
literally, " ex retentis temporibus." 

' Aucher " ordineni." 

* aKpi^waaicv dv tls : Aucher " certius id verificet." 

^ hpay^idruiv rcov dirapxiiiv (I>ev. xxiii. 10-11), cf. De Spec, 
Leg. ii. 162, 175. 

3 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

(us) to bring on the second day of the festival " for the needs 
of the service," and spring is the season of harvest/ 

But one may be in doubt why it is that since there are 
two equinoxes, the vernal and the autumnal, which nature ** 
established as the just canons * of the equinoxes, it was not 
from the autumnal one but from that which falls in spring 
that (Scripture) begins to reckon time/ For it is in the 
spring that every fertile place both in mountain and plain 
grows and blossoms and bears fruit, but in the autumn, 
so soon as there is gathered whatever fruit the earth has 
borne, the plants lose their leaves and dry up. But it is 
necessary to attribute the beginning to the better and more 
desirable (season). To me, moreover, it seems that the 
autumnal equinox is to the vernal as a servant is to a queen. 
For it ministers to the earth by giving it rest and by making 
lighter the trees which have been suffering hardship in their 
nature, and by fighting like a brave athlete, it enables 
them to gather together their strength and to make a new 
start from the beginning." Now, if this is so, no one will 
err in saying that in the same way as heaven (is superior) 
to (the rest of) the universe,'' so among the seasons the 
spring is prior to and more sovereign than the autumn. 

But not all (peoples) treat the months and years alike, 
but some in one way and some in another. Some reckon 
by the sun, others by the moon. And because of this the 
initiators of the divine festivals have expressed divergent 
views about the beginnings of the year, setting divergent 

" Of Unleavened Bread or Passover. 

^ Aucher " in usum ministrorum." According to Lev. 
xxiii. 20 the sheaves are to be given to the priests. 

" i.e. of barley. 

^ 17 (f>vaLS. * Kavovas. 

f See QG u. 17 notes. 

' Aucher renders somewhat differently, " hoc enim colit 
terram, quiete ei data, et arbores levitate donat, quum de- 
fatigata fuisset earum natura, luctatoris instar generose 
certans, qui velut pugil cum adversario optime congressus 
foret, sinit ut lassus renovetur rursum ex principio." 

^ Tcp oXw : Aucher " mundo." 



EXODUS, BOOK I 

beginnings to the revolutions of the seasons suitable to 
the beginnings of the cycles. Wherefore (Scripture) has 
added, " This month (shall be) to you the beginning," 
making clear a determined and distinct number of seasons, 
lest they follow the Egyptians, with whom they are mixed, 
and be seduced by the customs of the land in which they 
dwell.* For He wishes this season to be (the beginning) 
of creation for the world, and the beginning of months and 
years for the race.* Now the season in which the world 
was created, as anyone will ascertain in truth who uses 
a proper method of inquiry (and) deliberation, was the 
season of spring, since it is at this time that all things in 
common blossom and grow, and the earth produces its 
perfected fruits. And, as 1 have said, nothing was imper- 
fect in the first creation of the universe.'^ For special care 
was taken that the race should be civilized '^ and receive 
a special portion of excellence in honour of (its) piety,* 
(namely) this megalopolis, the world, ^ and civilization,'' by 
which it manages its economy.'' Wherefore He thought 
it proper that the same season (should be) a memorial both 
of the creation of the world and of that which is kin to it,* 

" Aucher renders slightly more freely, " ne in Aegyptiorum 
abirent mores, mixtim in regione eorum habitantes consue- 
tudine seducti." 

* Toi yevei. Apparently the human race, not merely the 
Israelite nation, is meant. 

" ovBev dreXes '^v eV rfj TTpwrr) tov oXov yeveaei. 

** The original probably had TToXireveadai, in the sense 
given above rather than its more usual senses " to behave 
politically " or "to be governed " : Aucher " optime con- 
versaretur in mundo." 

* TTJs eucrejSeta?. 

•^ Cf, De Spec. Leg. i. 34 rov ovv d(f>iK6fi€vov els ttjv ws 
dXr)dibs fxeyaXoTToXtv, rdvSe tov Koafiov . . . evvoiav X-qipeadai bel 

TOV TTOLTjTOV Kal TTaTpOS Kttl 7T/30CT€Tt TJYeiMOVOS. 

" TToAiTetav : Aucher " urbanitatem." 

'^ oiKovofiia XPV'''"''' '• Aucher " qua dispensatione bene 
conversatur." 

* Apparently time is meant as that which is kin to the 
world. 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

again in order that the spring might be the beginning of 
every time, for time came into being together with the 
creation of the world. And the race," following nature and 
the whole dispensation of heaven,* reckoned " the seasons 
similarly and in harmony with the months and years, 
giving the same priority to the spring as it has in the 
creation of the world. For at the command of the Lord,'' 
wherever it was arranged * that they should change their 
dwelling from Egypt, being persuaded by clear words, He 
prescribed f the first month as the time of migration. » 
But this is the same as the seventh (month) in the solar 
period, for the seventh (month) from the autumnal equinox 
is described as the time of migration, and it is the first 
(month) according to the solar reckoning.'' 

2. (Ex. xii. 3, 6) Why does (Moses) command that from 
the tenth (day of the first month) a sheep be kept for the 
fourteenth (day), which was to be sacrificed } * 

" See note 6 on p. 5. 

* aKoXovdov TTJ (f>va€i KOI oXrj rfj rod ovpavov oiKovofiLa. 
" Aucher " aptavit." 

^ The Arm. reads ar arn ^ain^ lit. " at the voice of the 
man," but I have ventured to emend am " man " to team 
" Lord." 

« Lit. " it was made " : Aucher " oportebat." 

^ Lit. " wrote." " a-noiKia^. 

^ Nisan (March- April) is the first month of the vernal or 
festival calendar, and the seventh month of the autumnal or 
civil calendar, which begins with Tishri (Sept.-Oct.). The 
above passage has a close parallel in De Spec. Leg. ii. 130 
e/SSoftos cov o /xT^v ouTos (Nisan) dpidixw t€ Kal rd^ei Kara, tov 
■fjAiaKOv kvkXov Swd/jLCi Trpwros iari, 8io /cat irpcoTOS iv rals iepats 
^L^XoLS dvayiypairrai. 

* Lxx TT^ SeKarr) tov fJLrjvos tovtov Xa^drcoaav eKaaros TTpo- 
jSarov Kar' olkovs TTarpiuiv, CKaoTOS Trpo^arov Kar* oiKiav . . . 
(vs. 6) Kal earai vfjuv SiareTT^pT^jLieVov ecos ttjs T€(TaapeaKaiheKdrr)£ 
TOV p,r]v6s TOVTOV, Kal o(f>d^ovaiv avTo irdv to ttXtjOos avvaywyijs 
vlcbv ^laparjX Trpos ioTrepav. Philo quotes part of VS. 3 and 
comments on it differently in De Congressu 106-108 ; he 
also alludes to vs. 6 in De Vita Mosis ii. 224-225. 

6 



EXODUS, BOOK I 

In the first place, (this was commanded) in order that 
he who offered sacrifice might perform the sacrifice not 
offhandedly " and on the spur of the moment and without 
preparation but with care and thought as if rendering 
thanks to God, the saviour and benefactor of all (men).* 
In the second place, by this allusion " to the sacrifice which 
was to be prepared beforehand he wishes to teach this 
first, (namely) that he who was about to offer the sacrifice 
should first prepare his soul and body ^ — the latter by 
abstaining from uncleanness in holiness and purity, and 
the former by quietly giving himself up to God * in order 
that it might be released, even though not altogether, from 
the passions that disturbed it, for, according to the saying, 
one should not enter with unwashed feet on the pavement 
of the temple of God/ In the third place, he wishes to 
test the nation for several " days as to just how it stands 
in respect of faith,'' since he clearly knew (them to be) of 
two minds,* not having been prepared beforehand for 
sacrifice and through negligence not having taken thought 
as was suitable and fitting. In the fourth place, he clearly 
introduces the defeat of the Egyptians, for though they 
were not altogether crushed and dismayed by the things 
which had happened to them, he was referring to the evils 
which were about to overtake them in five days and which 
they would have to endure one after another ^ when the 
enemy would prepare to offer the sacrifices of victory. 
That is the literal meaning. *= But as for the deeper mean- 
ing,^ it was fitting that this should be, (namely) that the 
numbers and the nature of all things should be brought 

" The Arm. uses two expressions to render irapepycos. 

^ TO) aayrrjpi Kal evepyerTj ttovtcov Oecp. 

" alvLTTOfievos. 

' to) evOovaidv or eVi^eia^eiv. 

^ Cf. De Vita Mosis ii. 138 on Ex. xxx. 19. 

" Aucher " multis." '' Trpo? manv. 

* Aucher " dubio actos." 

' Aucher renders slightly differently, " illud quoque 
futurum eis malum quod post certos quoque dies debuissent 
perpeti." * to p-qrov. ' t6 npos Sidvoiav. 

7 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

together." For when souls * appear bright and visible, 
their visions " begin to hold festival,** hoping for a life with- 
out sorrow or fear as their lot and seeing the cosmos * with 
the weight of the understanding ^ as full and perfect, in 
harmony with the decad." That is to say, what else would 
its experience ^ be but festive ? * 



3. (Ex. xii. 3b) Why is it that (Moses) commands a sheep 
to be taken " in accordance with the houses of the clans " ^ ? 

In the first place, because clans are a kind of great kin- 
group and a large number of men,*' but small are those 
(clans) which in accordance with the houses and by blood 
are reduced to a small number of men. And so, bringing 
those (groups) which are small into kinship with the large 

"■ Apparently Philo is thinking of the numbers ten and 
fourteen in relation to the lunar calendar. 

* vfjvxaL (see note d). 

'^ Or " forms " : Aucher " visus." 

'^ One is tempted to restore the apparently corrupted 
original as, " For when bright and visible visions appear to 
souls, they {i.e. " the souls ") begin to hold festival." It seems 
that the original had ipvxous, not i/ruxat. 

^ Arm. zard^ which Aucher renders literally by " orna- 
mentum," obviously reflects Koa^iov in the sense of" cosmos." 

•'' Slightly emending the Arm. which seems to reflect tov 
Xoyov oXk^, cf. De Plantatione 2 1 rrjv irpos to ov Stavoia? oXkt^v. 

^ This is the best sense which I can get from the obscure 
clause, which Aucher renders, " vitam tristitia et timore 
carentem sperantes sortiri certo in decimo plenum, et per- 
fectum cernentes ornamentum rationis perpensionisque." 



77-a 



i9og. 



* eopToiSes. 

^ Lxx AajSercoffav eKaaro^ Trpo^arov /car' oIkov? Trarpicbv (Heb. 
" of the fathers "), ^Kaaros rrpo^arov /car' oIklov. In De Con- 
gressu 106 Philo quotes part of the verse, SeKarj] rod fi-qvos 
rovTov Xa^€TOjaav eKaaros Trpo^arov /car' oiVt'av, and comments 
in part as here, see below. See also De Vita Mosis ii. 224. 

^ fieydXai, tlvcs avyy^veiat koX TroXvavdpcoTTia. Philo here 
anticipates his comments on vs. 4 in § 5 below. 

8 



EXODUS, BOOK I 

ones, he makes them worthy to be table-companions * and 
to come together in one place for the sharing of salt and 
offerings and sacrifices, which makes for harmonious affec- 
tion '' and binds it more firmly. For law is always a maker 
of peace and unity,'' especially as they were about to go 
on a journey. But on a journey tent-mates "^ are useful, 
and he thought it right for them to make this after be- 
ginning with sacrifice. In the second place, he commands 
that everyone's sacrifice shall be made " in accordance 
with the house," (and also the sacrifices) of defenders and 
allies,^ since in every house of their adversaries the death of 
the first-born was to take place, so that anyone seeing one 
(death) after another may at the same time praise and fear 
the beneficence and just acts (of God). For unexpected 
things ^ happened within a short time : among some there 
would be the offering of sacrifices, among others the de- 
struction of the first-born ; for some there would be 
festivals and rejoicing, for others mourning and sorrow ; 
for some there would be blessings and hymns, for others 
wailings and groans and incessant lamentations. That 
is the literal meaning.^ But as for the deeper meaning,'' 
it is this. The sheep is " progressive," as the name itself 
shows, being so called in accordance with the progress ' 
of the soul, and it indicates improvement.^ And he wishes 
that not in one part but in all their parts, by which I mean 
their nature,*^ they may progress and grow in virtue ' in 
respect of their senses and words and sovereign mind,"* 

" 6fxoTpaiT€^ovs. ^ Prob. ^lAi'av : Aucher " amorem." 

" etpT^mys' nal ivcoaews del brjfxiovpyos cgtiv 6 vofios. 

** avoKrjvoi, rendered by two Arm. nouns. 

« Apparently this is a reference to the Israelites' " neigh- 
bours " mentioned in vs. 4, see § 5. 

^ irapdho^a. " to piqTOV, ^ to rrpos hidvoiav. 

' TTpoKOTTTjv, cxprcsscd by two Arm. nouns. 

^ The same connexion between pascha, the Paschal lamb, 
and spiritual progress is made in J)e Congressu 106 to 
tpvxt-Kov Hdaxa, rj . . . SiajSaatS" Trpos ro bcKarov . . . Upovpyeiv 
■rjbT) SvvrjTai Tcis daiveis Kal d/jLcofiovs npoKOTrds. 

* (f)VaLV. ' dp€Tfj. 

"* Kara Ta? aladi]a€LS Kal tovs Xoyovs Kal top -qyefiova vovv. 

9 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

in order that their natural kinship," admitting a stronger 
likeness," may more firmly bring about a harmony con- 
sisting of counsel and justice." 



4. (Ex. xii. 11) "^ But what is the Pascha,* which is inter- 
preted as " Passover " ^ ? 

They make the Passover sacrifice while changing their 
dwelling-place in accordance with the commands of the 
Logos, ^ in return for three beneficent acts (of God), which 
are the beginning and the middle of the freedom to which 
they now attain. '* And the beginning was that they were 
able to conquer the harsh and insupportable masters of 
whom they had had experience and who * had brought all 
kinds of evil upon them, and this (came about) in two ways, 
by having their force ' and their numbers increase. And 
the middle was that they saw the divinely sent punishments 
and disasters which overtook their enemies, (for) it was 
not the nations which fought against them but the regions 
of the world and the four elements '' which came against 
them with the harmfulness and violence of beasts. That 
is the literal meaning.^ But the deeper meaning"* is this. 
Not only do men make the Passover sacrifice when they 
change their places but so also and more properly " do 

** 17 (f)vaLK7] axryyeveia. ^ olKCiOTrjTa. 

" Aucher " copiam prudentiae et justitiae." 

<* Since the name Pascha does not occur before vs. 1 1 in 
Ex. chap, xii, the present section should follow § 18. 

^ Arm. P'esek (Heb. Pesah). 

^ Sid^aais or SiajSar^pta as elsewhere in Philo, e.g. Leg. All. 
iii. 154, De Sacr. Ahelis 63, De Migratione 25, De Vita Mosis 
ii. 224. See also De Spec. Leg. ii. 146-148 for an allegorical 
explanation of the name. 

" rod Xoyov : Aucher " verbi (divini)." 

'' Aucher " quae sunt principium et medium et proxima 
consecutio libertatis." 

* Reading Arm. ork' for the meaningless oyk\ 

* hvvaixiv : Aucher " virtutem." 



^ ra Tov Koafiov fMcpr) KaL rd Tcrrapa aroLX^ia. 

' TO prjTOV. ™ TO TTpos Sicivoiav. " OLKeiOTepov. 



10 



EXODUS, BOOK I 

souls when they begin to give up the pursuits of youth and 
their terrible disorder * and they change to a better and 
older state. And so our mind * should change from ignor- 
ance and stupidity to education and wisdom," and from 
intemperance and dissoluteness to patience and modera- 
tion,"* and from fear and cowardice to courage and con- 
fidence," and from avarice and injustice to justice and 
equality/ And there is still another Passover of the soul " 
beside this, which is its making the sacrifice of passing 
over from the body ; and there is one of the mind, (namely, 
its passing over) from the senses '^ ; and as for thoughts,* 
(their passing over consists) in one's not being taken with 
oneself ^ but in willingly thinking further of desiring and 
emulating prophetic souls.* 



5. (Ex. xii. 4a) Why is it that (Moses) commands that 
" if there are few in the house," they shall take their 
neighbours " in accordance with the number of souls " '^ ? 

" ordaLv : Aucher " insipientia." * d vovs. 

" i^ aTratSeucrta? /cat avoias els TraiSeiav Kal ao<f>iav. 

'^ ef o-Kpaaias koX OLKoXaaCas etV VTTOnovrjv Kal aiii<f>poavvr}v. 

* e'/c <j>6^ov KoX heiXias eis avhpeiav kol ddpaos : Aucher 
renders incompletely, " ex timore in fortitudinem." 

^ €K TrXeove^ias Kal dSiKias els biKaioavvrjv koI laoTTjra. 
" TTJs ^vx'fjs. '^ Tcov alad-fjaeoiv. 

* TCOV Aoyior/x.cDv. 

' i.e. with one's own importance : Aucher " ut non a se 
capiatur." 

^ vpo<f>7]TiKcov tpvxcov OT TTveu/ictTcuv : Aucher " spirituum 
propheticoru m. ' ' 

^ Lxx edv §€ oXiyoarol (Zaiv ol e'v rij oIklo. ware fxr) elvai iKavoirs 

et? vpo^aTOv, avXXijixtperaL /xe^' iairrov tov yciTova tov TrXrjaiov 

avTov' Kara dpidfiov ipvxa>v ktX. : the Heb. reads somewhat 

differently " And if the house {i.e. household) be too small 

for a sheep, then it and its near neighbour shall take (it) for 

its house by the number of souls." In Quis Rer. Div. Heres 

IK 193 Philo quotes the verse in the following form, edv oXlyoi 

IBL tiSaiv OL €V rfj OLKLq. uxxre nrj iKavovs etvai els to Trpo^arov, tov 

IHRsrAT/aiov yeiTova npoaXa^elv, kot dpidfiov tpvxcJov ktX. 

I 



11 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

From the literal text * you see how much love of mankind 
and common feeling ^ he shows, since the divine Word gives 
the command " not only to keep (the festival) ^ but also 
to take thought about giving a share in it * to their neigh- 
bours and those near by, both in equality and in likeness. 
For it is about a most honourable thing — and what is more 
honourable than sacrifice ? — and about that which is held 
in honour and is a matter of sharing in the smallest things 
that he seems to be legislating ^ in the present passage.'' 
That is the literal meaning. But as for the deeper mean- 
ing,'' there are some souls which have a full and complete 
kinship,* being adapted to the nobility of concord,' their 
thoughts being in accord with their words, and their words 
with their deeds.* And there are others which lack the 
elements ' of eternity, being deficient in nobility. Now 
these elements pour out love,"* always " receiving neighbours 
and those who come near. For as a kind of neighbour and 
as near to us in respect of desire for virtue ° (we may con- 
sider) the theories of the so-called school studies.*' And 
one who is nourished by these and keeps in practice,'' makes 
up for his deficiencies by receiving the common discipline 
of the mind.'' And the instruction of the school studies 
should be not childish and puerile but rational * and 

** iv Tcp pr}T(x>. 

^ <f>i\avdpo)7iiav /cat KOivoiviav. 

" TTpoaraTTOvros tov deiov (or Upov) Xoyov. 

^ Aucher renders, " servare," without supplying an object. 

* Koivwviav. ^ vojxodeTetv. 
° The meaning is not wholly clear. 

'' TO TTpos hidvoiav. * (Tuyyevetav. 

' KaXoKayaOia opiovoias vel sim. 

* Twv ^ovXaJv TOLS XoyoLS KOL T(x)v Xoyoiv TOLS epyois opiovoovv- 



TOiV. 

I 



Lit. " parts." 

eptora €kx€€l : Aucher " amore efluunt." 

Aucher renders the adverb freely, " humaniter." 

dperrjs. 

Ttt T60V eyKVKXicov XeyopLevcov decopT/jpLara. 

Aucher " instructus . . . solido exercitio." 

TT7V KOtvrjv TOV vov TratSetav. * AoytK^. 



12 



I 



EXODUS, BOOK I 

accountable " and spiritual,* for it adapts the mind to the 
number of souls." 



*6. (Ex. xii. 4b) Why does (Moses) command that every- 
one shall " number sufficient for himself " for the sacri- 
fice ? " 

In the first place, excess and defect of equality * produce 
inequality.^ And inequality," if I may use rather mytho- 
logical terms, is the mother of injustice, just as, on the 
other hand, equality ^ is (the mother of) justice.' But 
sufficience is midway between excess and defect.^ In this 
passage Holy Scripture lays down (the rule), " Nothing 
too much." *= But in the second place, one's own labour 
in tilling the soil is a measure of moderation ' in the things 
necessary and useful for bodily life. And it is natural "• 
for it to have as sisters frugality and contentment " and 

" Lit. " taken into account " : Aucher " aestimatione 
dignum." ^ irvevfiaTiicq. 

" Aucher " quoniam secundum numerum animarum id 
conciliat mentem," which does not make much sense. 

'' Lxx l/caoTos TO dpKOVv avTcp avvapidfi'qaeTai els Trpo^arov : 
Hebrew " everyone according to his eating you shall number 
for the sheep." In Quis Rer. Div. Heres 192-193 Philo quotes 
this verse as an illustration of " proportioned equality," the 
wording of the latter part being iv* eKaaros to dpKovv avraj 
avvapiOfirjrai. * ictott^to?, rendered by two Arm. nouns. 

^ The Greek frag, reads more briefly vnep^oXal Kal 
e'AAei'i/'eiS' dvLaoTrjTa iydvvrjaav. 

" Aucher mistakenly takes this noun as the second object 
of " produce " in the preceding sentence. 

^ Here again laor-qs is rendered by two Arm. nouns. 

* Slightly emending the Arm. on the basis of the Greek 
frag., dvLaoTTjs 8e, iva avros fivOiKairepov \priaciiyLaL tols ovofiamv, 
fx-qT-qp dhiKias icrriv, o)S efMTToXiv laoT-qs SiKaiocrvinrjs. 

' So the Greek frag., vireppoXrjs 8e /cat iXXeiipews fx4aov to 
avrapKis. 

* Similarly the Greek frag, (which ends here), eV 4» to 
Upov ypdfxfia TrepUxeTai to " firjbev dyav." 

' oai(f>poavv7]s fierpov. "• eiKos. 

" Prob. ev<f>poavvT) : Aucher " facilitas." 

13 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

unexcessive virtue " and everything which accepts the task 
of attacking and overthrowing arrogance. 



*7- (Ex. xii. 5a) Why does (Moses) command (them) 
to take a " perfect male sheep of one year " * ? 

(It is to be) perfect in two physical features,'' (namely) 
in the sensitive parts of the body and also in the other 
organs.*^ For an imperfect (sacrifice) is not worthy to be 
brought to the altar of God. And (it is to be) male, first, 
because the male is more perfect than the female. Where- 
fore it is said by the naturalists that the female is nothing 
else than an imperfect male.* In the second place, since 
it was commanded by the king of the land that the males 
should die, he thought it right, in face of this and also for 
the sake of thanksgiving, to make a sacrifice of male 
animals. And third, because of the king's cruelty and 
wickedness ^ in ordering the proclamation against the 
Hebrew children, (he thought it right) to nourish the female 
and to kill the male (sheep). For since the (king's) com- 
mand had been annulled by the friendliness and humane- 
ness and power of God," it was proper to give thanks for 
the males unexpectedly '' kept alive by (making) male 
sacrifices. And (the sheep is to be) a year old, since the 
males become perfect * in a year. For having added the 

^ Lxx irpo^arov reXeiov dpaev {v.l. + afiwyiov) eviavaiov earai 
Vfilv. " Kara hvo -qXiKias. 

'^ Koi Kara to. aladrjTiKO. tov OiofiaTOS /J-cprj koL Kara ra aAAa 
opyava. 

* So the Greek frag, (which contains only this sentence 
and the last sentence of this section), Ae'yerai vtto (f)vaiKwv 
dv8pa>v, ovSev erepov etvai drjXv rj dreAej dpaev. For the thought 
see Aristotle, De Gener. An. 775 a ; cf. Plato, Timaeus 90 a fF. 

f Aucher inadvertently omits the second noun in his 
rendering. 

" rfj oiKGLor-qTi Kol (f>iXavdpa)7ria Koi Suva/xei rod deov : Aucher 
" per humanissimum beneficium divinae potentiae." 

'' aTTpoaSoK'qTcos or iTapaBo^cjs : Aucher " subito." 

* Te'Aciot, i.e. full-grown. 

14 



EXODUS, BOOK I 

" perfect " as a sort of prime consideration, <* he further 
adds those details in which it is perfect, (namely) that it is 
more perfect than the female, while the " year old " shows 
the time sufficient for the perfecting of such animals. 
That is the literal meaning." But as for the deeper mean- 
ing," progress <* toward piety and worthy holiness ' ought 
to be both male and of a year's (duration). But what this 
means must be shown. Some (men) who have progressed 
in virtue turn back and flee before they have reached the 
end,/ for the newly grown power of virtue in the soul " is 
destroyed by ancient error, '^ which after being quiet for 
a short while again returns to the attack with great power.* 



8. (Ex. xii. 5b) Why is a sheep chosen ? ^ 

Symbolically,* as 1 have said,' it indicates perfect pro- 
gress,"* and at the same time the male. For progress is 
indeed nothing else than the giving up of the female 
gender " by changing into the male, since the female gender 

" Aucher " tamquam principale." 

^ TO prjTov. 

" TO TT/aoj Sidvoiav. 

^ The Arm. uses two nouns to render ras irpoKo-nds. 

* eV euaejSeiav /cat d^Lav dyioTrjra. 

^ So the Greek frag., Ivioi TrpoKoipavres eV dpeTTjv VTrevoarrjaav 
TTplv e(f>LK€a9ai, tov tcXovs. 

" Slightly different is the reading of the Greek frag., t^v 
dpTL <f)vofx,evrjv dpioTOKpdTCiav iv ^vxfj' 

'' Ilere again the Greek frag, differs somewhat, KadeXovarjs 
Ttjs TTaXaids oXiyoKpaTcias {v.l. oxXoKparias). 

* So the Greek frag., rj irpos dXLyov '^pcfM-qaaoa TrdXiv e^ vtt- 
cpxfjs fierd ttX^lovos SvvdfjLicJS dvmrideTO {v.l. evavedeTo). 

^ LXX {npo^aTOv) . . . dTTO tcov dpva>v kol tcov ipi(f>o)v (Heb. 
" from the sheep and from the goats ") Xijfju/jeade. 

* OVfJi^oXlKcbs. 

^ In the preceding section. 
I "* TrpoKOTTTjv TcXeiav. Perhaps the original was irpoKov-qv 
reXeioTTjTos, as in De Ehrietate 82. On the word -npo^arov as 
a symbol of TTpoKovq see Leg. All. iii. 165 and De Sacr. 
Abelis 112. " tov Q-qXios yevovs. 

15 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

is material, passive," corporeal and sense-perceptible,'' 
while the male is active, rational, incorporeal and more akin 
to mind and thought/ But not ineptly ** has it added " of 
a year," * since the year is (so) called from the fact that it 
holds everything contained within itself/ But since in two 
of the four seasons, (namely) in autumn and winter, plants 
lose their leaves and dry up, and, on the other hand, in two 
(seasons, namely) spring and summer, they flower and bear 
fruit, so do the souls of progressive men experience similar 
things." For when they cast off the causes of life,'' they 
become almost entirely dry, being changed by desires * 
and all the other sorts ^ of passion.'' And then ' it "* brings 
forth new buddings " of prudence and moderation," and 
sometimes bears and brings forth perfect fruits of wisdom.'' 
But as for the command to prepare lambs and kids,« perhaps 
(it was given) because the Egyptian considered these 
animals especially divine, in order that the protector and 
champion *" might show the overthrow of their adversaries 
and by what power they were destroyed who were unable 

" Aucher " vitiosum," see next note. 

^ vXiKOV Koi irdaxov Koi acofxariKov Kal aiadrjriKOV. 

* SpaoT'qpiov Kal XqyiKOv koI dawfiarov Kal va> re Kal Xoyta/JLO) 
OLKeiorepov. ^ ovk aTTO okottov. 

^ ivcavmov, see the preceding section on the first half of 
Ex. xii. 5. 

^ Cf. J)e Spec. Leg. iv. 235 rov ivLavrov, 6s, Kadd-rrep avro 
fn)vv€i Tovvofia, avros iv eavrco iravTa Trepte'xei avfiTrepaiovnevos. 

" TOVTOis Ofioia Kal ai tcov ttpokotttovtcov ipvxal TrdaxovoL. 

^ i.e. their life-giving qualities or the like : Aucher " vitae 
rationibus (causis)." » eTndvfilais. 

' Lit. " qualities." *= TraBwv. 

' Aucher amplifies in rendering, " post earn vero miita- 
tionem." 

"* Apparently the individual soul is meant. 

" ^Xaor-qixara. 

° cv^ovXias {vel sim.) Kal aa)<f>poavvr]s : Aucher " prudentiae 
et sanae mentis." 

^ aocf>Las. 

" Aucher " oves et haedos." 

•■ i.e. God, who is called virepaamaTTJs in De Ehrietate 111. 
16 



r 



EXODUS, BOOK I 



to help even their ancestral gods. And finally the male 
(lambs) were chosen and appomted for the daily sacrifices, 
and the goats for the forgiveness of sins. These, however, 
are symbols of the virtuous soul which desires perfection. *• 
First it was necessary to pluck out sins and then to wash 
them out and, being resplendent, to complete the daily 
(tasks) in the practice of virtue.* 



9. (Ex. xii. 6a) Why does He command (them) to keep 
the sacrifice " until the fourteenth (day of the month) ? '^ 

(Consisting of) two Sabbaths,* it has in its nature a 
(special) honour because in this time the moon is adorned/ 
For when it has become full on the fourteenth (day), it 
becomes full of light in the perception of the people. And 
again through (another) fourteen (days) it recedes from 
its fullness of light to its conjunction," and it wanes as 
much in comparison with the preceding Sabbath as the 
second (waxes) in comparison with the first.'' For this 
reason the fourteenth (day) is pre-festive,* as though (it 
were) a road leading to festive rejoicings, during which 
it is incumbent upon us to meditate. 

" TeAeiOTT^TO?. 

* apcTfj. 

" i.e. the Paschal lamb. 

^ LXX KOL lorai Vfuv SiaTerqpiq^evov ecos ttjs reaaapeaKai- 
SeKarr]? (v.L, following Heb., adds rjfiepas) rov fnjvos tovtov. 

'' i.e. weeks. The Greek prob. had i^SofxdSas, see next 
note. 

^ Cf. De Spec. Leg. ii. 149 ayerai yap TeaaapeaKaiSeKdrr] 
Tov fJLTjvos, tJtis €K Svelv ej3So/xa8a>v avveaT-qKev, Iva firjbev dfiotpfj 
TcDv d^Lcov TLiMrjs 4^8ofxd8os dAA' avTT] Kardpxrj irdaiv i7n<f>av€Las 
Kal a€fjLv6Tr]TOS. 

" diTo -nXriaL^aovs els avvoSov, cf. De Spec. Leg. i. 178. 

'' yVucher renders obscurely, " diminuitur eo magis quam 
anterius sabbatum crescit, et quantum se habebat et secun- 
dum ad primum (tv/, unitatem)." 

* Trpoeopros, as in De Spec. Leg. ii. 176, which supports 
Aucher's emendation of Arm. yarajatounak (" progressive ") 

._ to yarajatonak. 

i 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

10. (Ex. xii. 6b) " And," He says, " all the multitude 
shall sacrifice." " 

Now at other times the daily priests * (chosen) from the 
people, being appointed for the slaughtering and taking 
care of them, performed the sacrifices. But at the Pass- 
over," here spoken of, the whole people together is honoured 
with the priesthood, for all of them act for themselves ** in 
the performance of the sacrifice. For what reason ? Be- 
cause, in the first place,* it was the beginning of this kind 
of sacrifice, the Levites not yet having been elected ^ to 
the priesthood nor a temple set up. And in the second 
place, because the Saviour and Liberator," Who alone leads 
out all men to freedom, deemed them (all) equally worthy 
of sharing in the priesthood and in freedom as well, since 
all who were of the same nation had given evidence of equal 
piety.'' And because, I think,* He judged all the Egyptians 
to be equally impious, unworthy and unclean. He intended 
to punish them. For they would not have sufi'ered this if 
they had not been guilty of the same things before the 
Father (and) Judge and His justice,' so that this (period 
of) time brought out the equality of both nations, the 
Egyptian and the Hebrew — an equality of impiety in one, 
and of piety in the other. In the third place, because a 
temple had not yet been built. He showed that the dwelling 
together of several good persons in the home was a temple 
and altar, in order that in the first sacrifices of the nation 
no one might be found to have more than any other. In 
the fourth place. He thought it just and fitting that before 

** Lxx Koi G<l>d^ovai avTo ndv to ttXt^Oos avvayajYTJs vltov ^lapa-qX 
(Heb. " all the community of the congregation of Israel "). 
Philo comments more briefly and somewhat similarly on 
this half -verse in De Spec. Leg, ii. 145-146. 

* ol i<f>T)fl€p€Vl at. 

" Udaxa.. ^ avTovpyovai. 

* Aucher " nunc primum." 
^ XeipOTOvrjOevTcuv. 

" 6 acoTTjp Kal iXevdepoTTOios. ^ evae^eiav. 

* Aucher " vereor " — a puzzling rendering. 

' Aucher " coram Patre et in tribunali justitiae suae." 
18 ' 



EXODUS, BOOK I 

choosing the particular priests " He should grant ^ priest- 
hood to the whole nation in order that the part might be 
adorned " through the whole, and not the whole through 
a part — above all the popular element.'' And He permitted 
the nation, as the very first thing to be done, to prepare 
with their own hands * and to slaughter the sacrifice of 
the so-called Passover ^ (as) the beginning of good things." 
And He decided '' that there is nothing more beautiful than 
that the divine cult * should be performed by all in har- 
mony.^ And also that the nation might be an archetypal 
example '' to the temple- wardens * and priests and those 
who exercise the high-priesthood "• in carrying out the 
sacred rites. In the fifth place, because He wished every 
household and similarly (every) head of a household " to 
act worthily and not to incur any profanation, (being) like 
a priest who is purified of all sins in whatever he says or 
does or thinks. And in now speaking of the multitude as 
a " congregation "" He uses apposite names" for a more 
exact appearance of sobriety « in the matters entrusted to 
them *■ now at the present time. For when the whole 
multitude came together with harmonious oneness to give 
thanks for their migration. He no longer called them a 
multitude or a nation or a people but a " congregation." 

** Tovs KOTO, fiepos Upels. ^ x^P^^"-^^^'" 

" Aucher " honorificaretur." 

•* TO XaiKov : Aucher " populares." 

* X^ipoTTOietadai. 

f i.e. the Paschal lamb. 

" Apparently the kindnesses of God are meant. 

^ Aucher " certam earn {i.e. " the nation ") reddens." 

* tt)v Oelav Xarpelav (or BiaKoviav vel sim.). 

^ Aucher " unanimiter." 

* TTapdhiiypLa apx^TVirov. 

' Tois vecoKopois, i.e. the Levites. 

"* TTJ apxcepioavvT]. 

" olKoSeaTTOTTjV. 

• Philo here refers to the lxx expression irXrjdos avvaycoyrjs. 

'" Sic (plural) : Aucher " nomenclaturam." 

" Or " watchfulness " : Aucher " vigilantiae." 

^ Aucher " in rebus suppositis." 

19 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

And so it happened that they congregated and came to- 
gether not only in body but also in mind <* as being about 
to sacrifice with one character and one soul.'' 

11. (Ex. xii. 6c) Why is the Passover '^ sacrificed at 
evening ? ** 

Perhaps because good things ^ were about to befall at 
night (and because) it was not the custom to offer a sacri- 
fice in darkness, and for those who were about to experi- 
ence good things at night it was not (proper) to prepare 
it before the ninth hour.^ Therefore it was not at random 
but knowingly that the prophet " set a time between the 
evenings.'' That is the literal meaning.* But as for the 
deeper meaning,^ this should be said. The true sacrifice ^ 
of God-loving souls consists in abandoning an empty and 
visible splendour * and attempting to change to the un- 

" ov fxovov acofjuari dXXa kol Biavola. 

^ ivl TJdei (vel sim.) koX fiid ilsvxfi- 

" T] Bid^adLS or TO. hia^aT-qpLa^ to irdaxa. as in Qvis Rer. Div. 
Heres 255 and De Spec. Leg. ii. 145. 

^ Lxx Trpo? iarrepav : Heb. " between the evenings (dual)." 
In Lev. xxiii. 5 lxx renders more literally, dvd fMcaov rwv 
eaTTepivoJv, but in Num. ix. 3 it has Trpos ia-nepav as here. In 
Be Spec. Leg. ii. 145 Philo sets the time for sacrificing the 
Paschal lamb " from noon until evening." 

* evvpayiat, i.e. the judgment executed on the Egyptians, 
see below, QE i. 20 on Ex. xii. 12. 

f i.e. 3 P.M. In Palestine the Paschal lamb was usually 
slaughtered at about 3 p.m., although theoretically the 
slaughtering might be done " between noon and twilight " 
(see above, note d). 

" 6 7Tpo(f)T^T7]s, i.e. Moses, here represented as speaking for 
God. 

^ See note d. Aucher renders more literally, " tempus 
mediocre ad vesperam vergens." 

* TO pTjTOV. 

^ TO vpos Stdvoiav. 

* 17 di/j€v87)s dvaia : Aucher " infallibile sacrificium." 

^ The Arm. park' may here reflect ho^av in the sense of 
" opinion." 

20 



EXODUS, BOOK I 

apparent and invisible." Now the time of evening does 
not have a refulgent brightness, such as occurs at midday, 
nor is it darkened, although while day is near and close 
to night, it is dimmed to a certain extent. Such happens 
to be '' the state of progressive men.'= For they do not 
completely change to virtue ^ nor do they remain un- 
hindered " in the affairs of mortal life. 



12. (Ex. xii. 7) Why does lie command (them) to place 
some of the blood upon the doorposts and upon the lintel 
of every house ? ^ 

That is (because), as I said a little earlier," at that time 
every house became an altar and a temple of God for the 
contemplative," wherefore He rightly deemed them worthy 
of making divine offerings of blood upon the front parts 
of each (house) ' that they might at the same time, showing 

° Aucher " in invisibilem studere transferri." 
'' 7Te(f>vK€ : Aucher " habetur ex natura." 

'^ TcDv TTpOKOTTTOVTOJV. ^ dpeTT]V. 

•" Aucher " sine obstaculo (oel, discrimine)." One would 
t'xpect " nor do they remain completely immersed " or the 
like. The Arm. anargel renders aKoiXvros^ aKoXaaros and 
aKpar-qs. Perhaps, therefore, we should here render, " in- 
continent." 

^ LXX KoX X-qfiipovrai diro tov at/xaros' /cat dijaovaiv im tcDv 
8vo araOficov Kal iiri rrfv (fyXidv iv rots ot/cois ev ols idv (f)dya)(nv 
avrd iv avTotg. The meanings of the two architectural terms 
in the Arm. and lxx texts are not precise, since both terms 
in both languages may render " doorpost " or " lintel " or 
" threshold." But the Philonic context and the Heb. original 
favour the rendering given above. Aucher, however, renders, 
" super limina et super postes." 

" In QE i. 10. 

'' TOLS dccop-qTLKoZs (ov o/saTi/foi?) - Israel as elsewhere in 
Philo, e.g. Quis Rer. Div. Heres 78, Be Somniis ii. 173 ; so, 
too, Aucher, " contemplativis (Israelitis)." 

* As Aucher notes, the meaning is somewhat uncertain 
because of the ambiguity of two of the Arm. words ; he 
renders, " unde jure divini sacrificii ex sanguine offerendo 
super postes singulorum dignos eos afficit." 

21 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

contempt of their enemies, sacrifice without fear and, as 
it were, bear testimony to and show confidence in the great- 
ness and abundance of God's gracious acts." That is the 
literal meaning.* But as for the deeper meaning," it is 
this. Since our soul is threefold,*^ the heart is likened to 
the lintel, desire to the house, and reason to the two door- 
posts. And since each of these parts is destined ' to move 
on ^ to righteousness and piety and worthy holiness " and 
to change to other virtues,'' it is necessary for it to partici- 
pate in virtue, to which it is kin by blood.* 

13. (Ex. xii. 8a) Why does He command (them) to eat 
the flesh of the Paschal lamb ' at night ? *= 

As for the literal meaning,^ since good things "* were 
ordered to take place at night, it was right " that the 

" Twv Tov d€ov xaptVwv. Aucher renders the last clause 
somewhat difi^erently, " sed quasi ostentantes confidenter per 
magnitudinem copiamque Dei gratiae." 

* TO prjTOV. 

" TO vpos Bidvoiav. 

^ Cf. Quis Rer. Biv. Heres 225 ifivxri yap Tpiafxeprjs /xeV ian. 
Philo here follows Plato in assuming that the soul has three 
faculties or parts, emotion (dvfios), appetite or desire (eVi^u/xta) 
and reason (Adyos). 

^ IxeXXovTos. 

^ Lit. " to migrate." 

" els SiKaLoavvqv kol evae^eiav /cat df tav oaiorrjTa. 

^ dperds. 

' The meaning of the last clause is uncertain. Aucher 
renders, " necesse habet ut participet sanguinem cognatum 
virtute," adding in a footnote, " vel, ut consanguineus par- 
ticipet virtutem." Apparently Philo means that blood is in 
general a symbol of kinship, cf. Be Virtutihus 79. 

' Arm. p'esxeki= tov ndaxa. 

* LXX Kal (()dyovTat Ta Kpia ttj vvktI TavTrj. 
^ TO prjTov. 

*" evvpayicov, i.e. the judgment executed upon the Egyptians, 
cf. QE in and 20. 

" Aucher, in disregard of the Arm. word-order, renders, 
" rectum fuit secundum ordinem." 
22 



EXODUS, BOOK I 

victims sacrificed in thanksgiving should be consumed by 
the eaters at the same time. But as for the deeper mean- 
ing,'* it was proper for those who wished truly to repent * 
to effect the purification of their souls " invisibly and with- 
out making signs and not saying anything more but only 
believing (themselves) to stand in night and darkness, in 
order that no visible (and) visionary form of imaginary 
idols might appear to be seen.** And none the less does 
glory follow the humility of the worshippers,* for darkness 
does not make the stars invisible ; rather do they appear 
more clearly at night. 



14. (Ex. xii. 8b) (Why) does He command that the flesh 
of the Passover ^ sacrifice be offered roasted .'' " 

First, for the sake of speed, for He was hastening the 
exodus. Second, for the sake of simplicity,'^ for that which 
is roasted is prepared more simply * and without dressing. 
In the third place. He does not permit (us) to lead a life 

" TO TTpos Sictvotav. 

* ixeravoelv. 

<= Cf. De Spec. Leg. ii. 147 " But to those accustomed to 
turn literal facts into allegory the Passover {to. Bia^ar-qpia) 
suggests the purification of the soul {tfivxvs Kadapaiv)." 

** The text is somewhat obscure. Aucher renders a little 
more freely, " eoquod nulla videatur imaginaria visio simu- 
lacri idolorum instar." In Be Spec. Leg. i. 319-323 Philo 
inveighs against the pagan mysteries celebrated in the dark- 
ness of night, while in De Spec. Leg. ii. 155 he points out that 
the Passover sacrifice takes place in the clear light of the full 
moon. 

* Aucher less aptly, I think, renders, " quum non parva 
sequitur religiosos humilitas ac gloria." 

^ TU)v SiajSttTT/piW, see QE i. 11, note c. 
^ Lxx Kal (fydyovrai to. Kpea . . . otttci TrvpC. 

* The Arm. lit.= 8i' d/cpaaiav, which usu. means "in- 
temperance " in Philo, but here means more literally " not 
being mixed (with spices, etc.)." Possibly, however, the 
original was aKTjpaaiav " purity." 

* CLTrXovaTepov. 

28 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

filled with luxury," for boiling '' is an indication of variety 
and seasoning.*^ 



15. (Ex. xii. 8c) (Why) does He say that they shall 
offer '* unleavened bread on bitter herbs together with the 
above-mentioned sacrifice ? * 

Unleavened bread is (a sign) of great haste and speed, 
while the bitter herbs (are a. sign) of the life of bitterness 
and struggle which they endure as slaves. That is the 
literal meaning.^ But as for the deeper meaning," this is 
worth noting, (namely) that that which is leavened and 
fermented ^ rises, while that which is unleavened is low.* 
Each of these is a symbol of types of soul,^ one being 
haughty and swollen with arrogance, the other being 
unchangeable and prudent, choosing the middle way 
rather than extremes because of desire and zeal for equality.* 
But the bitter herbs are a manifestation of a psychic 
migration,^ through which one removes from passion to 
impassivity and from wickedness to virtue."* For those 
who naturally and genuinely repent " become bitter toward 
their former way of life and are vexed with their wretched 
life, weeping, sighing and groaning because they have 
given over the most necessary part of time to that seductive 

" Tpv(f>rjg vel sim. : Aucher " voluptate." 

^ ei/j'qoLs, as opposed to oTrr-qais. 

" TTOiKtXias Kal dpTVjxaTOS' 

^ Scripture " eat," see next note. 

* Lxx KoX d^vfjLa €ttI TTLKpihuyv eSovrai. In commenting 
briefly on this phrase in De Congressu 162 Philo cites it as 
€771 TTLKpiSwv TO. dl^vfia eodUiv. 

^ TO prjTOV. " TO TTpos Siavoittv. 

^ TO iivfjLWfxivov </cai> t,iov vel sim. : Aucher " fermentatum 
pustulis." 

* TaTTcivov : Aucher " desidet." 

^ iov eKaTepov avfi^oXov eart tcov iffvxajv TpoTTCOv. 

* taOTTjTOS. 

' ifivxi'KTjs dTTOLKias : Aucher " spiritualis emigration is." 
'" e/c TTadcjv its d-Trddeiav Kal eV TTOinrjpias els dpeTTjv. 
" <j>va€i Kal yvT]al(jos fi€Tavoovat,. 

24 



EXODUS, BOOK I 

and deceitful mistress, Desire,** and have spent * the i)rime 
of their youth in being deceived by her when they ought to 
have renewed themselves and advanced " in the contempla- 
tion of wisdom ^ toward the goal of a happy, fortunate 
and immortal life/ And so, we who desire repentance eat 
the unleavened bread with bitter herbs, that is, we first 
eat bitterness over our old ^ and unendurable life, and then 
(we eat) the opposite of overboastful arrogance through 
meditation on humility," which is called reverence.'' For 
the memory of former sins causes fear, and by restraining 
it through recollection brings no little profit to the mind.* 



16. (Ex. xii. 9a) What is the meaning of the words. 

You shall not eat (it) raw " ^ ? 

And who of mankind will eat raw meat ? Carnivores 
among beasts and eaters of raw flesh (alone do so). But 
man is a tame animal by nature,*^ especially those who are 
adorned with a character ^ in accordance with the divine 
law."* Accordingly, He appears to allegorize " all this, for 
1 le says that those who change from wickedness to virtue " 
shall not eat of repentance ^ when it is raw and crude but 
(shall do so) by heating it, that is, with hot and ignited 
])rinciples. For many men change unexpectedly to the 
opposite by an irrational impulse,^ from generosity to 

" eTnOvixia. 

^ Aucher amplifies in rendering, " male traduxerunt." 

•^ Aucher combines the two infinitives in rendering, 
" jucunde proficere." <* t'^ cro(f)ias decopia. 

^ Aucher renders less literally, " ad felicem immortalis 
vitae statum." 

^ Lit. " oldness " (TraXaLOTT^ros) : Aucher " transactum 
tempus." " Taneivcaaecos. 

'* Prob. al8a>s : Aucher " pudor." 

* Aucher renders less literally and less intelligibly, " et 
in se recolligens mentem, non paucani utilitatem fert." 

* Lx:: ovK eSea^e oltt* avrcbv cbfiov. 

* -qfiepov ^ajov ^vaei. ^ yVucher " cunctis moribus." 
"* Kara rov Oelov vofxov. " aXXriyop^lv. " dperijv. 
^ ixeravoiasi see the preceding section. « dXoyw opfiij. 

25 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

parsimony, and from a barbarous," artificial and delicate 
way of life to a harsh way of life,^ and from love of glory 
they fly to ingloriousness. These men no one will praise. 
For, as one might say allegorically, their change is raw 
and crude and unstable," wherefore they are not aware 
of changing, not to virtue but to the opposite vices. But 
those who change by the principle of knowledge ^ and are 
hardened * as though by the force of fire have acquired 
a stable and unmoving usefulness. 



17. (Ex. xii. 9b) Why was the head to be offered with 
the feet and the entrails at the Paschal sacrifice ? ^ 

The literal meaning " is, I believe, somewhat as follows. 
Since He believes that the whole sacrifice should be con- 
sumed, He mentions all the parts, indicating ^ that it is 
not proper to leave anything at all. But as for the deeper 
meaning,* the head is the first, highest and principal (part). 
But the internal (parts) He opposes to the external. For 
He says that it is fitting for him who is purified to purify 
his entire soul ^ with his inner desires,* and the words that 
go outward and the deeds through serviceable instruments ' 
and through the head (as) chief, as it were. 



18. (Ex. xii. 10) (Why) does He command that the 
remainder of the Paschal sacrifice be burnt at dawn ? *" 

" Aucher " agresti." ^ oKXTjpaycoyiav. 

" Aucher renders inaccurately, " quoniam cruda et in- 
constans est, ut aliquis diceret, summa commutatio eorum." 

^ Xoyto imarT-qfirjS vel sim. 

* Lit. " are fitted together " : Aucher " componuntur." 

^ Lxx K€(f)aXr)v avv rois ttooIv (Heb. " legs ") koI tols eVSoor- 
dioig. TO prjTov. 

^ alvLTTOfievos : Aucher " declarans." 

' TO TTpos Stavoiav. 

^ The Arm. noun (= ipvx^j) is strangely in the plural. 

^ eTTLdvfJLLaiS. 

8ia Tcov VTTTjpcTOvvTcov opydvojv. 
*" ra 0€ KaTaXiTTopLeva a-n avTOv eias Trpon ev irvpl KaraKavaeTf. 

26 



EXODUS, BOOK I 

He did not think it right that the sun should first shine 
upon the Passover " because of His completing a good 
thing " at night, as I have said." And why this was at 
night has already been said, where the manifestations of 
deeds took place and the praises of the deeds. And it was 
commanded that the sacrifice be prepared at this time in 
order that all the limbs of the sacrifice might be consumed. 
For many of the necessary things are wont to be overlooked 
in an unexpected and hurried exodus, especially by those 
who are hurrying to make the exodus with great speed. 
(And) it was not proper for the unworthy and unclean 
hands of the Egyptians to touch the remains. Wherefore, 
taking care that they should not be defiled in any way. 
He handed them over to an undefiled king, the fire.<^ 

■^^19. (Ex. xii. 11) (Why) does He command (everyone) 
to eat, having a girdle and shoes and a staff ? * 

All the things mentioned are an indication of the manner 
of journeying of those who are in haste. For it is the 
custom of those who are about to travel a long way to wear 
shoes and to be girt with a girdle and to take a staff for 
their needs, because shoes protect the feet, while girding 
oneself makes movement easier for the legs, and a staff is 
useful to lean on and to drive away poisonous reptiles and 
other beasts. This, then, suffices for the explanation of 
the literal meaning.^ But as for the deeper meaning," this 
must be said. The girdles represent drawing together ^ 

" Twv hta^aTqpiojv, cf. QE i. 4. 

^ euTrpaytav, i.e. the judgment executed on the Egyptians. 

<" In QE i. 11, 13. See also QE i. 20 on Ex. xii. \2. 

'^ Apparently fire is here called " an undefiled king " in 
implied contrast to the unclean king of Egypt. 

* LXX ovTOi'S 8e (fxiyeode avro- ai 6a(f>v€S u/acDv Trepie^cucr/xcvai 
Kai TO, VTTohrnxaTa iv toZs ttooIv vficbv Kal at ^aKTrjptaL iv rdis 
Xepalv vfxcbv Kal (.heaOe avro fiera aTTOvbrjs- Trdaxo- iarlv Kvpiw. 
Philo briefly allegorizes this verse in Leg. All. iii. 154 and 
De Sacr. jibelis 63. ^ rod prjrov. " to npos Sidvoiav. 

^ The Greek frag, (which begins here) has ardaiv, while 
the Arm. more closely renders ovotoXtjv or the like. 

27 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

and the coming together of the sensual pleasures and other 
passions," which, being, as it were, released and let go, 
overtake all souls. ^ Wherefore not ineptly does He add 
that one must have a girdle about the middle, for this place 
is considered as the manger of the many-headed beast of 
desire within us.*" 

And the staves seem to represent a royal, disciplinary ^ 
and stable form, for the rod is a symbol of kingship and 
an instrument of discipline for those who are unable to 
act prudently " without being scolded/ And it is a figure ^ 
of unmoving and stable souls which abandon whatever 
inclines to either side and in two (directions). And the 
shoes indicate the covering and protection of one who is 
engaged in hurrying not on a trackless way but on a well- 
travelled and worn path which leads to virtue.'' Where- 
fore that which is (here) said is contrary to what (actually) 
takes place. For, He says, they must have shoes " in their 
feet " * which is impossible and cannot be done, for the 
feet of the wearers are different from the shoes. But it 
seems from this and many other (passages) that He is 
recalling the mind to the contemplation of natural ideas.^ 
For shoes are inanimate while feet are animate, just as is 
each of the various other parts of the body. And so. He 
says, let not the inanimate be a covering for that which 

* So the Greek frag., awayoyyyjv iJSovcDv koL roiv aAAcuv nadcov. 
^ The Greek frag, reads more briefly a recos avdro koI 

KcxdXaaTO. 

" Similarly the Greek frag, (which ends here), ovk d-rro Sc 
oKOTTOv 7Tpoa€dr)K€ TO BcLV t,(xivvvadai Kara ttjv 6a<f)vv' 6 yap tottos 
iK€LVOs els (f>dTVT]v dTroK€Kpirai 7ToXvK€(f)dX(i) OpdfXfJiaTi rtov iv rj[xlv 

eTTLdvULCOV. 

^ Or " admonitory " : Aucher " monitivam." 

* oco(f)povL^€adai. 

f Cf. De Mat. Norn. 175 17 pdp8os . . . -q vovdeala, 6 
ao}<f)poviap.6s , rj naiSeia. 

" TpoTTos vel sim. : Aucher " exemplar." 
^ dperijv. 

* For homiletical purposes Philo dwells on the literal 
meaning of the lxx phrase to. virohrniara iv toIs iroaiv. 

' <f>v(TLK(bv iSecov, i.e. religious-philosophical concepts. 
28 



EXODUS, BOOK I 

lias a soul but, on the contrary, let the animate (be a cover) 
for the inanimate in order that the better may not be held 
and contained by the bad but the bad by the better. For 
the Creator has made the soul queen and mistress of the 
body, and the body the obedient servant and slave of 
the soul. 

20. (Ex. xii. 12) (Why) does He say, " And on all the 
gods of the Egyptians I will take vengeance ; I (am) the 
Lord " " ? 

(This is said) concerning all unstable and unworthy 
things, for (only) up to a certain point does the pretence 
of divinized idols ^ succeed by accidentally attaining know- 
ledge in giving oracular responses " through persuasive 
words and parables and still other (devices) which have 
their source in chance. And these are all of short duration, 
for they never see the light of sacred truth,'' by which alone 
the Creator of all, Who keeps created beings in security and 
is truly * their Lord, can naturally be comprehended.^ 
And the comprehension " of Him immediately dissolves 
unstable and unworthy human beliefs and the power '' by 
which men are overwhelmed because of the impotence 
within them. And so, just as are the words of idols, so 
in all things is the way of life of the foolish man. For he 
who has a false and erroneous opinion * concerning the 
best, (namely) God, also has an erroneous and false way 
of life. And as for those who have true knowledge without 

" Philo here comments on only the last part of the verse 
which reads in full in the lxx text koI iXevaofxaL iv yfj AlyvTrTO) 
iv Tjj vvktI ravTr) Kal Trara^o) ttcLv TrpcDToroKOV ev yjj Pdyvinu) arro 

dvdpdOTTOV €COS KTT]VOVS, Kol €V TTCtCTt Tots dcOLS TUiV AlyVTTTlWV 

TTOi-qaoi T-qv eK^LK-qoLV (Heb. " judgments ")• iyoj Kvpios. 

* TV(f>os {vel sim.) tcov deoTrXaarrjdevTtov elScoXcov. 
" Lit. " in places of questioning." 

'^ Aucher, disregarding the Arm. word-order, renders, 
" sanctum lumen veritatis." 

* ovTOj? : Aucher " solus." 
^ KaraXafi^dveadai 7T€(f>VK€. 

" 17 /faToAiyi/rtj. '' TTjv 8vvafj,iv. * So'^a. 

29 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

error concerning the Existent One," their truthfulness is 
honoured in every other matter. 

■^^21. (Ex. xii. 17) What is the meaning of the words, 
" I will bring out your force from Egypt " *" ? Why does 
He not say " you " " ? 

" Force " is the godly piety of the seeing nation.^ Now, 
so long as those who have this force dwell in cities and 
villages, the cities and villages act well and properly, for 
they are adorned at least with the virtue * of others if not 
with their own/ But when (these inhabitants) depart, 
the portion of common good fortune is changed. For good 
men are the pillars of whole communities, and they support 
cities and city-governments as if they were great houses." 
That is the literal meaning.'^ But as for the deeper mean- 
ing,* it is this. Just as, when health leaves the body, illness 
immediately seizes it, so also, if godly piety, the force of 
the soul, departs, one must necessarily expect its waiting 
house-mate,^ impotence and impiety, for not even a seed 
of decency ^ remains, but even if there is a small remaining 
spark, this too is driven out, and there supervenes a great 
and most severe affliction. 

22. (Ex. xii. 22c) What is the meaning of the words, 

" Trepi Tov "Ovros : Aucher " de Deo." 

^ Philo here comments on only part of vs. 17, of which the 
Lxx text reads kcu (f>vXd$€T€ ttjv ivToXrjv (Heb. " unleavened 
bread ") ravrrfv iv yap rfj "q/JLepa ravrj] i^dyo) (Heb. " I brought 
out ") rrjv hvvafiLV vfiwv (Heb. " your hosts ") e'/c yijs AlyvTrrov, 
KOI rroiriaere. rrjv -^fiepav TavT7)v els yevea? vficov vofMLixov aldovLov. 

" i.e. instead of " your force." 

'^ SvvafiLS ioTL ij tov opariKov yevovs {i.e. Israel) deoae^eia. 

* dperfj. f raXs OLKelats. 

" So, with one addition, the Greek fragment (which con- 
tains only this sentence), avSpe? dyaQoi, rpoinKiOTepov elireiv, 
KLOves eiai St^ixcov oXcov, VTrepeihovres, Kaddnep oiKias fieydXas, rds 
TToXcLS Koi rds TToXireias. 

TO pTjTOV. * TO TTpOS SldvOLaV. 

' Aucher " satellitem domesticum." * KaXoKayadias. 

30 



EXODUS, BOOK I 

" And no one shall go out through the doors of his house 
until morning " " ? 

As for the literal meaning,* this must be said, (namely) 
that God wishes to accomplish His benefactions solely by 
His own hand without any human operator " both in 
punishing those who deserve every curse and in helping 
those to whom unjust and violent things happen.** But 
as for the deeper meaning,* " morning " is a figure of 
sense-perceptible Hght,^ for the mind " until that time 
dwells in itself ^ alone, leaving the tumult of the senses. 
And sometimes, permitting itself to use the senses, it is 
wont to go about everywhere. Now this going about pro- 
duces for it error and tracklessness,^ for the doors, by which 
1 understand the senses,^ are opened to the streams of 
sense-perceptible things,* into which the mind throws 
itself down, as if from some high precipice, from the perfect, 
intelligible and incorporeal ideas.' But he who does not go 
out through the doors of the soul and experiences a good 
fear, sees only those things worthy to be seen, which shine 
forth "* from thoughts stripped of the senses. Wherefore 
(Scripture) adds, " The Lord will pass over the door," " 
by which I understand both the senses and all sense- 
|)erceptible things. For so long as the senses are released 

" LXX vfiels 8e ovK e^eXcvaeade eKaaros rrjv dvpav tov olkov 

aVTOV IcOS TTpOit. * TO pTjTOV. 

" Aucher " cooperatore." 

** Aucher amplifies in rendering, " illos vero qui omnem 
maledictionem merent punire volens aut quibus iniqua 
quaedam per vim inferenda sint, id mediantibus aliis pro- 
sequi." * TO Trpos bidvoiav. 

^ aTjfjietov TpoTTiKov {vel sim.) iari (fxoTos alodrjTov. 

" o vovs- 

^ The Arm. demonstr. pron. here seems to be used as a 
reflexive. Aucher boldly renders, " in corpore." 

* TrXavr^v /cat avoStav. ^ ras aladrjaeis. 

^ Slightly emending the Arm. which lit. = T6uv aladrjuaxiv 
instead of tcSv aladrircov. 

' OLTTO TcDv reXeicov Koi vorjrwv kol aaoifxaruiv Iheoiv. 

"• Aucher " oriuntur." 

^ See LXX of Ex. xii. 23b koI TrapeXevacTai Kvpios r-qv dvpav. 

31 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

and apart by themselves," they belong to the mind.^ But 
when they descend into the body, they give admittance 
to a baser idea, imitating, in a way, the nature of irrational 
creatures/ 



23. (Ex. xii. 23c) (Why) does (Scripture) say that He 
will not let " the destroyer enter your houses to strike " •* ? 

It weaves into the whole legislation « the faithful and 
worthy sentiment ^ that we are not to make the Deity the 
cause of any evil.'' For when it says that He will not suffer 
the destroyer, it makes plain that corruption and destruc- 
tion are brought about through certain others as ministers 
but not through the sovereign King." There you have 
the literal meaning.* But as for the deeper meaning,^ 
this must be said. Into every soul at its very birth * there 
enter two powers,' the salutary and the destructive."" If 
the salutary one is victorious and prevails, the opposite 

** oaov a<f>erai elai /cat tSiat Kad^ iavras at tSeai : Aucher 
" quantum liberi sunt et in se collecti sensus." 

^ Lit. " they are of the mind " : Aucher " mentis sunt." 

" aXoyoiV l,(x)0}v (f>vaLV. 

^ LXX /cat ovK d(f>'qa€i rov oXedpevovra elaeXdelv els ras oUlas 
u/xdiv Trara^ai. Philo quotes this passage and comments on 
it very briefly in Leg. All. ii. 34. 

* vofjLoOeaia. 

^ yvwfjLTjv : Aucher " voluntatem." 

" That God is not responsible for any evil is stated by 
Philo in several places, e.g. Be Confus. Ling. 161, 182. Some- 
times, however, he admits that God sometimes Himself in' icts 
evil as a punishment, see Wolfson, Philo, i. 282, 382. 

^ 8id Tov irpoiTOv jSaatAeo)?. 

* TO prfTOV. ' TO irpos Bidvoiav. 
^ dp,a rfj yevcarei. ' 8uva/i€ts. 

*" Tj ixevacoT-qpla, rj Be <f)dopoTToi6s. These powers are not to 
be identified with the two chief powers or attributes of God, 
the ^aaikiKTi or KoAao-TT^pios Zvvap,is and the cvepyeTis or iroirjTiKr) 
bvvapiis, on which see QG ii. 51, iv. 2, QE ii. 68 et al. They 
correspond more closely to the good and evil cosmic powers, 
identified with good and bad angels (or demons) respectively. 

32 



EXODUS, BOOK I 

one is too weak to see." And if the latter prevails, no 
profit at all or little is obtained from the salutary one. 
Through these powers the world ^ too was created. People 
call them by other names : the salutary (power) they call 
powerful and beneficent, and the opposite one (they call) 
unbounded " and destructive. Thus, the sun and moon 
and the appropriate positions of the other stars and their 
ordered functions and the whole heaven together come 
into being and exist through the two (powers). And they 
are created <* in accordance with the better part of these,* 
namely when the salutary and beneficent (power) brings 
to an end ^ the unbounded and destructive nature. Where- 
fore also to those who have attained such a state and a 
nature similar to this is immortality given. But the 
nation " is a mixture of both (these powers), from which 
the heavens and the entire world as a whole have received 
this mixture. Now, sometimes the evil becomes greater in 
this mixture, and hence (all creatures) live in torment, 
harm, ignominy, contention, battle and bodily illness 
together with all the other things in human life, as in the 
whole world, so in man. And this mixture is in both the 
wicked man and the wise man '' but not in the same way. 
For the souls of foolish men have the unbounded and 

" The Arm. inf. may be either active or passive, hence we 
may here render " to be seen." Moreover, the verb tesanem 
renders ^povri^eiv as well as 6pdv, hence Aucher here renders, 
" ad aliquid sibi providendum." I suspect, however, that 
the original reading was not opdv " to see " but opixdv " to 
attack." '' d Koafjios. 

" Prob. aneipov, perhaps here used in the sense of the 
indeterminate, inferior principle of the Pythagoreans. 

** Arm. stanam here renders /crt^eiv rather than Krdadai, as 
Aucher supposes, see the next note. 

* Aucher renders less accurately, " acquiritur autem 
melior eorum pars." 

^ Form and meaning of the verb katarem^ which usually 
renders reAetouv, are here not certain : Aucher " subigit." 

" It is not clear whether this refers to the nation {yivos) of 
Israel, as the Arm. glossator supposes, or to the human race. 

^ iv Tcp <TO<f>a). 
SUPPL. II C 33 



I 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

destructive rather than the powerful and salutary (power), 
and it " is full of misery when it dwells with earthly creatures. 
But the prudent and noble (soul) rather receives the power- 
ful and salutary (power) and, on the contrary, possesses 
in itself good fortune and happiness,^ being carried around 
with the heaven because of kinship " with it. Most ex- 
cellently, therefore, does (Scripture) say that He will not 
let " the destroyer enter your houses to strike," and this 
is what (actually) happens, for the force which is the cause 
of destruction strives,** as it were, to enter the soul, but 
is prevented by the divine beneficences * from striking 
(it), for these are salutary. But those from whom the 
favours and gifts of God ^ are separated and cut off suffer 
the experience of desertion and widowhood. » The meaning 
is somewhat as follows. Into this soul there extend and 
enter visible appearances '^ which are mixed in accordance 
with various kinds of involuntary traits of character,* 
sometimes naked and unarmed, and sometimes armed 
and in a certain manner ^ threatening death, and they 
inflict mighty blows upon the thoughts.*^ Now, these 
blows are the admission ' of appearances. But perfect 
good is not obtained from any of these. 

" Lit. " which," referring to the destructive power rather 
than to the salutary one. 
'' Or " good fame." 
" avyyeveiav. 
** ^tAoTi/LieiTai vel sim. : Aucher " inhibetur." 

* VTTo Tu>v deiuiv euepycaioDv. 

•^ ai Tov Oeov x^-pires kol Bojpcai. 

^ e/oij/Liias Koi xqpeias. 

^ <f>avraaLai : Aucher " imaginationes." 

* oLKovalajv rpoiruiv vel sim. : Aucher " mores involun- 
tarios." 

' rpoTTOV Tiva. 

* TOVS XoyLOfiovs. 
' avyxo)pr}ais vel sim. : Aucher " admissio." 



34 



BOOK II « 

*1. (Ex. XX. 25b) What is the meaning of the words, 
" If thou strike thy hand-tool against it, then it is de- 
filed " ^ ? 

Those who presume to lay hands upon nature and trans- 
form the works of nature by their own undertakings defile 
the undefiled.*' For the things of nature are perfect and 
full and are not in need of any excision or addition or 
anything at all.'' 

*2. (Ex. xxii. 21)* Why does (Scripture) in admonishing, 
" Thou shalt not oppress a sojourner," add, " For ye were 
sojourners in the land of the Egyptians " ^ ? 

" Book II of the Quaestiones in Exodmn, which is about 
three times as long as Book I, probably contains most, if not 
all, of what were, in the original Greek, Books III-V. See 
the Introduction. 

^ The whole verse reads in lxx iav Se dvaiaar-qpiov eV XlOcdv 
TTOLjjs fxoL, OVK oi*co8o/i'^CT€iS' avTovs Tfir}TOvs. TO yap ivx^Lplhiov 
aov (Heb. " thy knife ") iin^e^XrjKas eV avrovs (Heb. " if thou 
lift against it "), koI fiffiiavrai (Heb. " then thou wilt defile 
it "). The Greek frag, reads more briefly rt eWt " to yap 
eyxeipiSiov aov " kol to. €^rjs; 

" So the Greek frag., ol ttjv <j)vaiv 7Tapey;^etperv ToXpt,a)VT€g Kal 
Ttt epya rrjs ^uaecos eyxitpTJfiaaLV 18lols fX€Ta[xop(f)Ovvres ra dfXLavra 
fiiaivovai. 

** The Greek frag, reads more briefly reAeta yap Kal TrX-qp-q 
TO. Trjs<f>va€(os, TrpoadrjKT]^ ov8ep,Lds Sed/xeva. 

' Heb., Ex. xxii. 20. 

^ LXX Kal Trpoa-qXvTov (Heb. (/er originally meant " so- 
journer " or " guest," " client," etc., later " proselyte " as 
in the lxx) ov KaKwaere ovhk ixrj ^At'i/tcre avTOV tJt€ yap rrpoaijXv- 
TOi €v yij AlyvTTTip. 

35 






QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

(Scripture) first makes it clearly apparent and demon- 
strable " that in reality * the sojourner " is one who circum- 
cises not his uncircumcision but his desires and sensual 
pleasures and the other passions of the soul.'' For in 
Egypt the Hebrew nation was not circumcised * but being 
mistreated with all (kinds of) mistreatment by the in- 
habitants in their hatred of strangers, it lived with them 
in self-restraint and endurance, not by necessity but rather 
of its own free choice,^ because it took refuge in God the 
Saviour, Who sent His beneficent power and delivered 
from their difiicult and hopeless situation those who made 
supplication (to Him)." Therefore (Scripture) adds,'^ " Ye 
yourselves know the soul of the sojourner." But what is 
the mind of the sojourner * if not ' alienation from belief 
in many gods ^ and familiarity with honouring the one 

^ The Greek frag, reads more briefly e/n^avecrTaTa vapi- 

OTTjaiV. 

^ The Greek frag, (see next note but one) has nothing 
corresponding to the Arm. isk= " in reality " or the like. 

'^ Here, as usually, Philo takes irpoaTJXvTos in the sense of 
" proselyte." 

^ So the Greek frag, (with one change of word-order), 
OTt TTpoa-qXirros ioTiv, ovx 6 TrepLTfirjOels ttjv aKpo^variav dAA' o 
TO.;? lySovas' Koi ras €Tndvpilas koX to. dXXa irddiq Trjs ^vx'fjs. 

* So the Greek frag., eV AtyviTTcp yap to 'EjSpaiov yevos ov 

7T€pLT€Tfn]TO. 

f So the Greek frag., KaKOjdev Se Tracrat? KaKwaeoL rrjs Trapd 
Twv eyxojpiojv irepl tovs ^evovs co/xott/to?, iyKpareia /cat Kaprepia 
avve^Lov ovk dvdyKr] fiaXXov t] ideXovalco yvcofirj. 

" So the Greek frag., 8id ttjv eVi t6v aujTrjpa deov KaTa(f>vyrjv, 
OS i^ diTopoiV KoX dfjL7]xdva}v iTTivdfJApas ttjv cvepyeriv 8waju.iv ip- 
pvcaro TOVS iKeras. 

^ In Ex. xxiii. 9, of which the lxx text reads /cat 7rpoai]Xvrov 
ov ^Ati/rere- vjieis yap otSare t'17V ^vx^v rov rrpoarjXvrov avTol yap 
■npocrqXvroi Tyre iv y^ AlyvTjTO). 

* So the Greek frag., tls Se TrpoarjXvTov Stavota ianv; Note 
the shift from lxx's i/fux^ to Philo's Stavota. 

^ The words " if not " are omitted in the Greek frag., see 
next note but one. 

* Aucher amplifies in rendering, " a voluntate serviendi 
multis Diis." 

S6 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

God and Father of all ? * In the second place, some call 
strangers " newcomers." * But strangers are also those 
who by themselves have run to the truth, not '^ in the same 
way as those who made their sojourn in Egypt. ** For these 
are newcomers to the land,* while those are (newcomers) 
to laws and customs.' But the common name of " new- 
comers " is ascribed to both." 



■^3. (Ex. xxii. 22) '^ Why does (Scripture) prohibit mis- 
treating every widow and orphan ? • 

It ^ does not permit doing wrong to anyone, male or 
female, even among strangers.* It does, however, give a 
better and special share of thoughtfulness to widows and 
orphans,^ since they are deprived of closely related helpers 
and caretakers — the widows of their husbands, and the 
orphans of their parents."* It therefore wishes them to 

" The Greek frag, reads aXXoTpiojais ttjs TroXvdeov 86^r)s, 
oiKeLCoais Se rijs vpos tov €va Kal narepa tcov oXcov Tifirjs. 

^ So the Greek frag., Sevrcpov €7rrjXv8as evioi koXovoi tovs 

''- The negative is omitted in the Greek frag., see next note. 

** The Greek frag, reads feVoi 8e kox ot irpos r-qv dXT^deiav 
avTOfioXrjKOTes , rov avrov rpOTTOv rots ev Alyv-rrra) ^evtrevaaaiv. 

" So the Greek frag., ovtol fx€v yap iirqXvSes x<^po-s. 

' So the Greek frag., €K€ivol Se voixifiojv Kal ed(x>v elai. 

" So the Greek frag., to 8c ovofxa koivov iKardpajv " cTnjXvScov " 
vTToypd<f>€Tai. '^ Heb., Ex. xxii. 21. 

* The first of the two Greek fragments of the beginning 
and end of this section reads x'lpav Kal op^avov aTreiprjTai 
KaKovv : Lxx Trdaav XVP^^ '^'^'- dp<f>av6v ov KaKwaere. Philo 
cites the verse and briefly allegorizes it in different fashion in 
De Congressu 178-179, see also De Cherubim 50. 

' The Greek frag, has " the Law " as subject, see the next 
note. 

* So the Greek frag., ovScW fiev, ovBe rajv dXXcDv, ovtc dppeva 
ovre drjXiiav, d^iTjaiv dSt/fciv o vo/jlos. 

' The Greek frag, reads similarly but more smoothly 
e^aipcTOV Se Trpovoias ficraSiScoaiv -xyipaLS Kal 6p<f>avols. 

"* So the Greek frag., eneiSi] tovs dvayKaiovs ^orjdovs Kai 
KTjBeixovas d<f>rjprjVT ai, XIP^'- H'^^ dvSpas, 6p<f>avol 8e yoveis. 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

enjoy their natural partnership and have their deficiencies 
supplied by those who " are in (a state of) abundance.^ 
That is the literal meaning.'' But as for the deeper mean- 
ing/ such souls * as love themselves honour the mind ^ as 
a husband and as a father, — as a husband perhaps because 
it sows in them the powers of the senses ^ by which the 
sense-perceptible object ^ is attained and seized ; and (they 
honour it) as a father because it is thought to be the parent 
of disciplines and arts.* But those who are free of self- 
love ^ and hasten to God obtain from above His visitations * 
and care as from a father, and as from a husband (they 
obtain) the sowing of good thoughts and intentions ^ and 
words and deeds. But it happens customarily among men 
that the opposite thing comes about, for when a man comes 
in contact with a woman, he marks the virgin as a Avoman."* 
But when souls become divinely inspired," from (being) 
women they become virgins, throwing off the womanly 
corruptions which are (found) in sense-perception and 
passion." Moreover, they follow after and pursue the 

" Arm. ayk' is a misprint for ork\ the plural of the rel. 
pron. 

^ So the Greek frag., ^ovXerac yap rfj <f>vaiKfj koivcovlo. XP^~ 
fievovs, TOLS iv8elas vtto tmv ev Trepiovaia avairX-qpovadai. Here 
the first Greek frag, ends ; the second begins with the sen- 
tence reading " But when souls become divinely inspired, 
etc." 

" TO prjTov. ^ TO TTpos bLavoiav. 

* ipvxai. ^ TOP vovv. 
° Cf. De Migratione 3 vaTrjp fiev .rifxiov 6 vovs ajreipajv . 

TCiS d(f>' iauTOV Bwdfieis. ^ to alardrjTOv. 

* TraiScicDv Koi t4xv(jov. ^ (f)iXavTias. 
^ imaKOTTas vel sim. : Aucher " visitationes." 
^ Aucher omits the second noun. 

"* As a woman with sexual experience, cf. De Cherubim 50 
dvdpiOTTojv . . . avvoBos tcls Trapdevovs yvvaiKas d'iTO<f>aiv€i. 

*» The second Greek frag, (which begins with this sentence) 
has TTpoaKoXXrjdoJat. dea>, of which the Arm. astouacazgestk' 
(usu. = €vdeoL or d€o<l>6poi) seems to be a free rendering. 

" So the Greek frag., eV ywaiKwv yivovTai rrapdevoi, tcls p-^v 
yvvatKcoSeLS dTTO^dXXovaai <f>dopds rail' ev alad-qaei koI Trddci. 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

genuine and unmated virgin, the veritable wisdom of God." 
And so, rightly do such minds * become widows and are 
orphaned of mortal things " and acquire for themselves 
and have as husband the right law of nature, with which 
they live.'' And (they have) the same (as) father to tell 
them with higher thoughtfulness, as though (they were) 
his sons, what they ought to do.* 



■^4. (Ex. xxii. 23) ^ What is the meaning of the words, 
" Ye shall not with badness mistreat the widow and the 
orphan " ' ? 

The word '' " mistreat " is used properly * (in some cases) 
and is also used improperly ^ in other cases. (It is used) 
properly in reference to deeds of badness which are peculiar 
to the soul, and improperly of other cases in which harm 
is done to possessions and bodies.* Accordingly (Scripture) 
did not mention the latter evils, as not being great mis- 

" The Greek frag, reads a little differently t7)i' Se aipavarov 
{aipevarov conj. Pitra from the Arm.) koL dfjLiyrj irapOevov, apea- 
KCiav deov, /ieraSico/coyat. 

'' One expects " souls " as in the Greek frag., see the next 
note but one. 

" This clause is omitted in the Greek frag. 

'^ The Greek frag, reads more briefly Kara Xoyov ovv al 
TOiavrat, ijjvxcu x^p^'vovai.v, dvbpa tov ttjs <f>va€cos opdov vofiov 
Trpoacrvfi^iovaiv. 

* So the Greek frag., kol Tiarepa tov airrov, a XPV Trpdrr^LV 
irapayyeXXovra KadaTTcp iyyovois p.erd ttjs dvcoTaTU) KrjBefiovLas. 

^ Heb., Ex. xxii. 22. 

" Philo here paraphrases the lxx text which reads more 
fully edv 8c KaKia KaKcoae-re avrovs (Heb. " him ") koI KCKpd- 
^avTcs KaTa^o-qaovat, (Heb. " if crying he cries out ") irpos 
€fi€, dKofj claaKOvaofxai. rrjs (f>a}vrjs avrcjv (Heb. " his cry "). 

^ Lit. " name " or " noun." 

* Kvpiws. 

' KaraxprjariKcos. 

* The fragmentary paraphrase in Procopius reads Kal 
KaKovv dirayopevei ov roaovrov ttjv acofxariKTjv KdKcuaiv oaov ttjv 
t/ivxi-K-qv. 

39 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

fortunes at all." But knowing that the harm of badness 
overturns entire lives by their roots from their foundation, 
it first says that one should not be to anyone a teacher of 
folly or licentiousness or injustice or anything similar and 
of a cursed intention but should destroy the devices ^ of 
such things/ But one should likemindedly build schools 
of thoughts of wisdom and justice and the other virtues ^ 
for the improvement of children in order that their natures, 
before they have become hard and tough, may be able 
easily to receive the shapes and forms of good things.* 



5. (Ex. xxii. 28a) ^ Why does (Scripture) say, " gods 
thou shalt not revile " " ? 

Do they '' then still accuse the divine Law of breaking 
down the customs of others ? * For, behold, not only does 
it offer support to those of different opinion ' by accepting 
and honouring those whom they have from the beginning 
believed to be gods, but it ^ also muzzles and restrains '■ 

<* Aucher renders less literally, " posterius istud, quia nihil 
magnum est malum, vix memoravit." 

^ Aucher " sedes." 

'^ ProcopiuS' paraphrase reads more briefly 6p(f>avoLs yap 
yiveadco firjSels d(f)po(Tvvrjs rj OLKoXacrias SiSaa/caAo?. 

^ AoyiCT/iwv ao^ias kol SiKaioavvrjs kol tcov dXXojv dpercov 8iSa- 
CTKaAeta avfxcfxJovios OLKoBofietv. 

« Procopius' paraphrase reads more briefly dAAa twv 
ivavTicov {sc. blbaaKaXos yiviado)), eV oaw rds i/jvxols exovaiv aTToXas 

TTpOS T7}V TCOV OelcOV XO-PC-KTTJpWV VTroBoXT^V. 

^ Heb., Ex. xxii. 27a. 

» Lxx deovs (Heb. '*/oM«i= " God " or "gods" or 
" judges ") ov KaKoXoyqaeis. Philo comments on this half- 
verse in De Vita Mosis ii. 203-205 and De Spec. Leg. i. 53, 
see Colson's notes on these passages. 

^ i.e. opponents of the Jews. 

* i.e. of the Gentiles. ^ toXs eTepoSo^oij. 

*= The unexpressed subject may be Moses as well as Scrip- 
ture, here as elsewhere. 

' Aucher renders the two verbs by the single verb " co- 
ercet." 

40 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

its own disciples," not permitting them to revile these with 
a loose tongue, for it believes tliat well-spoken praise ^ is 
better. In the second place, those who are in error and 
are deluded about their own native " gods and because of 
custom believe to be inerrant truth what is a falsely created 
error, by which even keen and discerning minds are blinded, 
are not peaceful toward or reconciled with •* those who do 
not gladly accept their (opinion). And this is the beginning 
and origin of wars. But to us the Law has described the 
source of peace as a beautiful possession. In the third 
place, he who speaks evil (of others) must of necessity 
receive the contrary reproach in similar matters. Accord- 
ingly, those who have in mind a concern for dignity ^ will 
refrain from reviling other gods, in order that the power ' 
of the truly certain and existent (God) ^ may be well spoken 
of and praised in the mouths of all. For (thus) we shall 
seem not to be hearing but to be speaking, as others use 
our voice.'' For there is no difference between saying 
something oneself and inviting others to say it in any way. 



*6. (Ex. xxii. 28b) * Why, after first saying that one is 
not to revile gods, does (Scripture) straightway add, " nor 
rulers " ^ ? 

" Tovs iavrov jxad-qras, i.e. the Jews. 

^ €v<f>'qfiov €TTaLvov. "^ iyxoipiovs or TrarpLOVs. 

^ Aucher renders more freely, " implacabilem hostilitatem 
colunt." 

* Or " holiness " : Aucher " dignitatis." 

' BvvafjiLs. 

" The Arm. lit.= Tov ovtoj? aa(f>ovs Kal ovtos. Perhaps the 
Arm. translator misread aa(f>a>s as aa(f)ovg ; if so, we should 
render, " the truly and clearly existent (God ") ; elsewhere 
Philo refers to God as 6 ovtojs cov but never as aa<f>rjs. Aucher 
renders more briefly, " veri Entis." 

'' i.e. if we cause others to praise God, we shall be praising 
Him vicariously. 

» Heb., Ex. xxii. 37b. 

' Lxx KoX dpxovras {v. I. dp^ovra : Heb. " ruler ") tov Xaov 
aov ov KaKU)9 epels. 

41 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

As the poets say, rulers are closely akin and near in 
lineage to and of the same seed as the gods, for leaders and 
rulers are, as these " say, able to do good or evil by virtue 
of their own power. In the second place, it takes thought 
for all other men in order that they may not incur irremedi- 
able punishments.'' For when rulers hear evil things said 
(about themselves), they do not punish the speakers by 
judicial process but unrestrainedly use their power for 
utter destruction.'' In the third place, (Scripture) does 
not seem to legislate about every ruler but hints in many 
ways that he who is (ruler) of the whole people and belongs 
to the Hebrew nation has been appointed as a virtuous 
ruler and leader. ** For reviling is foreign to a good man 
while praise is most congenial.* For nothing is so con- 
ducive to thoughtful care ^ as well-spoken praise." 



7. (Ex. xxii. 29, xxiii. 15c) ^ What is the meaning of the 

« Aucher " ipsi." 

* Slightly different is the reading of the first Greek frag, 
of this section, TTpovoelrai, twv ISicotcov cos fir] TrepiTrt'Trroiev 
avTjKearois Tifxcopiais. 

" So the Greek frag., ol yap KaKcos aKovaavres apxovres rovs 
CLTTOvras ov /xcto. Slktjs dfivvovvTar KaTaxpyjcrovrai bvvaareiais els 
■navoiXedpiav. 

'^ The Greek frag, reads somewhat differently eVei, <f>T^a[v, 
ov 7T€pl rravTOS apxovros eoiKe vofModerelv dAA' coaavel rod Xaov 
TOuSc 7] edvovs rjyefiova aTTOv8alov VTrorWerat,, Slol TrXeiovcov. It 
adds Koraxp'qoTLKOJS hk hwarovs ■^ lepeZs •^ irpo^riras rj dylovs 
dvSpas COS Mcovaea. " 'ISot) yap, ed-qKa ac deov Oapaco," eXexdi] 
TTpos Mcovarjv. 

* So the second Greek frag., tco dyadw dvSpl jSAacr^T^/ita fiev 
dAAorpiov, eTTaivos 8e ot/ceioTaTov. 

^ Lit. " thoughtfulness of care." The Arm. translator 
apparently read Trpovoiav instead of evvoiav, which is the 
reading in the Greek fragments. 

Slightly different is the reading of the third Greek frag., 
ouSev ovTO)S evdyojyov els evvoiav cos "fj tojv evepyerrjiiaTOiv eu- 

'* Philo here combines parts of two separate verses. 
42 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

words, " Thou shalt not appear with empty hands before 
Me " » ? 

The literal meaning * is this, (namely) that those who 
approach the shrines '^ of God should come near with full 
hands, bearing the first-fruits of every living thing in 
which there is no blemish. '^ But as for the deeper meaning," 
there is no prohibition,^ for even though He said, " Thou 
shalt not appear," still He did not say it by way of pro- 
hibition, as is altogether reasonable.' For it is impossible 
for anyone who comes into the sight of God to be empty 
but (rather must he be) full of every good. For just as one 
who comes near the light is straightway illumined, so also 
is filled the entire soul of him to whom God has appeared. 
A spiritual light, however, is called by other names, 
(namely) knowledge and wisdom. '* 



8. (Ex. xxii. 30) * Why does He command that the off- 
sj)ring of cattle be left with their mothers for seven days ? ^ 

(This is said) in order that there may not be one and the 
same time for birth and destruction but that the generation 
of life may keep its due place *= for some time. In the second 
place, because the mercy of love abounds in mothers at 

^ Lxx (Ex. xxiii. 15c) ovk 6(f)9-i^ar] ivwTnov fiov k€v6s (Heb. 
" And not shall be seen my face empty "). 

^ TO pTJTOV. 

'^ Or " altars " : Aucher " aram." 

"* Cf. LXX (Ex. xxii. 29= Heb. xxii. 28) d-Trapxas dXujvos Kal 
Xrjvov GOV ov Kadvarep-qaeis' to. TrporroroKa tcov viajv aov 8coa€is 

(fJLoi. 

* TO TTpos Siavoiav. 
■^ OLTTayopevais. 

" d)s TTavTcos €lk6s vel sim. : Aucher " quovis mode." 

'' emGT-qfxri /cat ao<f)ia: Aucher " jntelligentia et sapientia." 

' Heb., Ex. xxii. 29 {cf. Lev. xxii. 27). 

' LXX ovTcos TTOLTjaeis Tov fxooxov aov Koi TO Trpo^aTOv aov 
KOI TO VTTO^vytov aov iirrd rjfiepas ^arai vtto T'qv firpripa, rfj hk 
oyho-Q rjp.€pa aTToSwajj /xot auTo. Philo comments similarly but 
more fully on this verse in De Virtutibus 126-130. 

* T17V rd^Lv : Aucher " ordinem." 

43 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

the very beginning of birth, wherefore their breasts, being 
filled, flow abundantly and pour out in (the form of) milk 
unlimited nourishment for desire." For in the course of 
time love, like everything else, diminishes, but at the very 
beginning of birth it possesses great strength. Accord- 
ingly, He considers it very cruel and senseless to separate 
(the offspring) from its mother immediately upon birth, 
while it is still naturally attached and united to her. 



*9. (Ex. xxiii. la) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Thou shalt not admit a false rumour " * ? 

Nothing vain is to be admitted whether through hearing 
or any other sense, for very great harm follows the decep- 
tion of falsehood." Therefore it has been ordained by some 
legislators that one should not testify by hearsay, on the 
ground that what is believed through the eyes is true but 
through hearing is false. ** 



^10. (Ex. xxiii. 3) Why does (Scripture) say, " To the 
poor thou shalt not be merciful in judgment " * ? 

Poverty in itself is in want of mercy for the redress of 
its need, but when it comes to judgment it uses the law of 

<* i.e. as much as their young desire. 

^ Lxx Ov TTapaBe^T] dKorjv /Ltaratav (Heb. "empty " or "base- 
less report "). Philo quotes this half-verse and comments 
on it briefly in De Con/us. Ling. 141 and more fully in De 
Spec. Leg. iv. 59-61. 

" Slightly difi^erent is the wording of the Greek frag., 
ixaraiov (f>r)aLV ovt€ OLKoals ovre dXXrj tlvI tcov alaQrjaewv rrpoa- 
LT€ov' eTTaKoXovOovat, yap rals dTrdrais at /xeytarai ^7;/xiai. 

^ So the Greek frag., 8l6 koI Trap* evioig vofMod^rais dTTeiprfTaL 
fiapTvpelv dKofj, <1)S to fxev dXrjdes oi/tet TTLarevofxevov, to Be ip€v8os 
dKofj. In the parallel passage, De Spec. Leg. iv. 61, Philo 
attributes this view to " some of the Greek legislators who 
copied it from the most sacred stelae of Moses." 

* LXX Krai TTevrjTa ovk iXc-qaeis (Heb. " thou shalt not 
favour ") eV Kpiaei. Philo quotes this verse and comments 
on it a little more fully in De Spec. Leg. iv. 72-74. 
44 



I 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

equality as judge." For justice is divine and incorruptible, 
wherefore it is well said by some * " judgments are of 
God." ^ 

^11. (Ex. xxiii. 4) Why does (Scripture) command one 
who encounters the straying asses ** of an enemy to bring 
them back and give them back ? « 

It is an excess of gentleness if in addition to not harming 
an enemy one even tries to be of help.^ In the second 
place, it is a prohibition and shaming of greed." For he 
who is not willing to harm even an enemy, whom else will 
he wish to harm for his own profit ? '' In the third place, 
it removes quarrels and fights from (our) midst, being a 

" So the Greek frag., Trevia Kad' iairr-qv fxkv iXeov XPV^^'- ^^^ 
€TTav6p6ojaiv eVSeta?, els Se Kpiaiv lovaa ^pa^evrfj xpTJraL ru) rrjs 

laOTTjTOS VO/XO). 

* The Greek frag, reads more intelligibly eV erepoLs, i.e. in 
Deut. i. 17. 

" The Greek frag, reads somewhat differently Oelov yap 17 
biKaLoarvvT] Kal dSiKaaTOV oQev kox iv irepois ev etprjTaL on " -q 
Kpiais Tov deov St/cata c'crriV." The wording of the last clause is 
obviously incorrect, see the preceding note. 

** The fragment from John of Damascus ap. H. Lewy has 
VTTo^vyla), see next note. 

* LXX 'Eav 8e avvavrrjarjs rep fiot tov ex^pov aov rj tco 
vTTolvyLcp avTov (Heb. " his ass ") TrXavcopLevois, dTroarpeipas 
drrohioaeig avrcp. The fragment from Procopius quotes only 
the first part of the verse, ending with ixdpov aov. Philo 
comments on this verse in De Virtutibus 117-118. 

•'' So the two Greek fragments, -qfjLepoTTjTos vTrep^oXrj irpos 
TO p.r) jSAttTTTeiv TOV exOpov cti Kal avvo)<f>eX€LV (?"./. co^eAeii') 
ireipdadai. 

This sentence is missing from both Greek fragments. 
Lewy reconstructs the Greek, somewhat freely, I think, as 
hiVTepov hk TTapaiTTjaig TrXeove^ias. 

" So the Greek frag, from John of Damascus (which ends 
here), 6 yap fXT]8^ exdpov ^rjfiLoCv VTTOjxivcov Ttva tcov dXXcov 
ideXrjaeiev dv ^XdiTTCLv eV w^eXeia <t8ia>; Procopius reads 
more briefly riVa 8e koX dSun^CTetcv <av> d /xiySe tov exdpov 
^rjnitov; 

45 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

protector of peace," whose possessions it depicts and shows 
in many ways. Accordingly, it regards the giving back 
of the asses as the beginning of offerings of peace and 
reconciliation.^ For he who gives (something) back, per- 
forming a work of love, is in some manner made gentle in 
soul," while he who receives (it), if he is not completely 
ungrateful, puts aside the rancour that seeks revenge. 



12. (Ex. xxiii. 5) Why, if one sees the ass of an enemy 
fall under a burden, does (Scripture) command one not to 
neglect to raise it up with him ? <* 

(This is) a confirmatory addition to the preceding, since 
there is much said on this subject which is to be connected 
with this, including what was previously said about one 
who gives back (something lost).* But it must be said in 
addition that it shows an extraordinary abundance of 
humaneness and gentleness,^ inasmuch as it exhorts (us) 
not only to be useful to an enemy but also to lighten the 

" Procopius reads slightly differently en 8e koI ardaiv 
Kadaipa, koX 8ucr/i.eWiav TrpoKardpxoiv etpijvTjs. The next two 
sentences in the Procopius fragment do not correspond closely 
to the Armenian. 

* Or " friendship," but cf. Be Virtutibus 118. 

" Aucher " ex animo familiaris demonstratur." The 
Greek verb was prob. rjnepovTai. 

^ LXX 'Edv Se tbrjs to VTTO^vyiov (Heb. " ass ") rod ixdpov 
aov TTCmoiKOS (Heb. " crouching ") vtto t6v yopiov avrov, ov 
TTapeXevoT] avro oAAa avveyepets avro pLcd' avTov (Heb. " thou 
shalt desist from abandoning it ; thou shalt surely help [?] 
with him"). In De Virtutibus 116 Philo paraphrases the 
LXX text as follows, Kav ix^P^^ virot^vyia dxOo^opovvra rw 
jSapet meaOevra TrpoTriarj, p.ri TrapeXdelv dXXd avv€TTLKov(f>iaai Koi 
avveyelpai. In the latter passage Philo deals only with the 
literal meaning and not with the symbolism as here. 

* This is the best sense I can extract from the obscure Arm. 
sentence. Aucher 's rendering is not too clear either, " in- 
tensio additamenti anteriorum est, unde et plura quidem 
dicta est adaptare super hoc, ex iis nimirum quae de reddente 
sunt dicta." ^ <f)iXavdpaimas Kai -^fJLeporrjros. 

46 



I 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

heaviness of the burden of irrational animals, especially 
when they have already fallen under the pressure of a very 
heavy weight. For who would disregard any human being, 
with whom he has a single natural kinship," when he has 
been taught by the divine Law and is accustomed not to 
disregard even a beast? That is the literal meaning.'' 
But as for the deeper meaning,'^ the ass is symbolically "* 
our body,* and (this) is altogether errant and roving. For 
the sake of bringing profit to its kindred sensual pleasure,^ 
it loads itself with much unmixed (wine) and various foods 
and a variety of dishes and still other drinks and foods in 
immense profusion. Accordingly, it is necessary for one 
who is smitten by wisdom " to lighten (his) heaviness 
through the related virtues of frugality and contentedness '^ 
and to lead the errant (man) into inerrant constancy by 
accustoming him to give up his anxious pursuit of avarice 
and, instead, to follow the richness of nature, which is 
ascendant and self-sufficient.*' 



*13. (Ex. xxiii. 20-21) ^ What is the meaning of the 
words, " Behold, I am sending My angel * before thy face, 
that he may guard thee on the way, in order that he may 
lead and bring thee to the land which I have prepared for 
thee. Give heed and listen and do not disobey. For he 

" fxia avyy€V€ia (f>va€cos. * to prjrov. 

•^ TO TTpos Bidvoiav. ** avfi^oXiKcos. 

« In De Sacr. Ahelis 112 the ass is said to be a symbol of 
TTovos, in De Cherubim 32 of 17 dXoyos rrpoaipems rod ^iov, in 
I De Migratione 224 of 17 dXoyos <f>vais, in De Mut. Norn. 193 
of dvoia. ^ Tj] avyyevtKTJ "qSov^. 

Tov VTTO TTJs Go^Las irXrjxOevTa : Aucher " qui amore 
sapientiae captus sit." 

^ rals dvayKaiais dperats, dXiyoSeia koI evKoXia. These two 
virtues are coupled in several other passages in Philo. 

• dva)(f>€pr]s {vel sim.) Kal avrdpicqs : Aucher " quae feracis- 
sima est {veU superiora tendit) et sibi sufficiens." 

^ This section should follow § 15, which deals with Ex. 
xxiii. 18. 

* Lit. " messenger," see next note but one. 

47 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

will not show consideration for thee," for My name is upon 
him " ^ ? 

An angel is an intellectual soul " or rather wholly mind,'' 
wholly incorporeal, made (to be) a minister of God,* and 
appointed over certain needs and the service of the race of 
mortals, since it was unable, because of its corruptible 
nature, to receive the gifts and benefactions extended by 
God. For it was not capable of bearing the multitude of 
(His) good (gifts). (Therefore) of necessity was the Logos 
appointed as judge and mediator,^ who is called " angel." 
Him He sets " before the face," there where the place of 
the eyes and the senses is, in order that by seeing and 
receiving sense(-impressions) it " may follow the leadership 
of virtue,'' not unwillingly but willingly. But the entry 
into the previously prepared land is allegorized * in the 
several (details) of the above-mentioned (statements) in 
respect of the guarding ' of the way, (namely) " giving 
heed," " listening," " not disobeying," " not showing con- 
sideration, " " setting His name upon him. ' ' This, however, 
must first be examined. Those who incautiously travel a 

" Aucher " non verebitur te," see next note. 

* Lxx Kol l8ov iyoj OLTToaTeXXaj tov ayyeXov /xou (Heb. "my 
messenger ") ttjoo TTpoacLirov aov tva (f>vXd^r) ae ev rfj 6Sa> ottcds 
claaydyr] ae els ttjv yijv (Heb. " place ") rjv -^TOLfxaad aoL (Heb. 
om. " for thee "). Trpoaex^ aeavrco koi elaaKOve avrov Kal firj 
aTTeidec avrco' ov yap fir) vTToaTeiX-qTaL ae (Heb. " he will not 
suffer thy disobedience "), to yap ovofid fxov Iotlv eV avTU) 
(Heb. " within him "). Philo cites the first part of this 
passage in De Agricultura 51, and the entire passage in 
De Migratione 174 in verbal agreement with the lxx but 
without extended commentary in either place. 

" voepa ^vxTj : Aucher " spiritus intellectualis." Philo 
several times speaks of angels as j/ru^at but never, I think, as 
TTvevfiara. On his doctrine of angels see Wolfson, Philo^ 
i. 366-385. '^ vovs : Aucher " intellectus." 

* yevofjievos VTr-qpir-qs Oeov. 

^ fXeOLTT]?. 

" i.e. the human race. '^ dperijs. 

* dXXrjyopeLTai : Aucher " allegorice adaptatur." 
^ Aucher " observationem." 

48 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

road go astray from the right and genuinely broad road, 
and many times turn aside into trackless, impassable and 
rough places." And similar to this is it when souls experi- 
ence something juvenile and pious, ** for when one is without 
a share of discipline one is borne along like unimpeded 
streams where it is unprofitable." And the second thing 
was the entry into the land, (that is) an entry into philo- 
sophy,'* (which is), as it were, a good land and fertile in the 
production of fruits, which the divine plants, the virtues,* 
bear. Therefore it is proper that he who wishes to enjoy 
these fruits should receive training in exercising caution ; 
but caution is the supervision of the counselling mind ^ 
and readiness to listen. For just as a lover puts aside all 
other things and hastens to his desire, so also does one 
who hungers and thirsts for the knowledge of the dis- 
ciplines and for learning what he does not know put away 
his concern for other things and hasten to listen, and by 
night and by day he watches the doors of the houses of the 
wise." Thus, to give heed is (referred to) in these (words). 
But (next) in order is to listen, and it is naturally mentioned 

" The first of the two Greek fragments of this section 
(which begins here) reads only slightly differently ol d(f>v- 
XoLKTws 68oLTTopovvT€S hia^apTOiVovaiv rrjs opdijs Koi Xeaxfyopov 
u)S TToXXoLKLS ei's dvoBias koi bva^drovs /cat rpaxeias drpaTTOvs 
€KTp€7Teadat. 

^ The text is obviously corrupt, see next note. 

" The Greek frag, (which ends here) reads more intelligibly 
TO rrapaTrX-qaiov iariv ore Kal at ipvxcd ru)v veoiv TratSeias d/xoi- 
povaiv, Kaddvep pevfxa dvcmaxeTOv ottt) firj AucrireAe? pefi^evovrai. 
Possibly the Arm. translator mistook vewv for the gen. plural 
of v€t6? " temple." 

^ (f>LXoao<f>iav. 

' ax dperai. 

^ "q T'nj ^ovXeimKTJs Biavolas Trpoaraaia vel sim. : Aucher 
" praesiaentia consiliarii (sic) mentis.'* 

The second Greek fragment (which contains only the 
second part of this comparison) reads only slightly differently 
o rreivajv Koi hufjcov €TTLaTr]fi,r]S Kal tov fiadelv a. firj oiBev, rds 
dXXas pieOiefievog (fypovribas, ineiyeTaL Trpos aKpoaaiv, Kal vvKTcop 
Kal fied' TjiJLepav dvpojpel rds tcDv ao(f)U)v otKias. 

49 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

in connexion therewith.* For he who listens with the tips 
of his ears is able to get (only) a somewhat vague perception 
of what is said, while to him who listens carefully the words 
enter more clearly and the things heard travel on all the 
paths, so that they form his mind * with deep impressions,'^ 
as if (it were) wax, lest it easily become stupid and (the 
impressions) leap away.** After this comes (the statement) 
that it is not right to disobey. For some men receive 
within them the appearances of words and, after receiving 
them, [do not] become disobedient * but display a quarrel- 
some and rebellious nature. Such men He shames,^ wish- 
ing to admonish them by preparing lawful and constant 
declarations of good things." But whenever the word of 
God is announced, it is altogether good, beautiful and 
precious. For to him who does not obey He says, " he '^ 
has no respect for thee," and (this is said) most naturally. 
For when conviction * is established in the soul and per- 
ceives it inclining to wickedness, it reproaches (the soul) 
and becomes its accuser, and by scolding and threatening, 

<* i.e. in connexion with giving heed. 

^ TOP vovv or rrjv Sidvoiav, 

" Lit. " forms." 

^ Aucher renders, " ne facile insipidum videatur et foras 
resiliat," apparently taking " mind " to be the subject of 
both verbs (in spite of the neuter gender of the pred. adj. 
" insipidum "). 

* Either we must eliminate the negative particle or emend 
" disobedient " to " obedient." Aucher renders more freely, 
" nee tamen revera recipientes, dissentiunt." 

^ 8vaO)7T€L. 

" The meaning is obscure, partly because of the diverse 
meanings of the verb (here a ptc.) art'el, which I have 
rendered " preparing." Aucher renders, " monere volens, 
ut sibi concilient bonorum enarrationes legitimas ac con- 
stantes." 

* i.e. the angel. 

* eXeyxos, cf. e.g. Quod Deus Immut. Sit 135, Be Decalogo 
87, where eAeyxo? has the force of " conscience " or inward 
" monitor " (as Colson there renders). It is symbolized by 
an angel in De Fuga 1-6 and elsewhere. 

50 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

puts it to shame. For he within whom it is, is apprehended 
by his own judgment as being altogether foolish. And in 
contrast to all the counsellors" who are in the various 
cities " it is obliged not to show respect or to admonish 
with fear but with both wisdom and freedom of speech." 
And a very clear proof of tlys is that the divine name is 
called upon the angel. And this is the most sovereign and 
principal (being) which the heaven and earth and the whole 
world knows.** And he who has so great a power « must 
necessarily be filled with all-powerful ^ wisdom." 



*14. (Ex. xxiii. 18a) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Thou shalt not sacrifice with leaven the blood of the 
victim " ^ ? 

In another passage also * He has ordained something 
similar to this, commanding that upon an altar upon which 
victims are offered in sacrifice leaven is not to be brought.' 
He indicates through two necessary symbols *= that one 

" Toiis avv48povs. 

^ The context obliges us to correct the Arm. text which 
reads " and by (or " among ") all the counsellors who are 
outside in the various cities." 

" Kal ao<f>ia /cat vapprjaLa. 

^ Apparently Philo means that the angel here represents 
the Logos. 

* Svva^iiv. ^ Variant " all-free." 

" Aucher renders more freely, " ut sit sapientia potentis- 
simus (vel, liberrimus)." 

^ Lxx ov dvaeis tm C^fJ-j] alfxa dvfjLidfjiaTos fiov. Philo alle- 
gorizes this half-verse, without quoting it literally, in Be 
Spec. Leg. i. 293-295, cf. ii. 182-185. 

' Lev. ii. 11, where honey is also proscribed. 

^ Somewhat different is the wording of the Greek frag, 
preserved in three Catenae, avrl tov ov Sei l[,vficuT6v irapelvai 
€TTi Tcov 9vaia(,ofi€vo}V dXXa Travra to. irpoaayofieva els dvalav 
■fJTOi 7Tpoa(f)opdv dl^vfia Set elvai. 

* Prob. the original reading is preserved in the Catenae, 
(uviTTeTai Se 8td avfJi^oXov Bvo rd dvayKaiOTara. Procopius 

,.reads more briefly aiViTTeTat 8e 8ta avfi^oXov. 

i 51 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

should despise sensual pleasures," for leaven is a sweetener 
of food but not food (itself).^ And the other thing (in- 
dicated) is that one should not be uplifted in conceit by 
common " belief/ For both are impure and hateful, 
(namely) sensual pleasure and arrogance (or) foolish belief, 
(both being) the offspring of qne mother, illusion/ But the 
blood of the sacrificed victims is a sign of the souls which 
are consecrated to God. Moreover, it is not right to mix 
the unmixed/ 

*15. (Ex. xxiii, 18b) What is the meaning of the words, 
" The fat of My festival shall not lie » until morning " ^ ? 

The literal text * gives the command that the fat shall 
be consumed the same day, having become material for 
the divine fire.^ But as for the deeper meaning,* the nature 

" So Procopius, KaTa<f)pov€iv rjBovrjs. The Catenae read 
more fully ev ficv to KaTa(f>povetv rjSov-fjs. 

^ So Procopius and the Catenae, ^vfxr] yap TJSvaixa Tpo^rjs, 
ov rpo^Tj. 

" The Arm. translator mistakenly read Koivrjs instead of 
K€vi)s ol-qaecos " empty belief," see next note. 

Procopius Koi TO fiT) 8eiv vtto Kevrjs (f>vaa)ix€vovs ol-qaecos 
atpeadai: the Catenae read erepov Se to /at) Seiv CTTaipeadai 
<j>vacx}fx4vovs 8ia /cev^s {v.l. Kaivrjs) olrjaeojs. 

^ Procopius lacks this sentence. The Catenae read more 
briefly avUpov yap eKarcpov, rj8ovi] re Kai oirjois, pLTjrpos pnas 
aTTaTrjs eyyova. Philo, like some of the early Christian 
writers, uses dTraTrj in the sense of " illusory worldly pleasure." 

^ So Procopius and the Catenae, to 8e alp.a tojv Ovolcov 
oelyfia tjfvx'fjs eart avevSofjLevrjs deep- pnyvvvai 8e Ta dpLiKra ovx 
oaiov. 

" Or " sleep," see next note. 

'^ Lxx ouSe fiT) KOLfiTjdf} areap rrjs eoprijs fiov ecus TTpwt. There 
seems to be no other direct comment on this half-verse in 
Philo 's other works but c/. De Spec. Leg. iv. 123-124. 

* TO prjTOV. 

^ 7^^ Catenae read similarly but omitting the subject, 
K€A€V€i Ttt ariara avdijixepov dvaXiaKcaOai, yivofieva vXrjv Upas 
<j>Xoy6s. ^ Procopius has preserved only the words vXr) re rrjs 
Upas yiviado) (f>Xoy6s. * to npos Bidvoiav. 

52 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

of fat brings oiliness" to the entrails and other (parts), and 
surrounding these with its fatness, prevents them for ever, 
when dried, from very quickly dissolving and melting 
away.^ For one who has the moisture of fatness receives 
the moisture as most vital nourishment. Accordingly, 
He wishes to show through a symbol " that every soul 
which piety fattens with its own mystical and divine x^iety 
is sleepless and watchful for the vision of things worthy to 
be seen.*^ Now this experience is the festival of souls and 
the greatest of festivals, an occasion of true joy,* which 
not unmixed (wine) but sober wisdom * produces. For 
one of these is the cause of drunkenness and delirium," 
while the other (is the cause) of soberness and of properly 
accomplishing all things. And so, if it also happens that 
some mortal seed has passed, (it is) an unfortunate accident, 
that is, the sleep of the mind, which will not last long.'' 

*16. (Ex. xxiii. 22) What is the meaning of the words, 
" If hearing thou wilt hear My voice and thou wilt do all 

" AtTTos, cf. Be Vita Mosis ii. 146. 

** The meaning of the second clause is obscure, chiefly 
because of the presence of the pass. ptc. " dried." Aucher 
renders more briefly, " ne arescens celeriter dissolvatur." 

" 8ta avu^oXov. 

** Slightly different is the wording of the Greek frag, from 
the Parallels of John Monachus {ap. Harris, p. 101), first 
identified by I^^riichtel, tpvx'q rrdaa rjv evae^eia XLiraivei tols 
tSt'oi? opyioLS, OLKOLfxi^Tcos ^x^i' TTpos TO. dela Kal hiaviaraTaL TTpos 
TTjv ddav Tcav ddas a^ioiv. 

* Again the Greek frag, (which ends with " joy ") differs 
slightly, TovTO yap to Ttddos ttjs i/jvxrjs ev €opTfj ixcyiaTj) Kal 
Kacpos anj/evS-qs €V(f)poavvr)s. 

^ vq(f>aXLo<; ao(f}ia. ^ vVucher " petulantiae." 

'^ The meaning of the sentence is not clear to me but seems 
to refer to a nocturnal emission. Aucher, confessing in a 
footnote that he is not sure of the meaning, renders, " quod 
si etiam superveniet, id quod transactum est, et aliquod 
semen mortale, improsperitatis erramentum, id est mentis 
somnus, non longius durabit." 

5S 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

that I say to thee, I shall be an enemy to thine enemies 
and I will oppose those who oppose thee " " ? 

Because some men do not hearken when hearing or, rather, 
pretend not to have heard, He has specified in this passage, 
" If hearing ye * will hear My voice," (which), it must be 
supposed, refers to the angel mentioned a little while ago." 
For the prophet of Him Who speaks is properly an angel.** 
For it is necessary for him who " hearing hears," that is, 
with firmness * receives what is said, to carry out in deed 
also what is said, for the deed is proof of the word.^ Now 
he who is obedient to what is said and carries out in deed 
what has been ordered by declaration, necessarily acquires 
his teacher as ally and protector, who, as it seems, is helping 
his disciple but in truth (is helping) his own ruling doctrines," 
which his opponents and enemies desire to destroy.'* 

" LXX iav aKoij aKova-qre {v.l. aKOvarjs) rrjs (f>cov'r]s ixov (Heb. 
" his voice ") koI TTon^crrjTe Trdvra oaa av eiTTco aoi, ixdpevaco toIs 
ixdpols aov Kox avTiKeiaofxai toIs dvTiKeLfievoLs aoi. Philo para- 
phrases the verse in De Praemiis 79. 

^ Sic (change from sing, to plural). 

" In § 13. Most of the present section (from " voice " on) 
is preserved in the Catenae and paraphrastically in Procopius. 
The former read, in this sentence, <f)covr)v deov t6v -npo ficKpov 
XexQ^vra ayyeAov VTTOVoiqreov fji,T]vv€crdat. 

** So the Catenae, tov yap Xdyovros 6 irpo^rfn^s dyyeXos 
Kvpiojs (v.l. KvpLov) ioTLv. Frocopius paraphrases, tov Trpo- 
(f>T^Tr]v <f)aai rives Koi t'^v ev airrip tov XoXovvtos <f>(t}vr]v, od 
TTapaKeXeverai elaaKovew. * Aucher " constanter." 

^ So the Catenae, dvdyKrj {I. dvdyKr)) yap tov aKofj dKovovra, 
TOxnioTi TOV Ta XeyopLeva jSe/Sato)? TrapaSexdfievov, ipyois eViTeAeiv 
TO. XexdevTa- Xoyov yap ttLotis epyov. Procopius has preserved 
only the words Xoyov 8e ttlotls epyov. 

^ Aucher " voluntate legis." 

^ So the Catenae, 6 8e koI toIs elprjfxevois KaTaTreLOrjs Kal 
ivepycbv to. dKoXovSa, avfifiaxov Kal VTrepaamaTrjv i^ dvdyKTjs 
cx^i TOV 8(,8daKaXov, oaa fiev T<p Bokclv, ^oiqdovvra Tip yvcopifiw, to 
8' dAi7^es Tols avTOV {I. avTov) Soyfiaai /cat TrapayyeXfiaoLV, direp 
ol ivavTLOt Kal exdpol ^ovXovTat Kadaipslv. Procopius reads 
more briefly o 8e koI TreLodels Kal irpd^as e^ei TrdvTOJS vnepaa- 
TTiaTTjv TOV BibdoKaXov avp.piaxovvTa hi ainov toIs Ihiois h6yp,aai.v, 
airep ol evavriot /SouAovrat Kadaipelv. 

54 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

■'^17. (Ex. xxiii. 24c) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Destroying thou shalt destroy and shattering thou shalt 
shatter their pillars " " ? 

The " pillars " are symbolically the accepted opinions ^ 
which seem to have been established and firmly supported." 
But of (these) pillar-like '* accepted opinions some are 
good, and for these it is right to be erect and to have a firm 
position, while there are others which are reprehensible, 
and of these it is profitable to cause the destruction.* And ' 
such are those which folly decrees in opposition to pru- 
dence," and intemperance to temperance,'' and injustice to 
justice,* and in general whatever it is that evil opposes to 
virtue.^ But the words " Destroying thou shalt destroy 
and shattering thou shalt shatter " suggest something 
like the following sense.* There are some things which 

" Lxx Kadaipiaei, KadeXeis {v.l. and Heb. add " them ") /cat 
avvTpi^cov (Tvvrpii/j€ts ras aTi]\as (A.V. " images ") avrcov. 

* Aucher " gratae leges," see next note. 

" So the Greek frag, (preserved in the Catenae and Pro- 
copius), arrjXai ei'ai (Procopius omits the first two words) to. 
boyfjLara avfx^oXiKOJs, dnep iarTavai Koi eprjpeladai 80/cet. 

** Or " posted-up " : Aucher " statuae instar erectarum." 
The Arm. translator had difficulty in rendering KaTearrjXiTev- 
fxevajv, see next note. 

* So the Catenae, toDv Se /caTeoTTjAtTey/xeVcov Soyfidrcov ra 
fiev aCTTeia iariv, a Kal (Procopius omits iariv a Kai) Oefxis 
dvaK€iadaL kol jSejSai'av ex^i-v ttjv tbpvatv, rd Se eViAT^Trra cov ttjv 
Kadaipeaiv TTOieladai XvaireXes (Procopius rd 8e eViAr/TTTa Kadat,- 
pcladai, (x)S fiT] rrdXiV dvaoTrjaofxeva jlit^Sc dpp.oa6pi.cva — the last 
words being a paraphrase of the end of the section). 

^ The following sentence is missing in the Catenae and 
Procopius. 

" d(f)poavvr] . . . (f)povqa€i. 
^ dKoXaaia . . . ao)<f>poavv7]. 

* dbiKia . . . BiKaLoavvT]. 
' KaKia . . . dperfj. 

*^ So the Catenae, to Se ^^ Kadaipwv KadeXels " koL " avvrpipcov 
avvrpiifjiLS " toi,ovtov v-no^dXXei vovv. Procopius (ending with 
this sentence) paraphrases, ToiavT-q ydp l/x^aat? 17 rov " KaQ- 
aipwv KadeXeis " Kai " avvrpi^cov avvrpLipeis." 

55 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

(people) destroy only to raise them up another time, and 
shatter as if they would again put them together." But 
it is His will that those things which are opposed to the 
good and beautiful, when once they have been destroyed 
and shattered, shall not again undergo repair but shall 
always remain destroy ed.** 



*18. (Ex. xxiti. 2ob) Why does He say, " I will bless thy 
bread and water," and I will turn away illnesses from 
thee " ^ .^ 

He indicates food and health — food through " bread 
and water," and health through " turn away illnesses."* 
In the second place. He speaks of the self-control of endur- 
ance here in mentioning only the receiving of necessary 
foods,^ for bread is a plain food without anything extra, 
and flowing water » is (a similarly plain) drink, and upon 
these (depends) health. In the third place. He makes 
mention of both life (in general) and a good life, for bread 
and water are necessary for living, while freedom from 

" So the Catenae, Ivta rives' Kadaipovaiv ws dvaarijaovTiS, 
Koi axnnpi^ovaiv (L'S avdis dp/xoaofxcvoi. 

^ So the Catenae, ^ouAerai 8e to. KaOaipedivra dnra^ koX 
avvrpL^ivra fjLrjK€Tt tvx^Iv dvopdJjaeoiS aAA' eis diTav rj(f>avLa6aL rd 
ivavria rols dyadols koX KaXols. 

" Philo agrees with Heb. against lxx in omitting " and 
wine " after " bread." 

^ LXX Koi evXoyriaco (Heb. " He will bless ") tov dprov aov 
Kal TOV olvov aov koi to vhwp aov koL dTToaTpei/jco jxaXaKiav d(f)* 

VfJiWV. 

* So Cat. Lips., Tpo<j>T]v KOX vyUiav alvLTTerat' Tpo<f>rjv fiev St,* 
dprov KOL vSaros' vyUiav hid tov fiaXaKiav d7ToaTp€(f>€LV. Pro- 
copius condenses, Tpo<fiT]v koI vyUiav errayyeXXeTai. 

^ So the Catena, h^vrepov, ey/cpareiav ^la-qyeLrai, ttjv tcDv 
dvayKaloiv pLCTOvaiav fiovov iTrenrcov. Procopius reads more 
briefly /cai tcov dvayKaiOTaTcov fxovcDV jjuvrjadels eStSa^e ttjv iyKpd- 
reiav (with this clause the Greek fragments break off, to 
resume with the sentence beginning " In the fifth place "). 

^ vafiaTialov vScop : Aucher " aqua scaturiens." 
56 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

passion " and health (are necessary) for living well. In the 
fourth place, Scripture * seems to declare that plain sim- 
plicity in food is the cause of health. For wine-drinking 
and cookery which are done with insatiability and gluttony, 
because of their being artificial " produce illness and the 
causes of greater illnesses. But simplicity in necessary 
foods is productive of health.'' In the iifth place, it teaches 
us a most worthwhile lesson and one that is in order, showing 
that neither bread nor water gives nourishment by itself 
alone,* but that there are times when they do more harm 
than good,^ (namely) if the divine Logos does not graci- 
ously bestow upon them his helpful powers.^ For this 
reason, indeed. He says, " I will bless thy bread and thy 
water," as if they were not sufficient to give nourishment 
by themselves alone without the loving friendship and 
care ^ of God.' 



" aTTadeia. 

* 7) ypa(f>rj. This is one of the very few passages in the 
Quaest tones in which Philo expressly mentions Scripture 
rather than God or Moses as authority, although of course 
the three terms are interchangeable. 

<= Aucher " ob abusum expletionis." 

** Aucher inadvertently omits to render this sentence. 

* Slightly different is the text of Catena Lips., vpos Se 
TorjTOLS, fj.a.dr}fia rjfjLas alaiajTarov avahthdaKei, hiqXatv on ovre 
dpTOS ovT€ vBcop Kad' iaxjrd rp€(j>ovaLV. Procopius reads more 
briefly koX iMadTjixa 8e Trape'Scu/cev aloioiTaTOv, ws ovhkv tovtwv 
Tpe(f>et, Kad' davro. 

^ So Cat. Lips., aAA' Icttiv 6t€ Kal ^Xdirrovai, fidXXov rj 
d)(f)€XovaLV. Procopius condenses, jSAaTrret 8e fxaXXov rj oxfxXel. 

^ So (with the exception of one word) Cat. Lips., edv (Mr) 
delos Xoyos Kal tovtois xapLay]Tai rd's dcjjeXTjTLKds (/. cu^eAT^Tt/^d?) 
Bwdixeis. Procopius paraphrases, firj rod deov hvva/xiv co^cAt^- 
TiKT]v hid TTJs evXoyias napexovTOS. 

^ Emending Arm. liogwoy (=" spirit" or "soul") to 
hogoy (= " care ") : Aucher " sine divina conciliatione cum 
anima." 

* Cat. Lips, is defective, a»s ovx i/cavd /ca^' iavrd rpe'^eiv 
aveu diias [noun missing] kox €Tn<f>poavvT)s. The sentence is 
missing in Procopius. 

57 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

*19. (Ex. xxiii. 26a) Why does He « say, " There shall 
not be in thee anyone infertile or barren " * ? 

He '^ places infertility and barrenness among the curses,** 
(and) says that they shall not be (found) among those who 
act with justice and lawfulness/ For (as) a prize to those 
who keep the divine writing of the Law He offers the more 
ancient law of immortal nature, which was laid down for 
procreation and the begetting of sons for the perpetuity 
of the race/ That is the literal meaning.^ But as for the 
deeper meaning,'' no one will find any evil greater than 
childlessness and infertility of soul.* And this is ignorance 
and lack of education,^ which make barren the deliberative 
mind.*' But fecundity and abundance of children come 
about through learning and knowledge,' so that those 
who have an abundance of learning have an abundance of 
children, and those who are learned in the knowledge of 
good and excellent things "* have good children. And 

" See below, note c. 

* Lxx ovK earat, dyovos ov8e arelpa ivl ttjs yrjs aov. In De 
Praemiis 108 Philo quotes freely, ovBels dyovos ovSe arelpa 
yevrfaerai. 

" The context indicates that God is the subject although 
the Greek frag, supplies Moivarjs. 

^ So the Greek frag., dyoviav koX arcLpioatv iv Kardpais 
raTTOiv M.cova7Js. 

* So the Greek frag., ov <f)T}GLv iaeadat, irapd tois rd Si/cata 
Koi vofiLfxa Spcbmv. 

^ So the Greek frag, (which ends with this sentence), ddXov 
yap Tols TO Upov ypdfifx,a tov vofjLov <f>vXdrTOvaL Trapex^i rov 
dpxoLiOTCpov vonov TTjs ddovaTov (f)Voews, os eVt airopa /cat yeveact 

TCKVCOV CTcdr) TTpOS TT)V TOV y€VOVS biaiJLOVTjV. 
" TO piQTOV. 

^ TO TTpos SidvoLav. 

* Lit. " of souls " — ifjvxd)v. 
^ dfiadia Kal diraihevaia. 

^ TOV ^ovXevTtKov vovv vel sim. : Aucher " consiliarium 
intellectum." 

' Std fiaOijoecos Kal iTncmjfirjS. 

"* Aucher renders more freely, " qui bonae optimaeque 
intelligentiae periti sunt." 

58 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

childless are they whose natures are sluggish and dull and 
at the same time unlearned. 



*20. (Ex. xxiii. 26b) What is the meaning of the words, 
" The number of thy days I will fill " " ? 

That it is most excellent and fine that the lives of His 
worshippers should be reckoned not by months nor by 
numbers '' but by days.'' For they are really of equal value 
with eternity when taken into account and number,'* for 
he who is of no account and has no number is to be alto- 
gether condemned." But it is well that an addition has 
been made to the passage, (namely) " I will fill," because 
of the intervals empty of thoughtfulness and virtue in the 
soul of him who wishes to progress.^ For He wishes him 
who philosophizes in accordance with Him to be a har- 
mony of all sounds like a musical instrument with no 
discord or dissonance in any part but with one and the 

" Lxx Tov dpiOfjLov Tcov T)^€pwv GOV dvaTrAi/pcocTcu. In De 
Praemiis 111 Philo quotes the half-verse as here except for 
the personal ending of the verb, which there appears as 
dvaTrX-qpcoaeig {v.l. dva7rXija€t.s)» 

" The original prob. had " years," as in Procopius, see 
next note. 

" Somewhat different is Procopius' reading, vdyKaXov 84 
<f>aai TO fJi-qre firjcrl fnjre ivtavTols KaTaptdfJLCiaOai tov piov roiv 
iKCToiv. 

^ The Arm. is obviously corrupt, see end of note. Pro- 
copius reads more intelligibly tw yap ovtl eVacrrou ao<f>ov 
T)fji€pa laoTLixos €(jTLv alcbvi. Similar is the wording in De 
Praemiis 112 : odev IcroTifxov koXco {koI oAa> conj. Colson) j8ia> 
ao(f)ov Kal fxlav rjfidpav vireXa^ev eivat Karopdovfiev-qv. I suspect 
that Arm. i hamar ankeal ew i t'iw " taken into account and 
number " is a corruption of hancarakani mi t'lw (vel sim.) 
" one day of the intelligent (man)." 

* Cf. he Praemiis 1 1 1 o p.kv ydp dfxadrjs Kal €Kvop.o? " ovr 
€v Adya»," (f>aaiv, " out' eV dpiOfiw." The sentence is missing in 
Procopius. 

' Slightly briefer is Procopius' text, ev Se Kal ro " dva- 
TrXrjpcoaoj " 8id rd K€vd (jtpovqaecos Kal dperijs iv tpv^fj hiaaTrjfiaTa 

rod npOKOTTTOVTOS. 

59 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

same consonance and harmony, of will with word and of 
word with deed and of deed with both of these." 

*21. (Ex. xxiii. 27a) Why does He say, " Fear will I 
send to go before thee " ^ ? 

The literal meaning is clear," for a strong force to ^ 
terrify the enemy is * fear,^ by which more (easily) the force 
of adversaries is taken and conquered." But as for the 
deeper meaning,'' there are two reasons why men honour 
the Deity, (namely) love and fear,* and love is later, being 
in the elder ones,^ while fear comes earlier,* so that not 
ineptly is it said that fear is the leader, for love, which 
comes after, is also acquired later. ^ And may it not be 

« Procopius reads more briefly ov /SoyAerat Kaddircp fiovai- 
Kov opyavov Sid iravroiv "qpfj-oadai Trpos fiiav avfjL<f)covLav PovXr)- 
/jLOLTCov Kal Xoycov Koi TTpd^eojv. 

^ Lxx (and the Greek frag, in the Catenae) koI top <f>6^ov 
d-TTocTTeXco -qyovficvov gov (Heb. "My fear will I send before 
thee "). " TO fjL€v prjTov iix^ave?, as in the Catenae. 

** The preposition i " to " or " in " has fallen out of the 
Arm. text, probably by haplography. 

* Emending Arm. ew " and " to e " is." 

■^ So the Catenae, ets KaTairXiq^iv ix^P^^ loxvpd Swafits 6 <f>6^os. 

^ The Catenae and Procopius (whose excerpt begins here) 
read somewhat differently ; the Catenae have txf)* ov fidXXov rj 
{■q Wendland) rijs tcov avmrdXcov €<f>68ov pdifxt) dAiWerat : Pro- 
copius i5<^' ov fidXXov -Q TTJs TCOV dvTivdXwv pwfiiqs ol TToXe/JLlOl 
dXioKOVTaL. 

^ TO Se TTpos Sidvoiav as in the Catenae, which add ovtojs- 

* So the Catenae (for Procopius' condensed paraphrase 
see below), 8volv ovadjv alriwu, a>v evcKa to detov dvOpcoiroi 
Ti/xcoatv, dydirrjg Kal (f)6Pov. 

^ Presumably meaning " in mature persons," cf. Pro- 
copius <eV> rots TcXcLOLs. The Catenae read more briefly 
TO p,€v dyaTrdv eariv oipiyovov (v.l. oipeois)- 

^ So the Catenae, to 8e (f>o^€La6ai avviaTaTat, vpoTcpov. 

^ Only slightly different is the reading of the Catenae 
(which end here), cSotc ovk dno okottov XeXexdai to rfyeiaOai 
Tov (fyo^ov, TTJs dyd-n-qs voTepov /cat di/re rrpoayevopLevqs. Procopius 
condenses the whole sentence, TrpoiqyeiTat 8e ttjs dydrrrjs 6 
(f>6pos, yj Tols TeXeiois eyyivcTai. 8i' dfi<f)oiv yap TifiaTai deos. 
60 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

that one who fears does so rightly and properly ? " For just 
as imprudence is younger than prudence,* so is fear 
(younger) than love, since fear is born in a worthless man," 
while love (is born) in a virtuous one.'' 

22. (Ex. xxiii. 27b) What is the meaning of the words, 
" I will terrify all the nations into which thou wilt come " ' ? 

The (expression) " I will terrify " in the literal sense ^ is 
equivalent to " I will strike with fear," which He earlier 
spoke of sending down for the destruction of their adver- 
saries' force," for fear is the cause of weakness.'' In the 
second place. He seems to bear testimony to the surpassing 
virtue ' of the nation ^ in that it would convert *= not only 
its own (members) but also its enemies ; and by " enemies " 
I mean not only those who commit acts of war but also 
those who are heterodox.^ But as for the deeper meaning,"* 
this must be said. When there comes into the soul,'* as 
into a land, the prudence" of a keen-eyed and seeing 
nature,** all the Gentile laws which are in it become mad 

<* The text is suspect. Aucher renders, " ne forte timere 
quoque sit jure digneque." 
*• d(f)poavvT] . . . <j>p6vr^aLS. 
" Aucher " in contempto." ^ iv oirovhaiw. 

* Lxx Kox iKOT-qao) (Heb. " I will confuse ") -navra to. eOvT] 
els ovs av eloTTopevT) els avrovs. 

^ TTpOS TO prjTOV. 

See the preceding section. '* dadevcias. 

* TT7V vTTep^dXXovaav dper-qv. 
' i.e. the Hebrew nation. 

^ Arm. darzou^anel sometimes renders eViCTrpe^eiv, which 
seems to have been the verb used in the Greek, although it 
is not listed in Leisegang's Index Philonis. Aucher here 
renders, " convertat." 

' ToilS €T€po86^0VS. 

"* TO TTpos SidvoLav. 

" Lit. " souls " — rds ^vxds» 

" ev^ovXia. 

* Philo here, as often elsewhere, alludes to the etymology 
of " Israel " as " seeing (God)." 

61 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

and rage and turn aside " from worthy thoughts, for evil 
things are unable to dwell and live * together with good 



23. (Ex. xxiii. 27c) What is the meaning of the words, 
" I will make <= thine enemies fugitives " ** ? 

He declares more certainly (and) clearly what was said 
earlier.^ For he who has supervened ^ makes a beginning 
of flight. That is the literal meaning." But as for the 
deeper meaning,'' He speaks of acceptable laws,* which are 
unknown to youths and (which) He Himself ' knows. For 
every foolish man is without a home or dwelling and is, 
as it were, a fugitive, driven from the city of virtue,*^ which 
nmst be thought of as the native place of wise and virtuous 
souls.' 

" Philo plays on the eVcmyo-co of lxx as being the causa- 
tive of e^iaraaOai in the sense of "be beside oneself" and 
" stand out of the way," i.e. " turn aside." 

^ Aucher " stare," evidently mistaking keal " to live " for 
kal " to stand." 

" Lit. " give," as in the lxx, which reflects Heb. idiom. 

^ LXX Kox Scoact) TTavras (a few MSS. om. vdvras) tovs inrcvav- 
TLovs aov <f)vyd8as (Heb. " And I will give all thine enemies to 
thee a neck " — an idiom meaning " and I will cause all thine 
enemies to turn their backs to thee " — i.e. " to flee from thee"). 

* In the preceding verses. 

^ The Arm. verb i veray gal may render iinyLyveaOai 
(which is, it seems, not used by Philo), but in exactly what 
sense is not clear. Aucher here renders, " supervenerat." 

" TO p-qrov. 

^ TO TTpos hidvoiav. 

* vojxov^ evapeoTovs vel sim. : Aucher " leges gratas." 

^ Arm. ink'n= avTos, but this is evidently a corruption 
or translator's misreading of daretos (see below). The original 
must have meant " and (which) the wise man knows." 

^ eV TToXecjs dpeTTJs, cf. Leg. All. iii. 1 ttoXls ot/ceta tcSv 
ao(f)a>v 7) dpcTTJ. 

' TTarpls ifivvcov doreicov Koi airovhaioiv. Here, as elsewhere, 
Arm. asti renders daretos " wise," not " constant " as Aucher 
renders. 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

*24. (Ex. xxiii. 28) Why does He say, " I will send the 
wasp before thee and I will drive out thine enemies " « ? 

Wasps fly upon one from nowhere * without first being 
seen, and after wounding with their stings they withdraw ; 
and they wound the principal parts,'' the face, the eyes and 
the head.** And the fearful noise made (by them) in the 
air penetrates * the ears. And so, from the very beginning 
alliance (and) help are not ^ to be cut off, inasmuch as one 
is to do the enemy much harm through the smallest 
(animals)," especially when God commands, by which '' 
even very weak men are innervated * and form an army 
with invincible power.^ And allegorically it is to be said * 
that the wasp should be considered a symbol of unhoped 

° Philo here paraphrases the lxx kol dnoaTeXa) ras 
a<f>'r]Kias (Heb. " the wasp," a collective singular : A.V. 
"hornets") Trporepas aov koL eK^aXeis (v.l. eVjSaAoj : Heb. 
" it will drive out ") tovs ^A/xoppalovs (Heb. omits " the 
Amorites ") koL Evalovs koL \avavaiovs koI tovs X-erralovs 
{v.l. + KOL Toiis ^epel^aiovs Kal tovs Tepyeaaiovs koI tovs 'lejSou- 
aalovs) dno aov. Procopius cites only the first half of the 
verse, koI dvoaTeXaJ tols a(f>T]Kias TrpoTcpas aov. In De Praemiis 
96 Philo briefly alludes to this verse without quoting lxx or 
commenting in detail. 

'' e| d(l>avovs, as in Procopius. 

" Tct KvpLcoTaTa (rendered by two Arm. words) : Procopius 
Ttt Kai/3ia>TaTa. 

"* Procopius condenses the sentence, ol a(f>rjK€s i^ d<f)avovs 
ov vpoeiSoixevovs TirpcoaKOvai to. /catpwoTara, K€<f>aX.rjV t€ kox to. 
iv avTjj. « Or " wounds." 

^ One Arm. ms. omits " not." 

" The text seems to be corrupt, especially the phrase " from 
the very beginning." The Arm. glossator paraphrases, " one 
ought not to reject the help of God even though it be small." 
Procopius adds, either on his own or some post-Philonic 
authority, Kal /cara to prjTov ovv oiSe Oeos Kal Bid tcDv afitKpo- 
TaTutv KaTaycovi^eaOaL ct)? Kal aKVLVwv re Kal ^aTpd^cov Toiis 
AlyvTTTLOvs . . . (f>iXov yap del Oeo) hid afiiKpaJv Trepiylveadai. 

'' Or perhaps " through Whom." 

* vevpovvTai. 

* There is no Greek parallel to the second half of this 
sentence. * dXXrjyofyrjTeov. 

63 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

for and unexpected power" divinely sent.*" And when it 
inflicts blows with great force from the upper regions, it 
does not miss its mark with the blows, and after striking, 
it does not suffer any counter-(blow) at all." 



^25. (Ex. xxiii. 29) Why does He add the reason why 
not all enemies are to be driven out all together at one time 
but little by little, (namely) " that the land may not be 
made desolate and many animals congregate " ** ? 

The literal sense ^ does not require a long discussion, for 
beasts flee from man as from their natural lord, wherefore 
they do not enter cities when these are populous ; but if 
they become small, (the beasts) move about with the in- 
habitants.^ But as for the deeper meaning,'' if from one 
who has just ^ for the first time been introduced (to know- 

" Aucher " inexpectatae subitaneaeque virtutis." 

^ Similar is the text of the Catenae (which begins here), 
avfx^oXov 8e V7toX7]7tt€Ov €LvaL Tovs a(f>rJKas dveXTTiaTov Swa/xews 
dela TTOfiTTy aTaXrjaojxevrjs. Procopius (resuming here) para- 
phrases, OTjfjLaivoi 8' dv Kal deiav TTOfnr'qv dveXTTLcrrov 8vvdfi.€a>s 
aTeXXofievTjs i^ ovpavov. 

" Slightly different and in part corrupt is the text of the 
Catenae (the sentence is lacking in Procopius), rjns d(f>^ viprj- 
XoTepcov /car' aKpov ro ovs viro^epovaa Ta^ TrXyj-yds, evarox'^oei 
TrdoL TOLS fiX-qfjiaai, Kal Sia^eiaa ovbev dvTLTreaetTai to Trapdvav. 
Mangey has emended dvTLTreaelraL to dvTnTeiaeTai. We must 
further (on the basis of the Arm.) emend /car' aKpov to ovs 
VTTO(f>4povaa to Kara Kpdros em^epovaa. 

** Lxx ovK €K^aXco avTovs {v.L, with Heb., adds diro irpoa- 
oiTTOV aov) iv eviairrco evi, Iva fxr] yevrjTai 7} yrj eprj/jLOS Kal TToXXd 
.yevrjTai em ae rot drjpia rijs yrjs (Heb. " and the beasts of the 
field increase against thee "). Procopius quotes only the 
words OVK €K^aXw avToiis iv iviavTco ivi. 

* TO pt]t6v. 

f Procopius condenses and paraphrases, rci yap dt]pia ^euyei 
Tas T(x>v TrAeiovcov dvdpcovcov olKijaeis d)S 'qycfiovcov ttj <f>vaei, koX 
Tas epr/fiovs TrXrjpol. " to Trpos Bidvoiav. 

'' The Arm. reads " not then," but we must correct this 
from the Greek, see next note but one. 
64 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

ledge) and is learning you take pains to cut away all his 
errors and to cause disciplined knowledge to dwell in him 
all at once, you will achieve the opposite of that which " 
is in your mind.'' For he will not stand up under the re- 
moval (of error), if it is done at one time, nor will he hold 
the immense stream and flow of teaching, '^ but in both 
respects, by the cutting away and by the adding, he will 
be afflicted and suff"er pain and will be carried away.** But 
(if) one quietly and measuredly and little by little removes 
ignorance and adds instruction proportionate thereto, it 
would admittedly become the cause of profit." For not 
even a good physician would seek to restore all his health 
in one day to one who is ill, knowing that (thereby) he 
would do harm rather than good.^ But measuring the 

* Here again we must correct the Arm. which read ov 
instead of ov. 

* The Catenae (which begin here) read similarly (except 
for the two places mentioned in the preceding two notes) 
eav rov dprt, TrpoJTOV ctaayofievov Kai fjLavddvovros GTT0v8dar)s, 
ndaav ttjv dfiaOlav e/CTe/nc6v, ddpoav iTnar-qfirjv elaoiKiaaL Tovvav- 
TLov ov BLavofj TTpd^eis. Procopius condenses, aAA' ouSe 
ra? TcDv elaayoixevcov ipvxds eariv v(f>' ev aTraAAaTTeiv dyvoias Kal 
TrXrjpovv iTTiaTrip.'qs . 

" So the Catenae, oure yap rrfv d^aipeaiv evt Kaipw yivop.€- 
viqv vvofxevel, ovre ttjv d(f>6ovov pvfi-qv Kal <f>opdv rrjs SiSaa/ca- 
Xlas x^PV^^''- Again Procopius paraphrases, ov (fyepovm yap 
ovre TT^v €K€Lvr]s d<j>aip€mv ovre ttjv d(f}dovov rrjs StSaa/coAia? 
<f>opdv. 

^ Aucher " resiliet." In the Catenae the clause reads 
similarly except for the last verb dXXd naO^ eKdrepov to t€ 
(KTCixvofjLevov Kal TTpoaTidefievov oSvvrjdelg Kal TrepLaXyrfaas d(f>rj- 
vidaei {v. I. aTrepacrei). 

* So the Catenae, to Se "qovxfj Kal fxcTplcDS d(f>aip€Lv jxkv KaT 
dXiyov (v. I. omits /car' oXiyov) ti ttjs dTraiSevaias, TTpoaTiOevai 
hk TTJs TTaiheLas to dvdXoyov ci^eAeta? ye'voir' civ ofioXoyovfiev-qs 
aiTiov. 

^ So the Catenae, 6 8k dyaOos laTpos ov fiLa ly/xepa tcS vo- 
aovvTL TrdvTa ddpoa ra vyuLvd irpoa^ipeiv {v. I. eVi^e'oeiv) av ede- 
Xt^gclci', etScu? ^Xd^r)v epyal^Ofxevos fidXXov rJTrep <x)(f)4X€iav {l\l. 
vyUiav). 

SUPPL. II D 65 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

times, he administers the cure at intervals,'' and by apply- 
ing different things at different times he gently brings about 
health.* But he who is impatient " and presumptuous and 
insists upon cutting away (ignorance) all at once, and 
insists upon adding instruction all at once, increases rather 
than lessens the illness. 

*26. (Ex. xxiii. 33b) Why does He call the service of 
heterodox gods " " a stumbling-block " « ? 

Just as those who stumble on whole feet ^ because they 
are unable to walk a long way " fall short of the end of the 
road, having earlier given up, so also the soul, being led 
to piety, is prevented from completing (its journey) ^ when 
it has earlier come upon the trackless places of impiety.* 
For these are obstacles and the cause of stumbling, by 

" Lit. " managing he apportions the cure " ; the Arm. 
ptc. and verb probably render imSiavifiei, as in the Greek 
frag., see next note. 

* So the Catenae (which end with this sentence), dXXa 
SLaixeTprjadfJievos tovs Kaipovs cmSLavefiei rd aioTTjpia /cat aAAore 
ctAAa TTpoariOels Trpacos vyietav ifiiroLcl. 

" Lit. " trenchant " : Aucher " importunus." 
** i.e. of the gods of the Gentiles. 

* LXX idv yap BovXevaTjs rols deols avTCov, ovtol eaovrai aoi 
TTpouKOfjLfjLa (Heb. " snare "). 

f i.e. on even feet, see the Greek text (below), in which this 
phrase occurs more appropriately in the following clause. 

" Here again the order of words in the Arm. is to be 
corrected from the Greek which places " a long way " in the 
clause beginning " fall short." 

^ In the Greek (see next note) it is the road, not the soul, 
which leads to piety. 

* The Greek frag, (from John of Damascus) reads more 
smoothly coarr^p ol TrpoaTTTaioavres , dprtot? jSaiveiv ttooXv dhvva- 
Tovvres, ixaKpdv rov Kara, T-f)v oSov reXovs varepiljOvai TrpooKap.- 
vovT€S {I. TTpoKafxvovTes?), ovTOJ Kai rj i/'ux^ "^V '^pos cvae^eiav 
dyovaav ohdv dvvetv KwXverai, vpoevTvyxd-vovcra rats dae^eaiv 
dvoSiais. Procopius (covering only this sentence) condenses 
and paraphrases, tovto yap iraddtv ohonropo^ vpoKdixvci, irplv els 
TO TeXos iXdetv Trjg 68ov, /cat ipvxr) Trpos deov oSeuetv iOeXovaa 
Svaae^eatv dvoStat? rrjs cvdeias dTTeipyerai. 

66 



I 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

which the mind is lamed and falls short of the natural road." 
Now this road is that which ends in the Father.* 



27. (Ex. xxiv. la) What is the meaning of the words, 
" And He said to Moses, Go up, thou and Aaron " and 
Nadab <* and Abihu « " ^ ? 

You see indeed that the number of those gathered to- 
gether for ascending was worthy of God," (namely) the 
tetrad,^ which is the essence ' of the decad,^ while seventy ^ 
is produced by multiplying seven by ten or ten by seven.' 
But one should recognize that through the literal meaning *" 
this passage is allegorized." For Moses is the most pure 
and God-loving mind," while Aaron is his word, which is 

" So the Greek frag., avrat, yap elaiv ifiTToSiot, Kal TTpooTTTai- 
afjcdrcov alriai, hi c5v KvXXaivcov 6 vovs varepL^ei, rrjs Kara j)vaiv 
ohov. 

^ After " the Father " we should prob. add " of all things " 
as in the Greek frag., which reads 17 Se oho^ ianv -q iirl top 
TTarepa tcov oXcov reXeirrcoaa. 

" Arm. Aharon (as in Heb.). 

'^ Arm. Nabad. * Arm. Abioud (as in lxx). 

' LXX Kat M.ajv<rfj €ltt€v, ^Avd^rjdi irpos rov Kvpiov aov, av Kal 
*Aapa}v Kal NaSa/3 Kal 'AjSiouS koI i^hopLTjKovra tcov irpea^v- 
ripwv *laparjX. Philo's commentary refers to the seventy 
elders, of whom there is no mention in the lemma. In De 
Migrations 168 Philo quotes the lxx text except that for 
T(x)v TTpea^vTepcov he has t'^s' yepovaias. 

" deOTTpeTTT]. 

'' i.e. Moses and his three companions. 

* ovaia. 

^ Cf. De Opif. Mundi 47 and Be Plantatione 123, where 
four is said to be the source or potentiality of ten, i.e. the sum 
of 1, 2, 3,4=10. 

* i.e. the seventy elders. 

' Aucher's rendering adds, after the " seventy," the words 
" mysterium cernis " in parenthesis, though there is nothing 
corresponding in the Arm. 

"• hid Tov prfTOv. *• dXXtiyop^LTaL. 

" Sidvoia or vovs. Both terms are used in the parallel, De 
Migratione 169-170, see notes below. 

67 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

the unlying interpreter of the truth." And Nadab is 
voluntary v^ision, for (his name) is to be interpreted as 
" voluntary." ^ And Abihu is truth from God,'' for it is 
this to which the name refers. ** Thus you see a soul adorned 
with all the ornaments that lead to virtue * so as to please 
God, (namely) a worthy mind,^ a true word,^ one who is 
voluntarily pious ^ and one who guards them (like) a barrier 
and wall, (namely) help from God.* But the power of the 
number four will be subordinated to a, commander con- 
sisting of one,^' for there are three ornaments of the one 
prophetic mind which is acquired by you. The powers of 
the seventy elders are honoured with seniority, not by 
length of many years but by the ascension of perfect 
numbers, which are worthy of honour and are privileged. 



^28. (Ex. xxiv. lb) Why does He say, " they shall wor- 
ship the Lord from afar " * ? 

Just as those who are near a fire are burned, while those 

^ Cf. Be Migratione 169 'Aapcov . . . o yey ovens Adyo? 
7Tpo<f)rjT€va)v Biavoia. 

^ Cf. De Migratione 169 NaSajS Se eKovaios epfirjveveTai 6 
fir] dvayKT] Tificbv to OeZov. 

" Aucher " divinitus Veritas." 

^ This far-fetched etymology is apparently based on the 
Arm. translator's reading dA-^^eia instead of ^o-qdeia " help," 
see below. In De Migratione 169 Abihu is more accurately 
etymologized as irarT^p [xov. Heb. '^bihfi lit.= "he is my 
father." " dperriv. 

f Symbolized by Moses. 

" Symbolized by Aaron. 

^ Symbolized by Nadab. 

* Symbolized by Abihu. 

^ The Arm. text is not altogether clear. Aucher renders, 
" caeterum cum duce militiae quaterno numero ordinetur 
virtus unitatis comprehensae." More intelligible is the 
parallel in I)e Migratione 170, ai8' daXv ai rov ^aaiXeveiv 
d^iov vov 8opv<f>6poL Swa/xei?. 

^ LXX K-ai TTpoaKwqaovaLV fiaKpoOev tco Kvpiw (Heb. omits 
" the Lord "). 
68 



EXODUS, BOOK II 



t-.„...._.,..,.„ 

^^Ktain to security, so it is with tlie soul ; whatever soul 
^Hpmes too near m desiring the vision of God, does not per- 
^^fcive when it is being consumed.'* But as for that (soul) 
IB^^hich stands far off at a distance, no longer do the tongues 
of flame * burn it but warming it moderately, they kindle " 
it with vitality. This ^ is said in reference to the dissolu- 
tion and rapture of the most perfect and prophetic mind,* 
for which it is fitting and lawful to enter the dark cloud ^ 
and to dwell in the forecourt » of the palace of the Father. 
Wherefore also there are some animals which move and 
dwell in fire, by which others are destroyed, and they are 
called " fire-born." ^ 



29. (Ex. xxiv. 2) Why does He say, " Moses alone shall 
come near to God, and they shall not come near, and the 
people shall not go up with them " * ? 

O most excellent and God-worthy ordinance, that the 
prophetic mind ' alone should approach God and that those 

** The Greek frag, (which extends only to the end of the 
sentence) seems to be paraphrastic, ovx opas on rov TTvpog r) 
SvvafjLis Tot? fj.€v d(f)€aTr)K6aL /xe/xeTpT^/LteVov hidaTrnia 7rape;3^et ^cD? 
(Arm. = da^ctAetav), KaTaKaUi hk rovs eyyi^ovras ; opa p,r] tolov- 
rov Tt 7rddr]s rfj Siavota, fXT] ae 6 voXvs vodos dSwdrov Trpdyfiaros 
dvaXaxrrj. 

" Lit. " sparks (or " effulgences ") of rays " : Aucher 
" radiorum splendor." " ^(onvpovm. 

'^ i.e. the statement about souls that draw near to the fire. 

* Kara ttjv KardXvaiv Kal d<f)aLp€aiv tov reXeiOTdrov Kal npo- 
(fyrjTiKov vov: Aucher "secundum dissolutionem et avulsio- 
nem perfect! propheticique intellectus." 

' TOV yv6(f)ov, cf. De Vita Mosis i. 158 on Ex. xx. 21. 
" avXfj vel sim. : Aucher " atrio." 

'' TTvpiyova, cf. De (jligantibus 7 et al., and also Aelian, 
De Nat. An. 2. 2. 231 on salamanders. 

* LXX Kal iyyiel Mcovarjs fjLOvos irpos rov dcov (Heb. 
" YHWH "), avTol Se OVK eyyiovaiv 6 Se Xaos ov avvava^rjoerai 
li.€T avrcov (Heb. " with him "). 

^ TOV iTpo<^r]TiK6v vovv. 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

in second place " should go up, making * a path to heaven, 
while those in third place and the turbulent characters of 
the people *= should neither go up above nor go up with 
them but those worthy of beholding should be beholders 
of the blessed path above. But that " (Moses) alone shall 
go up " is said most naturally,*^ For when the prophetic 
mind becomes divinely inspired and filled with God,* it 
becomes like the monad, not being at all mixed with any 
of those things associated with duality. But he who is 
resolved into the nature of unity ,^ is said to come near 
God in a kind of family relation," for having given up and 
left behind all mortal kinds,'' he is changed into the divine, 
so that such men become kin to God and truly divine. 



30. (Ex. xxiv. 4b) Why does Moses, rising early in the 
morning, build an altar below the mountain and twelve 
stones for the twelve tribes of Israel ? * 

Either the altar was built of only twelve stones in order 
that all the tribes of the nation together might in some 
way ' be a sacred altar to God, or the twelve stones were 
set up separately apart from ^ the altar, in order that some, 
although they might be missing from the daily service,' 
might seem to be there, for the absence of some would be 

" rovs Sevrepovs. ^ Lit. " cutting." 

" Aucher " tertios vero populares mores conturbatos." 

^ (f)vaiK(x)TaTa, i.e. " most philosophically." 

* ivOovma Kal d€0(f)opeiTai. 

^ Cf.DeyUa Mosis ii. 288 (Moses) fj,€TaK\7)9€ls vno tov 
TTaTpos, OS avTOV SvdSa ovra, acofia Kal tpvxi]v, ei? /LtovaSo? dve- 
GTOLX€iOV <f>voiv. 

" Kara ovyyevfj riva oiKeiOTrjTa: Aucher " COgnativa qua- 
dam familiaritate." 

^ TTavra Ov^rd yiviq. 

Lxx opdpiaas 8e Mwuo-jy? ro irpiot cpKoSofirjaev dvoLaoTTjpiov 
VTTO TO opos Koi ScoScKa Xidovs (Heb. " pillars " ; v.l. in lxx 
adds eoTTjaev after XlOovs) els rds SwBeKa ^uAas tov 'lapa-qX. 

' rpoTTov Tim. 



' rrjs Kad* rjfiepav Xeirovpyias vel sim. 



70 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

filled by the permanent setting up " of the twelve stones, 
which would be a suitable memorial of the tribes, which 
he wishes always to be present as ministers to the Father. 

31. (Ex. xxiv. 5a) Why does he send young men, not the 
elders ? * 

Since the elders, numbering seventy, had brought the 
nation to the foot of the mountain, '^ performing (this) 
service at the ascent of the prophet, it would have been 
unsuitable and strange to summon them again to another 
work when they had already been summoned earlier to 
the sight,"* and if he had commanded their contemporaries 
to offer sacrifice, he would have been held in low esteem 
by those who were not offering (sacrifice) with them. In 
the second place, (it was) because the elder generations 
were a kind of first-fruits and new (offerings), as if per- 
forming a bloodless sacrifice, which is more appropriate to 
elders of advanced age. But as for those who as young 
men in the flower of their youth were sent to offer sacrifice, 
because there was much blood in them by reason of their 
flourishing youth it was profitable * for them to offer every 
offering of sacrifice with blood, as a thankoffering ^ to God 
and Father, using their youth to lead their desires to 
piety " and not to the madness of unrestrained desires. 
That is the literal meaning.* But as for the deeper mean- 
ing,* the allwise and God-beloved soul ^ has in itself both 

" Aucher " constanti erectione." 

^ Lxx KOL c^aTreoreiAev tovs veavioKovs tcjv vlaJv *lapai]X. 

" Aucher renders less accurately, I think, " quoniam 
senes numerum gentis septuaginta praeseferentes obtulerunt 
ad radices montis." 

'^ i.e. of what was to take place on the mountain. 

* XvaireXes vel sim. : Aucher " expediebat." 

^ evxapi-crrLav. " ras eVt^uyntas npos evoe^eiav. 

'• TO prjTov. ' TO TTpos bidvoiav. 

' Arm. ogi {—fp^xv) ^^ here exceptionally provided with a 
plural ending, although it governs a singular verb. Possibly 
the plural ending here is analogous to that of mitk' (vovs), 
a pluralia tantum. Aucher too renders, " anima." 

71 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

elderly and youthful principles," all (of them) holy. Now 
the elderly ones are used in the contemplation of nature ^ 
and of those things which are therein, while those which 
are vigorous (are used) for the power "^ of worthy deeds, 
so that the life of those who are excellent in these ways, 
in both the contemplative and the practical, is publicly 
posted and widely famed/ 



32. (Ex. xxiv. 5b) Why do the young men who were 
sent offer whole-burnt-offerings * and sacrifice calves as 
victims ? ■'' 

Calves of tender years ^ are offered by the hands of youths 
of tender years in order that the sacrifices which are offered 
may preserve a correspondence of age ^ with those who 
make the offering. Not lambs and not kids (are offered), 
for these animals are weaker than calves, whereas he seems 
to make the sacrifice from more powerful (animals). There- 
fore the youths * who ' perform the sacrifice offer sacrifices 
of whole-burnt-offerings and salutary offerings * in their 
})rime vigour. The third (kind of offering, namely) the 
sin-offering is not (made) inasmuch as that place does not 
admit of any transgression at all because of the visible 
appearance of the Father. For in that place there was 

" Xoyovs. ^ TTJs (f)va€0}S. 

" SvvafiLv : Aucher " in virili occupatione." 
'^ crrrjXLTeveTai Kal Sia^T^/Ltt^erat vel sim. 

* The Arm. oljakezs reflects lxx oXoKavrcofiaTa = Heb. 
'olot (A.V. " burnt offerings "). 

^ LXX (abbreviated here) /cat avrjveyKav oXoKavTcoixara Kal 
edvaav dvaiav awrrjpLov (Heb. " covenant-offerings " : A.V. 
" peace offerings ") rco Oeco (Heb. " to YHWH ") /xoaxapta 
(Heb, " oxen "). 

" aTToXol. 

^ Variant " equality " or " community." 

* Lit. " the youth " (collective abstract) — 77 veoxTy?. 

^ A different division of words yields the variant " the new 
youth " for " the youths who." 

* TO. acorrjpia, which is the lxx rendering of Heb. s^ldmhn 
" covenant-offerings," see above, note/. 

72 



EXODUS, BOOK 11 

not anything to oppose (Him)." For when the sun rises, 
darkness disappears and everything becomes filled with 
light. Moreover, when God appears or is about to appear, 
is not every form and substance ^ of sin first to be destroyed 
and removed ? Accordingly, the two kinds of sacrifice 
are here the best that can be " performed, (namely) the 
whole-burnt-offering in honour of the unbribable and 
unbought ^ Father, which is made for no one else but Him 
Who is honoured, and the salutary offering, which is made 
for our sake, in return for the fact that good things have 
happened to us * and that we experience and await them. 
For it is to God Who gives them to the race of mortals that 
we render the sacrifices of health and salvation and all 
good things in general. 



83. (Ex. xxiv. 6) Why did Moses take half of the blood 
and pour it into mixing-bowls,^ and pour half upon " the 
altar ? " 

He divides the blood in a manner appropriate to its 
worth,* desiring that some of it should be a sacred offering 
to God and that some should be a sacred unction ' in place 
of oil for sanctity and perfect purity, and, if one must speak 

" A variant omits the negative. Aucher renders, " quae 
illico ipsi opponebat sese," and as (a free) alternative, " cui 
illic illud peccatum non poterat sese opponere." The Arm. 
glossator takes the text to mean " there was no sin there, 
which is opposed to God." 

^ efSos Kox ovala. * Lit. " that are." 

"* The two Arm. adjectives prob. render the single Greek 
adjective abeKaarov : Aucher " dona vix accipientis." 

* Aucher renders more freely, " beneficia probavimus." 
^ KpaT-fjpas, as in Lxx, see note h. " Aucher " circa." 

'' LXX AajScuv Be Mwvarjs to rjincrv rod aljiaTos ivex^ev els 
Kparrjpas' to 8e rjfxiav tov aifxaros irpoaexeev Trpos (v.L eVt : 
Heb. " upon ^') to dvaiaaT-qpiov. Philo cites the lxx text of 
this verse (omitting Moses' name) in Qais Rer. Div. Heres 
182-185 and allegorizes it in somewhat the same manner as 
here but without Pythagorean number-mysticism. 

* Aucher " legitimo ordine." ' XP^^^H-"^- 

73 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

the truth, in order that (men) may be inspired ** to receive 
the holy spirit.^ But the mixing-bowls are symbols 
of the mixed and composite nature," which is ours. For 
the divine (nature) is pure and unmixed, whereas all such 
things as through generation come into existence from 
contraries are necessarily receptacles, in part of a good, 
in part of a bad form.** Accordingly, that which belongs 
to the better is assigned to the part of God, for He acquires 
this through His simpler and more lucid essence,* while 
that which belongs to the worse (is assigned) to the race 
of mortals. But one should begin with the incorporeal 
and intelligible things,^ which are the measures and models 
of sense-perceptible things. » Now the principle * of all 
things arises from numbers, some of which are odd, having 
the status of active causes,* and some even, (having the 
status) of matter.^' It is therefore necessary to attribute 
the idea * of the odd (number) to God because of His 
connexion ' with activity,"* whereas the even (is to be attri- 
buted) to the race of mortals because of its familiarity with 
suffering and passion." The same (distinction holds) for 

« Prob. ipvxovadai : Aucher " in spiritum verti." 

* TO dyiov TTveu/xa, which is not Philonic usage, though 
Philo often speaks of a deiov -nvevixa. Possibly the Arm. 
translator has here substituted " holy " for " divine." 

" Trjs iJLiKTrjs Kal avvdirov (f>va€0}s, cf. Quis Rer. Div. Heres 
183 : Aucher " sibi invicem compactae naturae." 

"* Prob. 6180U? rather than lh4as : Aucher " ideae." 

« Aucher " qui ergo melioris status est, partum Dei sortitus 
est per simpliciorem lucidioremque essentiam." The parallel 
in Quis Rer. Div. Heres 183 and the present context indicate 
that it is God's essence which is meant here. 

•^ rots' aaoifxarois kox votjtols. ^ Trapaheiyfiara twv ala9r}Ta)v. 

^ Or " origin " — dpx'q- * SpaarrjpLCDV alrlcov Xoyov ex^vres. 

' Cf. De Opif. Mundi 13 appev /uev yap iv rots ovai to 
irepiTTov, TO S' dpTiov drjXv (where " male " connotes " active," 
and " female " connotes " passive " and " material "). 

* Or " form." ' avyyeveiav. 
"* Lit. " doing " or " making." 

»» Aucher renders more briefly, " ob familiaritatem ad 
patiendum." 

74. 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

equality and inequality, similarity and dissimilarity, 
identity and difference, unity and separation." As for 
equality, similarity, identity and unity, they are to be 
ordered under the better class, as it were, with God, while 
the unequal, the dissimilar, the different and the separate 
(are to be ordered) in the worse (class), of which mortal 
(nature) has obtained the greater part. It is (possible), 
however, to see the equivalent of this (distinction) not only 
in incorporeal and intelligible things but also in sense- 
perceptible natures. For even in the cosmos heaven itself 
and everything in heaven are found worthy of the divine 
and best essence * and come near to God and are conse- 
crated to Him. But that which is sublunary " belongs to 
the more material and denser part and is assigned to the 
race of mortals. Moreover, in us ourselves the soul ** con- 
sists of the rational and the irrational.* And the rational, 
being the better, is consecrated to the better nature, while 
the irrational, being worse, (is consecrated) to the inferior,^ 
which we, the untaught and incontinent and undisciplined, » 
have received. Nevertheless, one who considers the mortal 
body with good judgment will say that the sovereign head 
is consecrated to the holy Creator and Father, while (the 
part) from the breast to the feet belongs to material sub- 
stance. This (part), therefore, he reckons to the mixing- 
bowls symbolically,'' because it is mixed and composite, 
while he consecrates the pure and unmixed (part) by 
making it an offering to God. 

34. (Ex. xxiv. 7a) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Taking the book of the covenant, he read to the ears * 
of all the people " ^ ? 

" Prob. Staipeo-et. * Or " substance " — ovmas. 

" TO fX€Ta aeAr/i^v. ** ly 'P^XV- 

* Tov XoyiKov /cat tov dXoyov. 

^ Lit. " lesser " : Aucher " minori." 

" i.e. those of us who are untaught, etc. '' avfi^oXiKcos. 

* So LxxandHeb.literally(A.V."audience"),see next note. 
^ LXX Koi Xa^ojv TO ^l^Xlov Trjs 8iadi^KT]S dviyvoj els rd wra 

TOV Xaov. 

15 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Concerning the divine covenant we have already spoken 
in detail," so that it is not proper to discuss the subject 
again at the present time. However, some notice must be 
taken of (the words) " reading to the ears." Now this 
takes place without separation and interruption, for the 
air is not agitated from without as the sound reaches the 
hearers but (the voice of) the speaker resounds in them 
without separation or distance * like some pure and lucid 
voice which is extended." And there is no third thing 
interposed, by the intervention of which the reception '^ 
becomes less but the sound echoes more surely in an only 
purer form when the hearers and the word come together 
without any separation between them. That is the literal 
meaning.^ But as for the deeper meaning,^ since it was 
impossible for anyone to reach such a multitude of hearers ^ 
or to come near and speak to their ears,'' it is necessary to 
hold the opinion that the teacher and the pupil * were 
there. One of them speaks privately ^ to his disciples ^ 
without concealing anything, not even things not to be 
spoken of,' and the other is the recipient who offers himself 
as one worthy of voluntarily being a repository of the 
divine Law "" and a guardian of those things which it would 
not be proper to interpret " to the many, whatever may 
happen. 

<* riixlv rjKpi^(x)Tai. Philo here apparently alludes to his 
(lost) work riepi l^iaOrfKcov in two books, see Be Mut. Nom. 53. 

^ Aucher renders more freely, " sed dicentis vox immediate 
in eas sonans." 

" Aucher " expansa." ^ Aucher " perceptio." 

* TO prjTov. f TO TTpos bidvoiav. 

^ Aucher renders more freely, " ut vox unius cujusdam in 
tantae multitudinis aures perveniret." 

^ Aucher " aut ipse ad singulorum accedens aures loquere- 
tur," 

* o yvcopi^os : Aucher " auditor." 

^ iSiojs or /car' tSi'av : Aucher " seorsum." 

* TOis fxadrjTois. ^ aTTopprjra vel Sim. 

^ The meaning of the clause is not quite clear : Aucher 
" praestans se dignum divina traditione legis voluntariae." 

*» oLTToBiboadai : Aucher " referre." 
76 



EXODUS, BOOK II 



35. (Ex. xxiv. 8a) Why did he take that blood which 
(was) in the mixhig-bowls " and sprinkle (it) over the 
people ? * 

By indicating that the blood of all (was) the same and 
that their kinship " (was) the same, he wishes to show that 
in a certain way "^ they were animated by one idea and 
nature,* for on many occasions he puts the blood in the 
same class as the soul.^ Even if they are separated from 
one another by their bodies, they are nevertheless united 
by mind and thought," and they share together the divine 
sacrifices and victims, being brought from estrangement 
to community '^ and to the concord ' of distinguished 
blood. 



36. (Ex. xxiv. 8b) Why does he say further, " Behold 
the blood of the covenant which the Lord commanded you 
concerning all these words " ^ ? 

(He does so) because the blood is a symbol ^ of family 
kinship.* And the form"* of kinship is twofold " : one is 
that among men, which has its origin in ancestors, while 
that among souls " has its origin in wisdom." Now he did 
not mention the kinship of ancestors and offspring, because 

" See QE ii. 33 on Ex. xxiv. 6. 

** LXX AajScov Se Mcduo-^S' to alfxa KareoKeSaaev tov Xaov. 

" TTjv avyyeveiav. 

* fiia ijjvxovadai Iheq. Koi (f>va€t. 
^ eV /ie'pei rijs ijjvx'fjs. Cf. Lev. xvii. 14 {et al.) " the blood 

of it is its life." 

" Lit. " by the mind of thoughts " : Aucher " per consilia 
mentis." 

'' e'l dAAoTpicoCTCO)? eiV KOivojviav. 

* Or " sincerity " or " singleness " : Aucher " concor- 

' LXX Kal €tiT€v, 'ISou TO af/xtt TTJ9 8ta6T]Kr}s ■^s hiidero (Heb. 
cut," i.e. " made ") Kvpios irpos vfids Trepl TrdvTwv tcov Xoycov 
Tovrcjv. * avfi^oXov or crqixelov. 

' avyyevLKTis oiKeiorrjTOs. *" Or " species " — tlSos. 

*• Lit. " of two faces " : Aucher " duplex." 
" ipvxciiv. V ao(f>iav. 

77 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

it is also common to irrational animals, but from the other 
(kind of kinship) as from a root grew wisdom.* Now 
wisdom is the font of words and the voluntary laws ^ which 
the teacher has proclaimed and taught to lovers of learning 
as being most necessary, (namely) concord and com- 
munity/ But this cannot be acquired by polytheists,*^ 
because they put forth variant opinions distinguished for 
difference and diversity,* and they become the cause of 
quarrelling and fighting. But an harmonious adjustment 
to one (opinion) is the agreement of all who are ministers 
and servants of the work. 

■'^ST. (Ex. xxiv. 10) What is the meaning of the words , 
" They saw the place where the God of Israel was standing, 
and under His feet (was something) like the work of a 
plinth of sapphire and like the form of the firmament of 
heaven in purity " ^ ? 

All this is, in the first place, most suitable to and worthy 
of the theologian," for no one will boast of seeing the in- 
visible God, (thus) yielding to arrogance. '* And holy and 

<* The Arm. translator may have misunderstood the Greek 
here. One expects " but the other (kind of kinship) grew 
from wisdom as from a root." 

^ ru)v eKovaloiv vofiwv, cf. De Mut. Nom. 26. 

* ofiovoiav Kal KOLVwviav vel sim. ^ tcov ttoXvOccov. 

* The construction is not wholly clear but Aucher is wrong, 
I think, in rendering, " quia honoratae huic distinctioni 
disjunctiores opiniones oppositas faciunt." 

^ LXX Koi etSov Tov roTTOV ov darrjKei 6 Oeos rod 'IcrpaT^X- koI 
Ttt V7TO T0V9 TToBas avTOv (hacl epyov ttXlvOov (v.l. Xidov) aa7r<f>€Lpov 
Koi (Lavep elSos arepewpLaTos tov ovpavov (Heb. " and like the 
very heaven ") ttj KadapLOTrjTL. Philo quotes the first clause 
(to 'lapa^A) in De Somniis i. 62 and ii. 222, and the rest of the 
verse in jDe Confus. Ling. 96 if., where the mss. of Philo read 
XiOov for nXlvdov but the commentary (as in this section of the 
Quaestiones) requires irXivdov (see also notes below). 

" TOV deoXoyov, i.e. Moses. 

^ The brief Greek frag, (which contains only this clause) 
reads similarly ousels' au;^i^cret rov aoparov dcov ISeiv, et^as 
dXal^oveta. 

78 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

divine is this same place alone in which He- is said to appear, 
for He Himself does not go away or change His position but 
He sends the powers," which are indicative of His essence.^ 
And if it is right (to say so, we may) say that this place 
is that of His Logos, "^ since He has never given a suspicion 
of movement but of always standing, for the nature of the 
Father remauis fixed and unchanged ^ and more lucid and 
simpler * than the (number) one which alone is a form of 
likeness.^ Now he has represented the unchanged and 
immutable nature of God (as) the oneness of unity because 
of His substance." And the whole heaven altogether was 
under His feet, for its colour indeed was rather like a 
sapphire. And the " plinth " is a figure '' of the stars as one 
group,* harmoniously arranged in an order of numbers, 

" TOiS 8vvdfJL€t,S. 

^ Aucher " essentiam." Although Arm. eout'lun renders 
both ovaia and v-nap^iSy the context favours the rendering 
" essence " rather than " existence " in spite of Philo's state- 
ment in De Poster. Caini 169 avrai yap {sc. at Swa/tei?) ov 
Trjv ovaiav, ti)v 8' vnap^iv eV tcDv aTTOTeXovfievcov avrco irapiardaL. 
Philo here (in QE) seems to mean that God's powers merely 
indicate His essence but do not make this fully known to 
man. The rendering " essence " seems preferable to *' exist- 
ence " also because of the Heb. 'esem in this verse (see above, 
note /on p. 78), which means something like " essence." 

<^ Arm. banaworout'iun= XoyioTTjs rather than Xoyos (Au- 
cher renders, " rationalitatis "), but other passages in Philo, 
e.g. De Confus. Ling. 96, show that the Logos is meant 
here. 

^ jSe^aia koI drpeTTTOS. * aTrXovarepa. 

f Variant " simpler than (the number) one to which unity 
is a form of likeness " : Aucher " simplicior unitate, quae 
unica est forma similitudinis." 

» The construction and meaning are not wholly clear : 
Aucher " unam autem unitatis invariabilem immutabilemque 
naturam Dei propter substantiam indicavit." 

^ The original was irXivdiov or nXLvdis : Aucher " later- 
culus." I have here rendered it by " figure " rather than 
" small brick " because Philo seems to be playing on the 
metaphorical meaning of ttXivOiov, " musical scale." 

* Lit. " at one time " : Aucher " simul." 

79 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

proportions and progressions," that is, (as) a constant like- 
ness and image of an incorporeal form.'' For it is a very 
holy and lucid sense-perceptible type-form '' of the in- 
telligible heaven and is a worthy portion of the divine 
essence, of which I have spoken earlier.** Therefore is it 
said, " Like the form of the firmament * in purity," for 
incorporeal forms are most lucid and pure inasmuch as 
they have obtained a share of unmixed essence and of 
that which is most simple. Accordingly, he says that the 
sense-perceptible heaven, which he calls " firmament," is 
distinct from the intelligible form because of its purity. 

*38. (Ex. xxiv. 11a) Why does (Scripture) say, " Of the 
chosen seeing ones ^ there differed " not even one " " ? 
The literal text has a clear interpretation, (namely) that 

" apidfiwv Kol X6ya)v Koi dvaXoyicov : Aucher " numerorum, 
rationum et collationum." 

^ aawfxaTOV ilhovs. 

" TV7T0S elScov. 

** Text slightly emended (by removal of superfluous verb 
e " is ") : Aucher " siquidem intelligibilis caeli sensibile hoc 
typus est purus et lucidus omnino, illius, quam jampridem 
dixi divinam essentiam ac portionem meruisse." 

* In the quotation from Scripture in the heading of this 
section we read " of the firmament of heaven." 

^ Philo here, as often elsewhere, substitutes " the seeing 
one(s) " for " Israel." 

^ More literally " was separated " : variant (as in Arm. 
O.T.) " was consumed," see next note. 

^ LXX KOL Tcbv €TnX€KT(i)v Tov 'lopaTjX ov 8L€(f)a)vr]a€v ovSe ef? 
(Heb. reads quite differently " and upon the nobles of the 
Israelites He laid not His hand "). Although the lxx trans- 
lators meant Sie^conyo-ev as " perished," Philo took it to mean 
" differed " or " was discordant," as is shown by the rest of 
this section and also by the parallel in De Confus. Ling. 56 
ydvos yap iafxev rail' eTriAe/CTCuv rov tov deov opcovros 'laparjX tSv 
Bi,€(f>covrjaev ouSe els, tva . . . 6 Koap-os ttSs" tols dpp,oviaLS fiovai- 
K(x)s pLeXwSrJTaL. R. Reitzenstein, Die Vorgeschichte der christ- 
lichen faufe (Leipzig, Berlin, 1929), p. 116, concludes too 
hastily that Philo here took Ste^cui^aev to mean " perished." 

80 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

all were preserved whole.* But as for the deeper meaning, 
immortal in soul is the chosen race to which has come 
wisdom * and every virtue " and, above all, piety, the queen 
of the virtues.'' For dissonance from decency * and dis- 
harmony are death to the soul. Therefore it is well said 
that " no one differed," (meaning) that as in an all-musical 
chorus with the blended voices of all ^ one should play 
music in harmonious measures of modulation and with 
skilled fingers, seeking to show (this harmony) not so much 
in sound as in mind. 



39. (Ex. xxiv. lib) What is the meaning of the words, 
" They appeared to God in the place " and they ate and 
drank " '^ ? 

Having attained * to the face of the Father, they do not 

" So the Greek frag., to /xev p-qrov Bn^yrjfjLa (f>avepav ex^L r-qv 
aTTohoaiv (lis aTravrmv adoojv Biarr] prjdevr ojv. 

^ ao(f>ia. " Trdaa dperi]. 

'^ The Greek frag, summarizes this sentence and the rest 
of the section very briefly, to 8e Trpog hidvoiav to -navTas nepl 
TTjv euffe'^eiav avfi(f>u)vovs etvat, Kal iv ixrjBevl tcov dyadcbv Sia^co- 
velv. See also Reitzenstein, op. cit. p. 117, note 4. 

* irpos KaXoKayadiav vel sim. : Aucher " ad probitatem." 
•^ iv TTainxovacp xopeta koL iravTcov avfxcfxjovla. 

» Aucher " apparuerunt Deo in eo loco." For a possible 
different rendering see the next note. 

'' LXX /cat w(f)Or}aav iv tco tottu) tov deov (so Arm. O.T. : 
Heb. " and they saw God ") Kal €(f>ayov /cat emov. Although 
the Arm. reflects cj^O-qaav tcx> deip iv tco totto) (as Aucher and 
I have rendered), it is possible that, with a change in word- 
order, it agrees with lxx in reading " they appeared in the 
place of God," since the Arm. astouacoy may be either geni- 
tive or dative. I suspect that the Arm. translator inad- 
vertently wrote " God " after '* they appeared," and that 
Philo originally agreed with the lxx in reading a>(f)dr]aav iv 
TCO TOTTO) tov deov and did not read (x>cf}dr]aav tco deco iv tco 
TOTTOJ, as the Arm. suggests. 

* The text is slightly uncertain but the variant {hasanln 
for hanen) does not change the meaning greatly. 

81 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

remain in any mortal place at all, for all such (places) are 
profane and polluted, but they send and make a migra- 
tion <* to a holy and divine place, which is called by another 
name. Logos. ^ Being in this (place) through the steward " 
they see the Master <* in a lofty and clear manner, en- 
visioning * God with the keen-sighted eyes of the mind/ 
But this vision " is the food of the soul,* and true partaking * 
is the cause of a life of immortality.^ Wherefore, indeed, 
is it said, " they ate and drank." For those who are 
indeed very hungry and thirsty did not fail * to see God 
become clearly visible, but like those who, being famished, 
find an abundance of food, they satisfied their great desire. 

*40. (Ex. xxiv. 12a) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Come up to Me to the mountain and be there " ^ ? 

This signifies that a holy soul "» is divinized " by ascend- 
ing not to the air or to the ether or to heaven (which is) 
higher than all but to (a region) above the heavens. And 

" dnoiKiav. 

^ A similar idea is expressed in a passage from Procopius 
cited by R. Reitzenstein, op. cit. (see preceding section), 
p. 117, note 4, to 8e (fyayeiv ckci Kal metv rrjv dTTOKeifjLcvrjv tols 
els ovpavov dvLovaiv vnoarqfiatvei Tpv<f)rjv. 

" Bid Tov oiKovojjLov {oT eiTLTpoTTOv OT Slolktjtov) i Auchcr 
" per dispensatorem," cf. Reitzenstein, op. cit. p. 119. 

^ Lit. " leader " or " chief " : Aucher "^ principalem." 

* 0avTa^o/Ltevot : Aucher " invisentes." (Incidentally, Au- 
cher's punctuation in the Arm. text differs from that in his 
Latin rendering). ^ tov voO. 

" <f>avTaaia : Aucher " apparentia." 

'' Lit. " souls " — i/jvx(i>v. * Koivcjvia. 

' Aucher disregards the word-order in rendering, " et 
vera participatio vitae causa est immortalitatis " instead of 
" et vera participatio vitae immortalitatis causa est." 

^ Aucher renders more freely, " non fuerunt prohibiti." 

' Lxx {koI ctirev Kvpios vpos Mcuvcrfjv) ^Avd^rjdi Trpos fie els 
TO opos Kal tadi eKel. "* ifjvxw dyiav. 

** Aucher " deificari." Arm. astouacanal usu. renders 
deovadai, a word that seems not to occur elsewhere in Philo. 
Perhaps the original here was 6eo<f)opeiadai. 
82 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

beyond the world " there is no place but God. And He 
determines ^ the stability of the removal " by saying " be 
there," (thus) demonstrating the placelessness ^ and the 
unchanging habitation of the divine place. For those who 
have a quickly satiated passion for reflexion fly upward for 
only a short distance under divine inspiration * and then 
they immediately return.^ They do not fly so much as 
they are drawn downward, I mean, to the depths of Tar- 
tarus." But those who do not return from the holy and 
divine city, to which they have migrated, have God as their 
chief leader in the migration.* 

41. (Ex. xxiv. 12b) Why are the commandments written 
on " tablets of stone " * ? 

Tablets and written documents are hand-made things,^ 
and what is written in them is easily destroyed, for in 
tablets there is wax, which is easily rubbed away, and in 
papyrus-rolls ^ the writing is sometimes spread out ^ and 

" fiera tov Koafiov : Aucher " post mundum." 

^ Lit. " seals " : Aucher " decernit." 

" Aucher " constantiam transmigrationis." 

<* Arm. antel \it.= droTTov : Aucher " loco carentem." 

* From the reading of the Greek frag, (which begins with 
this sentence, see next note) it appears that the Arm. phrase 
" fly upward . . . under divine inspiration " takes the ptc. 
dvaTTT€po(f>ofn)9€VT€s as a combination of dvaTrrepovvres and 

d€0(f>Opr)9€VT€g. 

^ The Greek frag, reads evlois difjiKopos iyyiveTai. Xoyiayios, 
ol TTpos oAiyov dvaTTTepo(f>opridivre? avrUa VTrevoarrjaav. 

" So the Greek frag., ovk dvaTrravres p.dXXov t] vnoavpevres 
€is raprdpov, ^r^aiv, iaxo-TLas. 

^ Aucher " in habitationem constantem." The Greek 
frag, reads more briefly euSat/ioves' 8e ol /xi) naXLvSpofMovvres. 

* LXX {koI hciiaoi ool) rd vv^ia ra XCdiva, tov vofiov kol rds 
€VToXds (a? eypaijsa vofioOcTrjaai avTOis). 

^ X^ipoTToirjTa. 

^ iv aTT]Xais . . . iv xapT-iStot?, cf. Quod Omnis Prohus 46, 
De Spec. Leg. iv. 149 et al. 

' Aucher " spargitur." Possibly Philo means that the 
writing is so erratic or cursive as to be illegible. 

83 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

sometimes seems obscure." But stones are the work of 
nature and are easily converted into tablets ; and also the 
forms on polished stone tablets * and the writings on them 
are permanent and fixed because of the strength of the 
material. In the second place, it was not possible for the 
divine commandments to remain concealed in any recess 
and to avoid meeting those who were eager to see and learn 
(them), but (they had) to be published abroad and to be 
openly circulated. But those things which were to be 
proclaimed abroad were in need of hard material because 
of the burning heat of the sun and the falling of rain, so 
that later the stone tablets were placed in the ark. In the 
third place, the tablets were of stone, for stone signifies 
permanence, while a tablet (signifies) impermanence, for 
a tablet is written on and erased with ease.'' And this 
is a symbol ^ of the preservation * and dissolution of the 
law. What is written (is a symbol) of preservation, what 
is erased (is a symbol) of dissolution, since for those who 
transgress commandments, one would truly say that there 
is no law at all. 

42. (Ex. xxiv. 12c) Does God write the Law ? ^ 
Since God is a legislator " in the highest sense of the 
term,'' it is necessary that the best law, which is called the 
true Law,' should be laid down by Him and be written in 
writing, not of hands, for He is not of human form, but at 
His command and nod. For if at His word ' the heaven 
and earth and the entire world were created and the whole 
of substance received its form from the divine principles 

" dfjivSpd vel sim. : Aucher " subobscure." 

'' iv TrXa^L vel sim. : Aucher " in lapidibus." 

" Aucher " nam tabula tarn facile scribitur quam deletur." 

^ avfi^oXov. « Or " observance." 

^ LXX Tov voixov KoX TOLS evToXds Sis eypaipa vofModcTTJaai avTois. 

" VOfModeTTjS. 

^ Kara tov dvcDTaTw Xoyov vel sim. : Aucher " secundum 
supremam rationem." 

* o di/j€vhrjs vofios : Aucher " infallibilis lex." 
' Lit, " saying." 

84 



» 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

(as) fashioners," then when God says that the Law should 
be written, were not the writings immediately to be 
obeyed ? ^ In the second place, this world is a great city " 
and is a legal one.'' And it is necessary for it to use the 
best law of state." And it is fitting that it should have 
a worthy author ^ of law and legislator," since among men 
He appointed the contemplative race '^ in the same manner 
(as the Law) for the world.' And rightly does He legislate 
for this race, also prescribing (its Law) as a law for the 
world, ^ for the chosen race *= is a likeness '■ of the world, 
and its Law (is a likeness of the laws) of the world. 



43. (Ex. xxiv. 13) Why does Moses, who has been sum- 
moned alone,"* go up not alone but with Joshua .^ " 

" eV T(JL>v dcLOJv Xoywv {v.l. = rov deiov Xoyov) riov avfiTrXeKTi- 
Kwv vel apfioTTovTcov i Auchcr " a verbo divino efficaci." 

^ I render freely, since the Arm. lit.= " were not the writ- 
ings immediately obedient " (or " ministering "). Evidently 
the Arm. translator should have written spasaworesgin in- 
stead of spasmcor linein. Aucher, too, renders freely, as 
the context requires, " obsequi debet liber." 

'^ Cf. De Spec. Leg. i. 34 tt)v ws dXr)da)s fxeyaXoTroXLv, rovSe 

TOV KOafjLOV. ^ VOfllfJLOS. 

" TToXir^ias. ' KTiarrjs. 

" Aucher renders less literally, " atque aequum est et con- 
veniens ut sit ei legislator ac legisdator." 

'^ i.e. Israel. 

* The syntax and meaning are not clear. Aucher renders, 
" et cum hominem (sic) genti contemplativae legem daret, 
daret quoque ipsi mundo," adding in a footnote " Sic ex- 
])licavimus locum incertum." The Arm. glossator takes it 
to mean " gentem Dei videntem {.sire, Israel) tamquam 
legem alteram Deus mundo dedit." 

^ Kal KoafiLKov vofjLov 8t.aypd<f>a)v vel aim. : Aucher " de- 
lineans etiam legem mundi." 

^ TO €kX€kt6v yevos. ^ Aucher " forma." 

"* See QE ii. 40 on Ex. xxiv. 12a. 

** LXX Kol dvaoTa? Mwvaijs Kal *It]<jovs 6 rrapcoTTjKcbs avTco 
(Heb. "his servant") dvc^rjaav {Heb. "and Moses went up") 
els TO opos TOV deov. 

85 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

The two are potentially " one, since no one would say 
that those who are of like mind and like sentiments with 
one another are the same single (person) except in respect 
of another species.^ For " Joshua "" is to be interpreted 
as " salvation." "^ But is being saved by God more appro- 
priate * to anyone else than the inspired soul, in which 
prophecy resounds,^ since even in (Moses') lifetime he was 
over the rulers" and at (Moses') death he was his succes- 
sor.'' ? Rightly, therefore, does he go up as an assurance ' of 
two most necessary things : one, of the election of the 
contemplative race,^ and the other, that the Law should 
be considered not as an invention of the human mind but 
as a divine command and divine words.* But perhaps, 
according to the unspoken meaning of what is said,' 
Joshua too was openly summoned (to go) up and was not 

" Bwdfiet,. 

* The meaning is not altogether clear : Aucher " etenim 
nemo est qui eundem solum dixerit sibi invicem unanimes ac 
Concordes, verum etiam secundum aliam speciem." 

" Arm. Yisiis (Heb. Y^hosn'o). 

^ Cf. De Mut. Nom. 121 rov ^Qa-qe fj.€TOVofid^€i Mcova-^s els 
Tov 'Irjaovv, top ttoiov els e^tv ixeraxapoLTTCov. 'Q,gt]€ (jlcv ipfirj- 
veveraL ttoios oStos, ^Irjaovs 8e acorrjpia KvpLov, e^ecos ovofxa rfjs 
dpLOTr]s. 

^ fidXXov oIkcIov. 

^ ev fi e^rjxel 17 'npo<f>'rjT€ia : Aucher " et inflatae ipsi pro- 
phetiae," in his footnote, " flaveritque in eum prophetia." 
Apparently Philo means that Joshua is the sounding-board 
of Moses' prophecies. 

" i.e. of Israel. 

^ Cf. De Virtutihns 68 (on Num. xxvii. 18-23) 6 be T-fjs . . . 
iTnrpoTTrjs bidSoxos ovtos eWiv alpedels vtto deov. 

* ds irLanv : Aucher " ad fidem faciendam." 
^ i.e. Israel. 

^ Cf. De Decalogo 15 iTreibrj yap ۤet ttlotiv iyyeveadai raZs 
Biavoiats Trept rod yurj evpTjfxara dvdpcoTTOv tovs v6p.ovs dXXd Oeov 
Xprjapiovs aa(f)eaTdTOvs elvai, TToppcoTdTCo twv noXewv dTrrjyaye to 
edvos eiV €prjfxr]v ktX. 

^ Kara rd rjavxaodevTa twv eipiy/xeWv vel sim. : Aucher 
** sub silentio intelligendum in dictis." 
86 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

thought worthy of being called earlier to go up because 
(God) deemed the prophet " worthy of this honour and 
great prerogative/ 

44. (Ex. xxiv. 14) Why did he leave Aaron and Hur " 
below with the elder judges ? ^ 

Just as a navy,* if it has no commander,^ is in need of 
commanders from time to time for taking care of and 
equipping the entire fleet, so also to an infantry force, 
which has no commander-in-chief, the secondary officers, 
such as company-commanders and squadron-commanders," 
being in second place,'' supply necessary and useful things.* 
And when nations have been reduced to obedience by the 
great king,' he grants them many things for whatever 
lawful purposes may be fitting, and in the various states 
appoints those whom it is customary to call satraps.* 
And as the prophet, who was about to go on an ethereal 
and heavenly journey, was well and rightly concerned 
about such things, he was careful to leave in his place over- 
seers and supervisors. And (as) a sign of victory for those 
who were in doubt he offered the just man as an arbitrator 

" i.e. Moses. 

** irpovofxias. The text seems not to be in good order, but 
the general meaning seems to be that God left it to be under- 
stood that Joshua was to go up with Moses, although origin- 
ally He specifically commanded only Moses to go up (in 
Ex. xxiv. 12). 

" Arm. Or. 

^ Lxx KoX Tois TTpca^vrepois ktircv, *HCTii;^a^eT€ axnov eco? 
dvaaTpeifjcoixev npos v fids' Kal l8ov 'Aapcbv /cat *Q.p (Heb. Hur) 
fied* vfxcbv idv rivi avfi^fj Kpiois, TrpoGrropevecrdcoaav avrots. 

' arpaTw vavriKcp vel sim. : Aucher '' navi classicae." 

•^ vavapxos. 

" Xoxayol Koi ra^Lapxoi. 

^ Aucher " praesentes." The text appears to be corrupt. 

* For a rather remote parallel to the preceding see De 
Decalogo 14. 

' i.e. of Persia. 

^ aaTpdrras. 

87 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

of the laws." That is the literal meaning.'' But as for the 
deeper meaning/ there are two brothers in one — the mind 
and the word.** Now Moses, who is called by another 
name, mind, has obtained the better part, (namely) God, 
whereas the word, which is called Aaron, (has obtained) 
the lesser (part, namely) that of man. And the word of an 
unrighteous and wicked man is very dark, for even if it 
reaches great men," it is obscured.^ But (the word) of him 
who is of the Lord is very lucid," even though there is no 
very well adapted instrument '' in his mouth and tongue.* 

" The meaning of this sentence is far from clear, partly 
because of the plurality of senses of the word arit\ which 
renders such diverse Greek terms as -npo^evosy ixeairrjs, vpvTaviSi 
vTTodeois and d(f)opfii]. Aucher renders, " atque victoriae 
signum adhibens dubio animo haerentibus, conciliat legitime 
justum." Possibly the original of " those who were in 
doubt," roLs dfi(f>L^aXXofx€voLs, meant " for matters in dispute " 
or was a corruption of rols dfx(f>ia^r)TovfX€voLs. At any rate 
the " victory " seems to have been a judicial victory, not a 
military one as the Arm. glossator explains. 

'' TO pt]t6v. " TO TTpos Sidvoiav. 

^ 6 vovs (or rj Sictvoia) koI 6 Xoyos. 

* Lit. " greatly," but Arm. mecapes seems to reflect 
IxeydXovs corrupted to /teyaAto?. 

^ The text is probably not in order : Aucher " verbum 
autem vilioris ac improbi obscurius est, quamvis enim 
magnifice consecutus fuerit (verbum), obnubilatum est." 
The general sense seems to be that ordinary speech or reason 
is obscure unless it is illuminated by the light of truth (sym- 
bolized by Hur, see the following). 

" Aucher " Domini vero (verbum) lucidissimum est." 
But he ignores the word oroy^ which is the gen. case of the 
rel. pron. If my rendering is correct, Philo means that in 
contrast to ordinary or wicked men Aaron, who is the word 
of Moses, the man of God, is enlightened. See also next note 
but one. ^ opyavov ov a(f)68pa evapfioarov. 

* Aucher, construing wrongly, I think, renders, " etsi in 
ore sit atque lingua instrumentis baud nimis coaptatis." If 
my rendering is correct, Philo means that in Aaron Moses had 
a worthy interpreter, even though he (Moses) had a defect of 
speech, cf. Quis Rer, Div. Heres 4 on Ex. iv. 10. 

88 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

Indeed " it is because of this that he associates Hur, who 
is to be interpreted as " light," " with the wise man," show- 
ing through a symbol ** that the word of the wise man is 
luminous,* for he reveals his beauty not in words but in 
deeds performed/ 

^45. (Ex. xxiv. 16a) What is the meaning of the words, 
" And the glory of God came down upon Mount Sinai " " ? 

(Scripture) clearly puts to shame those who whether 
through impiety or through foolishness believe that there 
are movements of place or of change in the Deity." For, 
behold, what is said to come down is clearly not the essence 
of God, which is understood only as to its being, but His 
glory.* And the notion of glory {dooca) is twofold.' On 
the one hand, it denotes the existence of the powers, for 
the armed force of a king is also called " glory." *= On the 
other hand, (it denotes) only a belief in and counting on 

<* Arm. kam= i)', which here seems to be a corruption of 7^. 

^ Cf. Leg. All. ill. 45 ottjpl^ovtox vtto re ^Aapcov, tov Xoyov, 
Kal 'Op, o iart <f>(x)s. The etymology is based on Philo's 
fanciful equation of "Qp with Heb. 'or " light." 

'^ Toi ao(f>co. ^ hia avfi^oXov. * (fxaroeihij . 

' epyois iv€pyovfi€voLS vel sim. : Aucher " in rebus ex- 
positis." 

" Lxx Kol Kare^T] (Heb. " dwelt ") 17 8o|a rod deov eVi to 
opos TO Siva. 

'' So the Greek frag, from the Catenae, ivapyearaTa bva- 
toTTil Tovs iyyvs [?] vtto doejSeias eiTC rjXt,di6Tr)TOS olofxevovs 
TOTTiKas Koi fiera^aTLKas KLvqaeis elvai Trepl to QgIov. Procopius 
briefly paraphrases, iXeyx^L tovs olofievovs /u.eTaj8aTt/ca? 8vvdfjt,€LS 
elvai TTcpl deov. 

» So the Catenae and Procopius, l8ov yap €n<f>avcos ov (Pro- 
copius ov yap) TOV ovaidihr} deov tov KaTO. to elvai fiovov iirtvo- 
ovfiivov KaTcXrjXvdevai <f>y)aiv, dAAo. Tr]v ho^av avTOv. 

' So the Catenae (Procopius omits), Aittt) hk -q Trepl T-qv 
So^av eVSox"'?- 

*^ So the Catenae and Procopius, -fj jxkv napovoiav ipL,(f)aivovaa 
Tuiv Swdfiecov (Procopius •^ Suvd/iecov rrapovaiav €fjL(f)aivcov), eVet 
Kal /SaatAe'cu? XeycTai 86^a rj OTpaTioiTLKT) Svvafiis (Procopius 8v- 
va/iij aTpaTi(x)TU<T]). 

S9- 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

the divine glory," so as to produce in the minds of those 
who happen to be there an appearance of the coming of 
God,'' Who was not there," as though He were coming for 
the firmest assurance of things about to be legislated.'' 
The mountain, moreover, is most suitable to receive the 
manifestation " of God, as the name " Sinai " shows, for 
when it is translated into our language,^ it means " in- 
accessible." * Now the divine place is truly inaccessible 
and unapproachable, for not even the holiest mind is able 
to ascend such a height to it ^ so as merely to approach 
and touch it.* 

*46. (Ex. xxiv. 16b) Why is the mountain covered with 

° Aucher renders more freely, " altera, quatenus opinionem 
causat solam putandi videre gloriam divinam." The Catenae 
read 17 Se t^ So/cT^aei avrov fxovov /cat VTroXrufjei So^rjs deias : 
Procopius 7j SoKTjaiv avTO fiovov /cat So^rjs deias VTToXrjipLv. 

* So the Catenae, cos eveipydadai {sic) rals twv Trapovrcov 
Siavoiats <f>avTaaiav a^i^eojs Oeov. Procopius paraphrases, y] 
rwv TrapovTCOv cos eVt tolovtw ttjv (f>ain-aaiav irvircoaev. 

" This clause is missing from the Catenae and Procopius. 

•* So the Catenae and Procopius (which end here), w? tjkovtos 
(Procopius adds deov) els (Procopius Trpos) ^e^aiordTrjv nCariv 
rcbv fxeXXovTOJV vofxodeTeiadai. 

* rT]v €m<f)dv€Lav vel sim. : Aucher " apparitionem." 
^ Aucher renders freely, " aliam linguam." 

^ d^arov vel sim. Philo does not elsewhere etymologize 
the name " Sinai." I imagine that the present etymology is 
based upon a fanciful connexion between Sinai and Heb. 
s^neh (the " burning bush " of Ex. iii. 2), which is translated 
jSaros in lxx. In De Fuga 161-162 Philo plays on the words 
jSaros and d^aros {-ov) ; commenting on the biblical phrase, 
o ^dros KaUrai, he writes, . . , rov yap d^arov ov TToXvTrpayfjLovci 
Xcopov, deicov iv8t,atTr]p,a <f>vaecov. 

^ Aucher, construing differently (and failing to recognize 
a genitive absolute construction), renders, " ita ut neque 
purissimi intellectus tanta celsitudo ad eum ascendere queat." 

* So the Greek frag, from John of Damascus, d^aros /cat 
dnpoaTTeXaaros ovrcjs iarlv 6 deXos x^ipos, ovSe rrjs KadapcoTdr-qs 
hiavoias roaovrov vipos vpooava^rjvai Svvafievrjs cos di^ei fiovov 
iTTu/javaai. 

90 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

a cloud for six days, and Moses called above on the seventh 
day ? " 

The even * number, six, He apportioned both to the 
creation of the world and to the election of the contem- 
plative nation," wishing to show first of all that He had 
created both the world and the nation elected for virtue.** 
And in the second place, because He wishes the nation to 
be ordered and arrayed in the same manner as the whole 
world so that, as in the latter, it may have a fitting order 
in accord with the right law and canon of the unchanging, 
placeless and unmoving nature of God/ But the calling 
above of the prophet is a second birth better than the first/ 
For the latter is mixed with a body and had corruptible 
parents, while the former is an unmixed and simple soul 
of the sovereign, » being changed from a productive to an 
unproductive " form,* which has no mother but only a 

" LXX Kol CKaXvipev avro rj ve^e'Ar; e^ -qixipas KoX eVaAeaev 
Kvpios (Heb. " He ") tov Mcovaijv tt; rjfJLepa rfj i^BofMr) eV fidaov 
Ti]s ve(f)4Xr,s. ** Lit. " equal." 

" So the Greek frag., tov taov dpcdfjiov ciTreVei/xe koI rfj tov 
Koajxov yeveaei kol ttj tov opariKov yivovs eKXoyfj, ttjv efaSa. On 
" the contemplative nation," i.e. Israel, see QE ii. 43 et al. 

•* Somewhat different is the reading of the Greek frag. 
^ovXofievos eViSetlat oti avTOS Koi tov Koofxov ibrjfxiovpyrjae Kal to 
yevos eiAcTO. 

* KaTOL TOV opdov vofiov Kal Kavova Trjg dTpdrrrov Kal tottov 
p.r) ixovoTjS (vel Sim.) Kal olkivtJtov ^uorecos' ttjs tov deov. This 
sentence is not found in the Greek fragment. 

^ So the Greek frag., 17 8e dvaKXrjais tov irpo^rfrov bevrepa 
yiveais eWi ttj^ rrpoTepas dpLcivcov. 

" Aucher " ista vero incommixta simplexque anima prin- 
cipalis {vely spiritus principis)." The wording of the 
original Greek (this sentence and the next are missing from 
the Greek frag.) was probably " the former is an unmixed 
and simple sovereign part of the soul," i.e. the mind, since 
Moses symbolizes the pure mind, and is elsewhere called o 
KadapcoTaTOS vovs. 

'' Prob. dyovov rather than dyevrjTov " unproduced " : 
Aucher " ingenitam." 

* elbos vel sim. : Aucher takes the noun " animam " to 
be understood. 

91 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

father, who is (the Father) of all. Wherefore the calling 
above or, as we have said, the divine birth happened to 
come about for him in accordance with the ever-virginal 
nature of the hebdomad." For he is called on the seventh 
day,^ in this (respect) differing from the earth-born first 
moulded man,'' for the latter came into being from the 
earth and with a body, while the former (came) from the 
ether ^ and without a body.* Wherefore the most appro- 
priate number, six, was assigned to the earth-born man, 
while to the one differently born (was assigned) the higher 
nature of the hebdomad.^ 



■^47. (Ex. xxiv. 17) What is the meaning of the words, 
" The form of the glory of the Lord (was) like a fire burning 
before the sons of the seeing one "*'.'' 

*• On the deiTTapdevos i^Sofids or e^ho^irj of the Pytha- 
goreans see Leg. All. i. 15, De Vita Mosis ii. 210 et al. 

^ Lit. " For he (or " it ") is called the seventh day " (pred. 
nominative), an obvious error. The Greek frag, reads 
e^SofiT] Se dvaKoXetTat, -qfjiepa. 

'^ The Greek frag, reads more briefly Tavrrj hLa<l>€p(x>v rov 
TTpoiroirXdaTov. On the creation of the earth-born " moulded " 
man on the sixth day, and that of the heavenly man, created 
in God's image on the seventh day, see Leg. All. i. 5, 31, 
88 et al. 

^ This detail is omitted in the Greek frag., see next 
note. 

* The Greek frag, reads only slightly differently on eKetvos 
fiev e'/c Ti]S yrjs Kal ficrd acofiaros avvCaraTO' ovtos 8e aveu 
acopLaros. 

^ Again the Greek frag, differs slightly, 810 tco /nev y-qyevd 
dpidpio? OLKelos d-nevepirjdrj i^ds' tovtco 8e rj UpcoTdrrj (f)V(ns ttjs 
e^So/ittSos'. 

^ Philo omits one phrase of the biblical text, lxx to Se 
elBos rrjs 86^r)s Kvpiov cboel -nvp <f)X€yov (Heb. " devouring " 
or " consuming ") eVi rrjs Kopv(f>r]s rod opovs ivavriov rcbv vlcov 
^lopa-qX. On the substitution of " the seeing one " for 
" Israel " see the preceding sections. Note, too, that below 
Philo has in mind the Heb. text " fire consuming " although 
he quotes the lxx irvp <f>X4yov. 

92 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

(This is said) because, as has been said before," the glory 
of God is the power * through which He now appears ; the 
form of this power is like a flame or rather, it is not but 
appears (to be so) to the spectators,*^ for God showed not 
that which pertained to His essence ** but what He wished 
to seem to be to the amazement of the spectators." And 
so, (Scripture) adds, " before the sons of the seeing one," 
indicating most clearly that there was an appearance of 
flame, not a veritable flame/ In the second place," be- 
cause He showed '' the mountain (to be) inaccessible and 
unapproachable * to the people, He extended the appear- 
ance of a flame-like fire around it ^ in order that no one, 
even if he wished, might be able to come near in disregard 
of his own safety.* For they are silly and at the same time 
frivolous in belief ' who believe that the fire "* is the essence 

« In QE ii. 45. 

'' Tj BwafiLs : Aucher " virtus." 

•^ Slightly diff'erent is the wording of the Greek frag, from 
the Catenae, to Se efSos rijs 86^7)s Kvpiov (f>r)alv ifx(f>€p€aTaTov 
elvat, (jiXoyi, jxdXXov Se ovk elvai dXXa <f)aiveadai tols oputai. 

^ The Arm. translator here uses two nouns to render 
ovaiav : Aucher " essentiam." 

* Here again the wording of the Greek frag, is slightly 
diff"erent, tou deov Sei/cwWo? oirep e^ovXero 8ok€lv etvat vpos ttjv 
Tiov 9ea)[J,€v<ov KaraTrX-q^tv , fxr] cov tovto oirep i^aivero. 

f So the Greek frag., eVt^e'pet yovv to " ivcjinov tcov vtojv 
'lapar/A," evepydaTara [xrjvvojv otl (j>avraaLa <^Xoy6^ rjv aXX ov 
<f>Xo^ aX-qdri^. Procopius briefly paraphrases the preceding two 
sentences, ibeiKwe Se Tivp deos, ovx onep t^v dAA' onep i^ovXero 
So/ceiv o hr)Xu)v irrrjveyKev " ivcoTTLOv tcov vtiov 'lapa-qX." 

« The following sentences, down to " just as the flame 
consumes," are missing from the Greek frag, and Procopius. 

^ One expects " in order that He might show." 

* Aucher condenses the two adjectives into one, " in- 
accessum." 

^ Aucher, construing a little diff^erently, renders, " flammi- 
formis ignis apparitionem extendebat circa eum." 

* Lit. " of his taking care " : Aucher " visitatione." 

* Aucher " faciles putandi." 

*" I follow Aucher in reading howr " fire " with the margin 
of Cod. A rather than hawr " father " with Codd. A and C. 

93 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

of God when (Scripture) clearly proclaims that it is the 
form of the glory and power of God which appears but not 
the truly existing One," and that the fire is not His power 
but only His glory " and that in the opinion of the spectators 
it appeared to their eyes not to be what it was," because 
of the reasons mentioned. That is the literal meaning/ 
But as for the deeper meaning,* just as the flame consumes 
all the material that comes its way, so, too, when the 
thought of God clearly reaches the soul, it destroys all the 
heterodox thoughts of piety,^ bringing the whole mind ^ 
into (a state of) holiness.'' 



48. (Ex. xxiv. 18a) Why does Moses enter into the midst 
of the cloud ? * 

He had been called from its midst and therefore he 
rightly followed the voice.^' In the second place, it was 

" Tov ovTws 'Orra : Aucher " veri Entis." 

* Philo seems to mean that God's power was only like His 
glory (symbolized by the flame) but not identical with it, and 
that neither God's essence nor His power actually appeared. 

" The syntax of the last clause is not wholly clear to me : 
Aucher " at videntibus phantastice apparens sicut non est 
qui est." ^ to pt]t6v. * to irpos Stavoiav. 

^ The Arm. translator read evae^elas in place of dae^eia?, 
which is the reading of the Greek frag., see below. Aucher 
tacitly corrects the Arm. by rendering, " omnem cogitationem 
a pietate alienam." " Lit. " mind of thought(s)." 

'' The Greek frag, from the Catenae reads similarly but 
more smoothly 'QaTrep Se rj <f>X6^ Trdaav rrjv TTapa^XrjOetaav vXrjv 
dvaXiaKei, ovtcos, otov €7n(f)oiTrjo'r) elXiKpivris rov deov €woia rrj 
ifjvxfj, TTOLVTas rovs irepoho^ovs dae^eias Xoyiap-ovs hia^deipci, 
Kadoaiovaa tt^v oXtjv Siavotav. Procopius, as before, briefly 
paraphrases the last sentence, to Se avfi^oXov on hairaviqTLKov 
TO delov Xoyiaficov dae^wv, d)S kol ttjs vXtjs to rrvp. 

* LXX KOI elaijXdev Mcovaijs els to fjLeaov ttjs v€<f>€XT]s Koi dvc^r] 
els TO opos. 

' i.e. God had called him from the midst of the cloud (a 
detail not commented on by Philo m QE ii. 46 on Ex. xxiv. 
16), and therefore it was right for him to follow God's voice 
into the midst of the same cloud. 

94^ 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

natural that a division was made in that part of the cloud 
by the noise of the speech, and when the two sides had been 
condensed," it was easy to pass through. 



*49. (Ex. xxiv. 18b) Why does Moses remain on the 
mountain forty days and the same number of nights ? ^ 

Concerning the number forty and its place in nature ^ a 
detailed account was given earlier,'' so that one need not 
speak further of this at length. Perhaps, however, it is 
necessary to add that the migrant generation was about 
to be condemned and waste away in corruption for forty 
years in all after receiving many benefactions and showing- 
ingratitude in many ways.* And so, he remains there 
above for the same number of days as these years, recon- 
ciling the Father to the nation ^ by prayers and inter- 
cessions," especially at the very time when the laws were 
given by God and there was constructed in words '' the 
portable temple, which is called the Tent of Testimony.* 

" TTVKVOiO^VTOJV. 

^ LXX /cat ^v eVet eV roi opei reaaapaKOvra "qfiepas /cat reaaapd- 
Kovra vvKTas. In De Somniis i. 36 and De Vita Mosis ii. 70 
Philo alludes to this verse and adds the unscriptural detail 
that Moses was without food and drink during his forty-day 
stay on the mountain. " ttcD? eV rfj (f>vaei e^^t. 

" In QG i. 25, ii. 14, iv. 154. 

* So (with only slight differences) the Greek frag, from 
the Catenae, ort l/icAAe /cara/cptTOS iaeadai -f) aTroiKiadeZaa yeved 
/cat 6771 reaaapaKOvra Irea (f>d€Lpeadai' fivpla fiev evepyerTjOelaa, 
hid fivplwv 8e €Tnhei^ap.4vT) to dxdpiaTov. Procopius para- 
phrases, reaaapaKOvra Se /xeWt rds rrdaas rjfiepas iv opet Mcovarjg 
oaa l/ieAAev errj rcov evTrad ovrcov -q dyvcofMwv (f>d€Lp€a6ai, yeved. 

^ The phrase " to the nation " is omitted in Aucher's 
rendering. 

" Procopius condenses, virep cov iv IcrapiOfiois ruiipaxs tKereve 
Tov TTaripa. -' 

'' The original prob. read " at His word." 

' -fj aK-qvTj rov fiaprvplov, see Lxx Ex. xxvi-xl. Procopius 
again condenses, /cat fidXtara vapd roiovrov /catpov, iv a> 8l8ovrai 
vofioi /cat (f>opT)r6v Upov, tj oK-qvij. 

95 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

For whom, then, were the laws (given) ? Was it, indeed, 
for those who were to perish ? And for whose sake were 
the oracles " (given) ? Was it for those who were to be 
destroyed a little later ? * It seems to me, however, that 
someone may say, " Is it possible that " he had foreknow- 
ledge of the judgment that was to come upon it "* ? " But 
he who says this should bear in mind that every prophetic 
soul is divinely inspired « and prophesies ^ many future 
things not so much by reflecting as through divine madness 
and certainty." 



*50. (Ex. XXV. 1-2) Why does He command (them) to 
take first-offerings ^ from all those of willing heart ? * 

In the present passage ^ (Scripture) uses " heart " instead 
of * " sovereign (mind)." ^ Accordingly, it wishes to intro- 
duce the first-offerings (as) the willing dispositions of those 

** Procopius (see next note) has dvoiai. 

^ So (except for the word noted) Procopius, Ttat yap ol 
vofioL; dpd ye rols aTToXXvfievois ; 'Tnep rivoiv Se at dvaiai; apa 
Tcov p,iKp6v varepov (f)9apr)aoix4vojv ; 

" fiT^TTore vel sim. : Aucher " ne " (though " num " seems 
to be required). 

^ Here the pronoun apparently refers to the nation. Pro- 
copius reads more briefly Trpo^Set yap cos 7rpo(f)i]T7)s to. iaofieva. 
(According to Wendland, Procopius does not make use of 
Philo beyond this point.) 

* rrdaa vpo(f)r]TiKri ipvxr} eVt^eia^ei. 

^ TTpoBeaTTiieL : Aucher " praescribit." 

" Aucher renders less literally, " divino oestro securus." 

^ dirapxas, as in the lxx, see next note. 

* LXX Kat iXdXrjoev Kvpios irpos ^ioivarjv, Ae'yojv, EiVov rols 
viols 'laparjX Kal Xd^ere {v.l. dvaXa^ercoadv fxoi) dirapxds -napd 
irdvroiv ols dv So^r] rfj /capSia* Kat {v.l. omits Kat) Xi^ixi/jeaOe rds 
dirapxds p-ov. Philo quotes the lxx text verbatim in Quis Rer. 
Div. Heres 113 and allegorizes it at some length. 

^ Lit. " now." 
^ i.e. " in the sense of." 

^ Similarly the first Greek frag, (from Cod. Vat. 1553), 
T^v Kaphiav dvrl rod 'qyefjiOviKOV TrapeiAT^^ev rj ypa<f)'q. 

96 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

who bring them," for the Deity is in need of nothing.^ But 
he who unwillingly brings an offering is forgotten and 
deceives himself, for even if he offers silver or something 
else, he does not bring first-offerings, in the same way as 
he who unwillingly makes a sacrifice is thought to offer 
unsacrificed meat to the fire rather than a (real) sacrifice. " 

51. (Ex. XXV. 7 [Heb. 8]) What is the meaning of the 
words, " Thou shalt make for Me a sanctuary, and I shall 
appear among you " "^ ? 

Clear indeed is the literal meaning,* for the shrine is 
spoken of (as) the archetype of a sort of shrine, (namely, as) 
the tent.^ But as for the deeper meaning,'' God always 
appears in His work, which is most sacred ; by this I mean 
the world.'' For His beneficent powers * are seen and move 
around in all its parts, in heaven, earth, water, air and in 

" Aucher renders differently, " vult ergo primitias volun- 
taria indole oblatas introduci." Similar in thought but 
different in wording is the (misplaced) last sentence of the 
second Greek frag, (from John Monachus), ov yap ev vXais 
oAA' €v €va€^€L (Mangey's correction of evae^ela) Siadeaei rod 
Ko/it^oKTo? rj dX-qdrjs aTTapxrj. (Harris is mistaken in thinking 
the Greek to be a gloss.) ^ aTrpoaherjs. 

'^ Considerably different is the wording of the Greek frag., 
o pLTj €K TTpoaLpeaeoJS dvapxcov Oeo), Kal dv rd (xeydXa (/xeVoAAa 
conj. Harris) Trdvra KopLL^r) pLcrd tcov jSaaiAt/ccDv O-qaavpcov, dirapxas 
ov <f)4p€L. In favour of the partial genuineness of the Greek is 
the reference to precious metals, stones, etc., in Ex. xxv. 3-7. 

** Lxx Koi TTOL-qaeLS (Heb. " make " — imperative plural) /ioi 
dylaapia Kal 6(f>d-qaopiaL iv vp.lv. * to prjTov. 

^ This is a literal rendering of the Arm., which is evidently 
corrupt : Aucher " quoniam templum {Graecus, sanctuarium 
vel sacellum, Upov) dicitur templi prototypus quidam taber- 
naculum." The original may have been " for the tent (of 
testimony, see above, QE ii. 49) is spoken of in a certain sense 
as an archetypal shrine," see next note but one. 

" TO vpos 8idvoiav. 

'' Cf. Dfi Plantatione 50 to t6v KoapLov evrpenrj Kal crotpLov 
alad-qrov oIkov clvai Beov . . . to dyiaap,a, olov dyccDV diravyaapLa, 
p-Lp-qpia dpx^TVTrov. ' al evepyevLKal Sum/tei?. 

SUPPL. II E 97 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

what is in these. For the Saviour " is beneficent and kind,** 
and He wishes to except the rational race " from all living 
creatures. He therefore honours them with an even ampler 
gift, a great benefaction in which all kinds of good things 
are found, and He graciously grants ^ His appearance, if 
only there be a suitable place, purified with holiness and 
every (kind of) purity. For if, O mind,* thou dost not 
prepare thyself of thyself, excising desires, pleasures, 
griefs, fears, follies,^ injustices and related evils," and dost 
(not) change and adapt thyself to the vision of holiness, 
thou wilt end thy life in blindness, unable to see the in- 
telligible sun.'' If, however, thou art worthily initiated * 
and canst be consecrated ^ to God and in a certain sense * 
become an animate ^ shrine of the Father, (then) instead 
of having closed eyes,*" thou wilt see the First (Cause) " and 
in wakefulness thou wilt cease from the deep sleep in which 
thou hast been held. Then will appear to thee that mani- 
fest One," Who causes incorporeal rays ^ to shine for thee, 

"^ O aO)TT]p. 

^ Slightly emending the text (in which the second adjective 
has the article). Aucher renders more literally, " propitius 
est salvator et benefactor." 

" TO XoyiKov yevos, i.e. Israel, or perhaps, pious men in 
general. ^ x^P^l^'^^'-- 

* c5 vov or Siavoia : Aucher " O anime." 

^ Before " follies " the Arm. repeats the participle 
" excising." 

" €KT€fjLV(t}v €Tndvyiias , rjSovds, Xviras, ^o^ovs, d<f>poavvas, dbiKias 
Koi TO. avyyevfj KaKa. 

^ rov vot]t6v tjXlov, i.e. the divine light, cf. De Spec. Leg. 
iv. 231 et at. * idv 8* a^ias TeXeodfjs reXcrds vel sim. 

^ Or " initiated " {bis) : Aucher " consecrari." 

^ TpOTTOV TLvd. 

^ Or " spiritual " — ^ynfjvxov or Trveu/xaTt/coV : Aucher " ani- 
matum {veU spirituale)." 

*" dvrl rod KarafiveLV vel sim. 

" Variant " the first (things) " ; Aucher " primum." 

" o €TTL(f)avT^s vel sim. : Aucher " visibilis," adding in a 
footnote " vel, qui appariturus est aut mirabilis ille." 



aaoifiarovs avyas. 



98 



I 



EXODUS, BOOK II 



d grants visions of the unambiguous and indescribable 
things of nature " and the abundant sources of other good 
things. For the beginning and end of happiness is to be 
able to see God. But this cannot happen to him who has 
not made his soul, as I said before, a sanctuary and alto- 
gether a shrine of God. 



52. (Ex. XXV. 8 [Heb. 9]) What is the meaning of the 
words, " Thou shalt make, according to all that I shall 
show thee on the mountain, the patterns of the tent and 
the vessels " * ? 

That every sense-perceptible likeness has (as) its origin 
an intelligible pattern in nature (Scripture) has declared 
in many other passages as well as in the present one.'' 
Excellently, moreover, has it presented (as) the teacher 
of incorporeal and archetypal things ^ not one who is be- 
gotten and created but the unbegotten and uncreated 
God.* For it was indeed proper and fitting to reveal to an 
intelligent man the forms ^ of intelligible things and the 
measures of all things in accordance with which the world 

" Aucher renders more freely, " datis etiam visionibus 
naturae inexpectatis ac inenarrabilibus." 

* Lxx Kol TTOLT^a€i.s fjioi (Hcb. omlts the first three words) 
Kara 7rain-a oaa {v.l. +€yu)) BeiKvvoi aoi ev tco opei (Heb. omits 
" on the mountain "),to rrapabeiyixa {v.l. hie et infra uvroSeiy/ia) 
TTJs aKTjvrjs Kal to irapaSeiy/ia TravTcov ruyv OKevaJv aur^S" ovtcjs 
TTonqacLs (Heb. " ye shall make "). Philo alludes to this verse 
in be Vita Mosis ii. 74-75. 

" Cf. De Vita Mosis ii. 74 ISet KaOd-nep an apx^rvmov 
ypa<f>rjs Kal vorjTcov TrapaBeiyfiaTcov atodj]Ta pLLfx-qfiara aTreiKOvi- 
adijvai. 

** StSaa/caAov dacofiaTcov Kal apxervrrajv : Aucher " magis- 
trum incorporeorum et a principio existentium." 

* TOP dy€vv7]Tov Kal dyevrqTov Oeov. Aucher inadvertently 
writes " patrem " instead of " Deum." The same thought 
is diiferently expressed in De Vita Mosis ii. 74 cK-qv-qv . . . 
■jy? T17V KaraaKevqv dea^droLS Aoytois em rod opovs Mwvarjs 
aveStSaaKCTO. 

^ Or " ideas " — ciSj; or I84ag. 

99 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

was made." For these reasons also the prophet ^ alone was 
called and taken above, in order not to deprive the race 
of mortals of an incorruptible vision '^ and not to spread 
abroad and publish to the multitude these divine and holy 
essences/ And he was taken up to a high mountain, ascent 
to which was vouchsafed to no others. And a dense and 
thick cloud covered the whole place, hindering reception * 
through these places, not as if the nature of invisible things 
could be seen by corporeal eyes but because the multi- 
symbolism f of intelligible things is described through the 
clear vision of the eyes, (namely) how one who learns by 
seeing rather figuratively " can, by attributing certain 
forms to certain symbols, achieve a correct '' apprehension 
of them.* 



53. (Ex. XXV. 9 [Heb. 10]) Why is the ark of" undecay- 
ing wood " ' ? 

" Aucher, construing differently, renders, " quoniam con- 
veniens utique erat ut intelligens referret ideas intellectualium 
mensurasque universorum, ad quarum formam mundus 
factus fuit." In support of the rendering which makes " the 
intelligent man " (Moses) the indirect object of the infinitive 
" to reveal," one can cite the parallel in De Vita Mosis ii. 75 
TTpoarJKOv yap 'qv tw cos olXtjOcos apxiepei Koi ttjv tov lepov Kara- 
aK€vrjv eTnrpaTTfjvai ktX. 

** o TTpo^rjT-qs. 

" Aucher " facie." 

^ ovaias. 

* Aucher " perceptionem." 

f Lit. " much symbol " : Aucher " multum signum." 
" Tpo7nKU)T€pov vH Sim. x Auchcr " utcumque typice." 
^ The two Arm. adjectives prob. render the single Greek 
adjective opdrjv. 

* Aucher " potest secundum symbolum aliquam formam 
adaptando, directe et apposite eorum rationem attingere." 

^ LXX KoX TTOLrjOiLS KL^COTOV fiapTVpLOV €K ^vXcOV aarjTTTOiV'. 

Heb. " and make (imperative plural) an ark of sittim 
(" acacia ") wood." Both lxx and Heb. proceed to give the 
dimensions of the ark, to which Philo does not refer here, 
but see De Vita Mosis ii. 96. 

100 



I 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

In the same manner in which the head is the principal 
(part) of living creatures is the ark (the principal kind) of 
divine vessels, wherefore it has merited the best and holiest 
places, being placed alone and by itself within the inner 
sanctuary," wherefore also it was natural that the material 
of which it was made should by some necessity ^ be unlikely 
to decay and be corrupted, '^ since the Law, of which it was 
the repository,** was also incorruptible. In the second place, 
the sanctuary *" and all the order of things arranged in it 
were ordained not for a limited time but for an infinite 
age/ For this reason the artificer, (namely) the divine 
Logos, ^ chose the most lawful '' material, especially that 
which could remain permanently with it.* That is the 
literal meaning.^ But this is the deeper meaning.* In 
reality nothing terrestrial is undecayhig or incorruptible. 
Accordingly, when (Scripture) says " undecaying wood," 
it alludes symbolically '■ to the parts of the world attached 
to one another, of which it consists and is compacted and 
which hold fast to one another. To me it seems that (this 
property is found) also in the rational virtues of the soul,'" 
each of which happens to be unwithered and unaging and 
incorruptible. 

" e'v TOJ dbvTO). * dvdyKr) tivl. 

*■ Both Arm. adjectives are compounded with dioivar— 
Gr. hva- : Aucher " imputridam ac incorruptibilem." 
'' 6.TTodi]Kr] vel sim. 

* TO Upov^ i.e. " the tent of testimony." 

■^ ov TTpos copLOfievov xpovov dAA' dneLpov alojva vel sim. 

" 6 T€XVLTT]S, d Oelos Adyos. 

" Aucher " magis convenientem." Arm. orlnawor usu.= 
vofiifjLos, but here the context calls for a different adjective in 
the original. 

* i.e. with the Law. ^ to prjTov. 
^ TO TTpos Sidvoiav. 

^ avix^oXiKcbs. 

"* Or " in the virtues of the rational soul(s) " — the original 
may have been either e'v tols XoyLKois twv ipvxojv dpeTois or eV 
rai? Tcov XoyiKcov ifjvxdjv dpeTois (Arm. adjectives are not in- 
flected in agreement with their nouns) : Aucher " in rationa- 
libus animi virtutibus." 

101 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

54. (Ex. XXV. 10a [Heb. 11a]) Why does he overlay (the 
ark) with pure gold within, and with gold without ? " 

Others falsify the external appearance with deceit, 
while they leave the inside concealed and without care or 
attention. Moreover, they adorn the outside with varie- 
gated adornment for the sake of magnificence or to cause 
astonishment among spectators. But the divine (and) 
holy Moses adorns the inside before the outside with due 
adornment, (namely) with gold, the prime material and 
the most precious of all, and furthermore with gold that 
is pure, cleansed and refined for purity of substance. That 
is the literal meaning.* But this is the deeper meaning." 
In nature there is a species •* which is invisible and one 
which is visible. The invisible and unseen one consists of 
incorporeal things,* and this (species) is in the intelligible 
world. ^ But the visible one is made of bodies, and this is 
the sense-perceptible world." These two (species) are the 
inner and the outer. The one who created them made the 
incorporeal inner (species) and the corporeal outer (species) 
undecaying and incorruptible,'' and, in addition, also 
seemly and noble * and precious. Accordingly, the precious 
gold is allegorically used ' of the human structure and, 

" Lxx Kol Karaxpvadoaeis avrrjv ^pvaLco KaOapw e^codcv kol 
eacodev {v.l. eacodev Kal e^wdev : Heb. " within and without ") 
Xpvacoaeis avr-qv. Philo obviously took the text to mean that 
pure gold was used inside the ark and ordinary gold outside. 
In parallel allusions to this verse, although he follows the 
reading eacodev Kal e^coOev as here, he does not stress the difi^er- 
ence between inside and outside, see De Ebrietate 85, De Mut. 
Nom. 43-44, and De Vita Mosis ii. 95, where he says, 17 he 
KijScuTO? . . . KexpvaiOfx,einrj TroXvreXcJS evhodev re koX eacodev. 

^ TO pTJTOV. " TO TTpOS SldvOiaV. 

^ elBos. ^ e^ dacofMOLTCjv. 

^ iv TO) vorjTO) Koafxtp. ^ 6 aladrjTos Koafios. 

^ The syntax is not altogether clear : Aucher " interna, 
incorporea ; et externa, corporea ; quas qui fecit, imputridas 
efi^ecit " (sc. " species "). 

* The two Arm. adjectives prob. render the single Greek 
adj. aefivos. ' aXX'qyopeZr ai. 

102 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

as is proper, of the soul." But this is invisible and with 
every virtue, as with gold, it adorns the dispositions ^ and 
the movements of the visible body. For that way of life " 
is perfect ** which consists of two (kinds of things), of a pure 
mind," which is invisible, and of irreproachable and blame- 
less deeds, of which there are many spectators. 



*55. (Ex. XXV. 10b [Heb. lib]) What is the " wreathed 
wave " which He commands (them) to construct round 
the ark ? ^ 

By the " wave " He indicates " the stars, for they circle 
and roll around, some in the same way as '' the whole 
heaven, and others with a particular motion which has 
been assigned to them as peculiarly their own.* For in 
the same way as a rotating axle does not change its posi- 
tion and, as it goes around by itself, does not move away, 
so also does the heaven revolve without change of place. 
In the second place, the " wreathed wave " is similar to the 
corruption of the soul ' and the body, for the mind *^ keeps 
turning in different directions and does not possess stability, 
and the body, which is always flowing like a stream at 
(various) stages ^ and with the (various) illnesses that over- 

" Again the syntax is not clear : Aucher " sicut oportet 
esse animam." 

** ras e|eis : Aucher " habitus." 

" /St'os or BLaycoyrj. ^ reXeios. 

* vov or BiavoLas. 

^ LXX Koi TTOL-qacLS avrfj Kvixdria arpeTTra XP^^^ (Heb. 
" wreath of gold " : A.V. " crown of gold ") kvkXco. 

" alvLTTerai. 

^ Lit. " by themselves together with." Evidently the Arm. 
translator read Kara iairrd instead of Kara rd avrd as does the 
Greek frag., see next note. 

' The Greek frag, from John Monachus (the first of two 
belonging to this section) reads only slightly diff'erently 
Oi dare pes OTp€(f>ovraL koX elXovuTai kvkXov ol fiev Kara rd avrd 
ra> avpLTTavTL ovpavo), oi Se Kal KivrjaeoLV ISlais <as> lAap^ov 
e^aiperoLS. ' ttjs ^vxrjs. 

3iavoia. ' rjXiKias. 

103 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

take it, is wont to undergo change. In the third place, 
the course of human life is to be likened to a broad sea 
(which) experiences storms and rolling disturbances of all 
kinds in accordance with (varying) fortunes." For nothing 
on earth is stable but (everything) vacillates this way and 
that and is tossed about like a ship sailing the sea against 
contrary winds.* 



56. (Ex. XXV. 11 [Heb. 12]) Why does he fit four rings 
to '^ the ark, two on one side and two on the other side ? ^ 

It so happens that there are two sides in existing things,* 
one the intelligible and one the sense-perceptible (side),^ 
each of which (in turn) is sealed with two seals. ^ For there 
are two sections of the intelligible (side), one being a sign 
of immortal things, and one a sign of mortal things. The 
sense-perceptible (side), moreover, is divided into two 
(parts), one of which is light and of an upward-tending 

'^ One Arm. ms. has " not good fortunes," the other " good 
fortunes." The Greek frag, (see rest of note) prob. has the 
correct reading. The second Greek frag, (preserved in three 
different sources : Dam. Par., Anon. Flor. Cod. Barocc. and 
Cod. Reg.) reads similarly d rcov dvdpwvcov ^los, ofioiovfievos 
TTeXdyei, KVfiaTwaeLS Koi aTpo<f>ds navroLas TTpoaeinhex^raL {v.ll. 
TTpooBex^Tai, npoaevbex^T ai) /caret re evirpayias koX KaKOTrpayias 
(Cod. Barocc. om. koL KaKOTrpayias). 

^ The Greek frag, agrees closely, tBpvTat, yap ovSev rcov 
yrjyevajv dAA' cSSe kol iKilae Sia^eperat,, ola aKd(f)os OaXarrevov 
vtt' ivavTLOJV TTvevfjLaTcov (Dam. Par. Trpayfidrcov). 

" Lit. " upon." 

'^ Lxx /cat iXdaeis avrfj reoaapas Sa/CTuAtous' XP^^°^^ '^^^ ^'"^~ 
d-qaeis em rd reuaapa /cAitt; (Heb. "feet" or "corners") 8vo 
BaKTvXiovs im ro kXltos to ev, Kal 8vo SaKTvXiovs im to kXLtos 
TO Seurepov {v. I. eTcpov). 

« Lit. " in the ears," which cannot be the reading of the 
Greek original. Evidently the Arm. translator read chm 
instead of (original) ovai,. 

f TO fji€v vorjTOV, TO 8' aladrjTov. 

" Philo says " sealed " because of the lxx Sa/cryAiou?, 
which can mean " seal-rings." 
104 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

! 

substance,'' to which the air and ether belong, and the other 
heavy and extendmg downward, to which earth and water 
belong. In the second place, some take the two sides (to 
represent) the equinoxes,'' of which the four seasons are 
divisions. There are two warm and fair '^ (seasons), summer 
and autumn ; and two are cold, winter and spring. These ^ 
have the status ' of perfect and stable acts ^ in the sense- 
perceptible world, while (they have that) of signs and 
hints " in the intelligible (world). 



57. (Ex. XXV. 12 [Heb. 13]) What were the " bearing- 
poles," which were of " undecaying wood " '' ? 

(This statement) indicates two divine principles * : one, 
the pillar and base and stability ^ of the intelligible world, *= 
and the other (those) of the sense-perceptible,' on which, 
as if on a foundation, it "» is set up with stability. For each 
of these bears its own arrangement " ; although it is very 
heavy, the heaviness is, as it were, very light. The prin- 
ciples," moreover, are undecaying, since they are the utter- 
ances of God. 

" Aucher " naturae." 

^ Tas IdTjixeplas, here taken to include the solstices as 
subdivisions. 

" Lit. " ethereal " : Aucher " pro sereno." 
** i.e. the two sets of rings. 

* Or " reckoning " — \6yov : Aucher " calculum." 
^ Or " works " — epycov : Aucher " operum." 

" alvLyixaTwv vel sim., i.e. symbols. 

'' LXX 7TOi7jcr€LS Be dva(f>op€ls €K ^vXcov dcrqiTTCov {v.l. ^vXa 
dcrq-nTo) KoX KaTaxpvacoaets avrd XP^'^^V • Heb. " and thou 
shall make staves of sitttm (acacia)-wood, and overlay them 
with gold." 

* Xoyovs : Aucher " verba," in footnote, " vel, . . . ratio- 
nes." 

^ Aucher " columnam ac fulcrum constantiae." 

* Tov voTjTov KocTfjLov. ' Tov aladrjTov. 
"• i.e. each of the two worlds. 

" Koofxov or SiaKoaixTjoLv : Aucher " ornamentum." 
" ol XoyoL : Aucher " verba." 

105 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

58. (Ex. XXV. 13 [Heb. 14]) Why are the bearing-poles 
fitted to the rings for lifting the ark ? « 

There are two principles ^ of the two worlds," which 
(Scripture) calls " bearing-poles." Being attached by 
seals/ they show the fated and necessary order of events,* 
which is the harmonious nexus ^ of things integrating 
single (events) into order. Accordingly, in the visible 
world they " are a likeness and form, but in the intelligible 
(world they are) signs and archetypes of rank and orders 
of things which progress and retrogress in accordance with 
the consistent order of nature.^ 



59. (Ex. XXV. 15 [Heb. 16]) What is the meaning of the 
words, " Thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which 
I shall give thee " * ? 

Now since the ark is a symbol of the incorporeal world,'' 
and it is necessary that this world be a sign of the laws *^ 
which He has called " testimonies," rightly and fittingly 
has He said that in word they should be placed in the ark 

" LXX Kal etod^eis tovs dva<f>op€is els tovs BaKTvXiovs tovs ev 
Tols /cAiVeai rrjs kl^cotov atpeiv Trjv ki^oitov iv avrois. 

^ Adyoi. 

" i.e. the intelligible and the sense-perceptible worlds. 

'^ Here again, as in QE ii. 56, Philo plays on the lxx word 
BaKTvXlovs, which can mean " seal-rings." 

* Slightly emending the Arm. text, which has " events of 
orders." The original was something like rrjv dfiapfjievrjv 
Kol dvayKaiav rd^iv rcbv avfi^aivovTcov. Aucher renders more 
briefly, " praescriptum ac necessarium eventum." 

^ elpfjLos. 

" Although the verb is singular, the context requires a 
plural pronoun to be supplied, referring to the two bearing- 
poles. 

'* Kard rds rrjs <f>va€Ois aKoXovdlas vel sim. : Aucher " secun- 
dum naturae concinnationem." 

* lxx /cat ifji^aXels els ttjv kl^wtov to. fxaprvpta a dv ScS ctoi. 
Philo briefly alludes to this verse in De Vita Mosis ii. 97 els 
ydp TavTT]v KaTariderai ret xPl^^^^^ra Adyta. 

106 



f 



I 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

but in deed " in the intelligible world * in order that it " 
may be attached to them ^ in all its parts and extend 
(throughout)/ 

60. (Ex. XXV. 16a [Heb. 17a]) What is the "mercy- 
seat " f and why did He call it a " cover " ' ? 

The " mercy-seat " is mentioned as a symbol of the pro- 
pitious and beneficent power.'* And it is called " cover " 
because it stands over and is established over the intelligible 
world.* But since the perfect form ^ is above, rightly is 
the propitious power (said to be) up above, since all things 
are established and stand firm upon it. 

61. (Ex. XXV. 16b [Heb. 17b]) Why does the mercy-seat 
have only length and breadth but not depth ? * 

" Adyo) /LieV . . . epyoj 8e. * eV to) voi^Toi Kocrfio). 

" i.e. the intelligible world. 

^ i.e. the laws. 

" Aucher renders less accurately, I think, " ut cunctis suis 
partibus illic jacens perseverabit." 

^ Lit. "propitiatory (instrument) "= lxx IXaaTrjpiov, see 
next note ; " mercy-seat " is here used because it is the 
familiar A.V. term. 

" LXX /cat 7TOi-qa€LS IXaarripiov eVt^e/xa ;fpuCTioy Kadapov. The 
two Greek nouns render the single Heb. noun kapporet, 
which means both " cover " and " propitiation " or " atone- 
ment." It seems to have been a gold plate fastened to the top 
of the ark and serving as a floor for the Cherubim, as Philo 
assumes in De Vita Mosis ii. 97 to 8' eVt^e/Lta to -npoaayopevo- 
fxevov IXaaTrjpiov jSacri? iarl ttttjvcjv Svolv, see also De Fuga 100. 

^ TTJs IXcu) Kal evcpycTLKTJs Swdfiews avfi^oXov. 

' Sict Tou oTTJvai avTO /cat Ihpveadai virep tov votjtov Koafxov 
vel sim. Aucher renders, " quia superpositus est firmiter 
intelligibilis mundus," but in a footnote he gives an alter- 
native and better rendering, " tv/, super intelligibilem mun- 
dum positum est." ^ Prob. etSo? : Aucher " visione." 

^ i.e. why does Scripture give only two of its dimensions ? 
lxx hvo TTTix^ojv Kal riixiaovs to fJLTJKOS, /cat tttJx^os Kal ^fxiaovs 
TO ttXcltos. In De Vita Mosis ii. 96, Philo allegorizes this 
question somewhat differently, see last note on this section. 

107 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

A magnitude lacking depth and seen only in length and 
breadth is called a " surface " ** by geometricians. And 
the " surface " ^ of the Existent One " is seen also through 
other powers, ** especially through the propitious and bene- 
ficent ones/ But those who receive good, immediately 
thereupon see the Benefactor appear before their eyes 
together with His virgin daughters, the graces/ 

*62. (Ex. XXV. 17a [Heb. 18a]) What are the cherubim ? " 
(" Cherubim ") is to be interpreted as " great recogni- 
tion," in other words,'' " knowledge poured out in abun- 
dance." ^ But they are symbols of the two powers, the 

" €Tn<f>dveia. 

** Philo plays on the double meaning of em^a^eia as " sur- 
face " and " (divine) manifestation." " toC "Ovtos. 

^ Lit. " other virtues and powers," but the two Arm. nouns 
prob. render the single Greek noun bwdfxcojv : Aucher " per 
alias virtutes." 

* bid TTJs tXeoj /cat cvepyeriKrjs, see the preceding section. 

^ i.e. acts of divine grace. The " virgin graces " of God 
are also mentioned in De Poster. Caini 32. The general idea 
of this section is partially paralleled in De Vita Mosis ii. 96 
onep €OLK€V elvai avfi^oXov <f>vaiK(x)T€pov [xev rrjs tXeco tov Oeov 
8vvdfi€cos, rjdLKcorepov 8e Stavotas TrdXiv, lAeco S' iavrfj, r-qv Trpos 
vtpos dXoyov atpovaav koL <f>vau)aav otrjaiv dTV(f>Las epcori, avv em- 
arrjpLrj ariXXeiv /cat Kadaipelv d^iova-qs. 

" LXX Kat TToi-qaeis Bvo x^pou^et/n (v.l. ^^pou^etV : Heb. 
k^rubim). Philo allegorizes the cherubim of the ark in De 
Vita Mosis ii. 97-100, and the cherubim of the Garden of 
Eden in De Cherubim 21-29. The whole of the present section 
has been preserved in Greek (in Cod. Vat. 379). 

^ Lit. " names." 

* The Greek frag, reads more smoothly rd x^pov^lp, epurj- 
veuerai ixev iTriyvcxyoL? ttoXXtj, ^ iv irepOLS ovofxa iTnarrjiirj TrXovaia 
KoX Kexvp-evrj, cf. De Vita Mosis ii. 97 xepoujStjU, ojs 8' dv "EXXrjves 
eiTTOtev imyvojais /cat iirtaTT^fi.rj ttoXXt]. According to Edmund 
Stein, Die allegorische Exegese des Philo aus AJexandreia 
(Giessen, 1 924), p. 52, Philo's fanciful etymology is based on 
the combination of the two Heb. words hakkir " to recognize " 
and bin " knowledge," but the second word may be rabbim 
" much," " many." 

108 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

creative and the royal." The creative (power), however, 
is the elder according to (our) thinking,^ for though the 
powers around God are of the same age, still the creative 
(power) is thought of before the royal one." For one is 
king not of that which does not exist, but of that which 
already exists. ** And the creative (power) has been given 
the name " God " in the sacred * Scriptures, for the 
ancients ' spoke of creating as " placing," " while the royal 
(power) is called " Lord," since " Lord of all " is (the name) 
consecrated to the king.'' 



^63. (Ex. XXV. 17b [Heb. 18b]) Why is the chasing of 
gold ? »■ 

Gold is a symbol of a precious substance,^ Avhile the 

** So the Greek frag, (except that it adds " of the Existent 
One " to " powers "), avfi^oXa 8e eWi Svelv tov "Ovtos bvvdnecov 
TTonp-LKTjs re Kal ^aatXtKrjs, see also De Vita Mosis ii. 99. On 
these two chief divine attributes see QG ii. .51, iv. 2, De 
Cherubim 27 et al. 

* So the Greek frag., Trpea^vrepa 8e tj TronyTiK-j) rrjs jSactAi- 
Krjs /car' €TTivoiav. 

" The Greek frag, reads slightly more fully la-qXtKes yap 
al ye Trepl tov deov airaaai Bvvdfieis, dXXa TrpoeTTivoeirai ttws t) 
TroLrjTLK-q ttjs /SaaiAtKTys. 

** So the Greek frag., ^amXevs yap rt? ovxl tov pL-q ovtos dXXd 
TOV yeyovoTOS. 

* Lit. " sacred and divine," but the two Arm. adjectives 
prob. render the single Greek adjective iepols, as in the Greek 
frag. 

/ i.e. the ancient Greeks. 

" So the Greek frag., ovo/xa Se eAap^ev eV roig Upols ypdpLpLaaiv 
•q pL€v TTOirjTLKT} dcos, TO ydp TTOLTJoat dclvai eXeyov ol TraXaioi. 
Philo makes the same etymological connexion between deos 
and delvai in De Vita Mosis ii. 99 et al. 

^ The Greek frag, reads only slightly differently -q 8e 
^aaiXiK-fj KVpios, eTrciSi) to Kvpos dTrdvrojv dvaKelrai tco ^aaiXel. 

* So the Greek frag., AiaTt xP'^^ov ropevrd : i.xx {Kal voi-q- 
aets 8vo x^pov^el/j,) xp^(^d Topvemd (v. I. xpix^oropevrd). 

* The Greek frag, has the superlative form of the adjective, 
d pL€v xpvaos avp.^oXoi' ttjs TipLuuTdT-qs ovalas. 

109 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

chasing (is a symbol) of an artful and skilled nature." For 
it was proper that the chief powers of the Existent One 
should be ideas of ideas and partake of a substance that is 
most pure and unmixed and most precious and, in addition, 
most skilful. *• 



^64. (Ex. XXV. I7c-18 [Heb. 18c-19]) Why did He fit the 
cherubim to the two sides of the altar ? " 

(This indicates that) the bounds of the whole heaven 
and the world are fortified by the two highest guards, one 
being that (power) by which God created all things, and 
the other that by which He is ruler of existing things.'' 
For (each power) was destined to look out for (the world) 
as its most proper and related possession, the creative 
(power seeing to it) that the things made by it should not 
be destroyed, « and the royal power that nothing be in 
excess, mediating the victory by law as a sign of equality, 

" So the Greek frag., 17 Se ropeia ttjs ivrexvov koI eTnarT]jxo- 
viKrjs (f)va€cos. 

^ The Greek frag, diifers only slightly, eSet yap ras Trpwras 
Tov "OvTos SvvdfieLS ibeas ISewv imapxovoas Kal ttjs KadapcoTarrjS 
Koi dfxiyovs kol TLnaX(f>€aTdTrjS koL rrpoaeTL rijs eTnaTTjixovLKCOTdTrjs 
<f)vaeois fiCTaXaxeiv. 

" Apparently the Arm. translator has erred in using selan 
" altar " instead of hastaran " mercy-seat." The Greek frag, 
reads Atari Itt d[i^OTipoiv rdv kXltcov tov iXaaTrjpLOV rd x^pov^ifi 
■qpfiOTTe : Lxx koi ividTJaeis avrd e^ dfi(f>OT€pcDV tcov kXltcjv tov 
IXaaTfjplov rtoiiqdriaovTai x^poujS els eV tov kXltovs tovtov /cat 
X^poi)^ els eV tov kXltovs tov hevTepov tov IXaorTjplov Kal TTonjaeis 
rovs 8vo x^povfielfjL im ra 8vo kXItt]. 

'^ So the Greek frag., tovs opovs tov Travros ovpavov Kal 
KOOfjLov 8val rals dvcoTaro) (f>povpaXs (hxvpcjaOai, tjj re Ka9* rjv 
i-noUi TO, oXa deos, kol tjj Kad' rjv dpx^t' tcov yeyovoTOiv. On the 
cherubim as symbols of the two highest divine attributes, 
corresponding to the names " God " and " Lord," see above, 
QE ii. 62, notes. 

* So the Greek frag., e/xeAAe yap ws oiKetordTov Kal avy- 
yevcardTOv KTr^iaTOS vpoK'qSeaOai, rq fiev TTOirjTLKrj tva firj XvOeirj 
Ta TTpos avTTJs yevofxeva. 

110 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

by which things eternally endure." For through excess 
and inequality (come) occasions for war, the destroyers of 
existing things.'' But good order and equality are the 
seeds of peace and the causes of salvation and perpetual 
survival. "^ 



■^65. (Ex. XXV. 19a [Heb. 20a]) Why does He say that 
the cherubim shall extend their wings to overshadow (the 
mercy-seat) ? ^ 

All the powers of God are winged, striving for and de- 
siring the path upward to the Father.* And that, like 
wings, they overshadow the parts of the universe indi- 
cates that the world is protected by guards, (namely) by 
the two powers (already) mentioned,' the creative and the 
royal." 



*Q6. (Ex. XXV. 19b [Heb. 20b]) Why do the faces of the 

" Here apparently the Arm. translator has clumsily ren- 
dered the original which, according to the Greek frag., read 
rj 8e ^amXiKr) ottcos fjLTjSev /xT^re TrXeovcKTrj fi-^Te rrXeoveKTrJTai, 
vofjLO) ^pa^evofjLeva tu> rrjs laoTtjTOS, v<f>* "^S to. Trpdyfiara Staico- 

* Here again the Greek frag, reads more smoothly 77-Aeo- 
ve^ia H€v yap Koi dvicroTrjs opfjLrjT-qpLa rroXefiov, Xtn-LKO. twv ovtojv. 

" So the Greek frag., to 8e evvofMOv Kal to taov etpijvrjg avep- 
fjLara, aairrjpias alria koI Tfjs elad-nav Siafiovrjs. 

^ So the Greek frag., Atari <j>riaiv " iKreivei rds Trrepvyas rd 
Xepov^lfj, tva avcrKid^rj " ; LXX eaovrai ol x^pov^lfj, iKTCLVOvres rds 
7TT€pvyas eVavtu^ev, avaKid^ovres iv rals Trrepv^iv avrajv em rov 
iXaoTTjplov. 

' So the Greek frag., at fiev tov dcov Trdaai Svvdfieis vrepo- 
<f>vovai, T-fJT dvco TTpos TOV TraTcpa 68ov yXixofxevai t€ Kal i<f>- 

l€fJL€Vat. 

^ See above, QE ii. 62 and notes. 

" Only slightly diiferent is the wording of the Greek frag., 
avaKidt,ovai. 8e ola Trrepv^i Ta tov Trai^o? fJ-^py)' atviTTerai 8e at? 
o KOOfxos oKeTTats Kal (jivXaKT-qpLOis (jtpovpeiTai, 8val Tais etprjfievais 
bwajxeai Tjj t€ TTOirjTiKfj Kal ^aaiXiKrj. 

Ill 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

cherubim look at each other, and both (look) at the mercy- 
seat ? " 

Most excellent in a way and seemly is the form of what 
is said,* for it was proper that the powers, the creative and 
the royal," should look in the direction of each other, 
beholding their own beauty and at the same time both 
conspiring together for the advantage of created things/ 
In the second place, since God is one (and is) both Creator 
and King,* rightly did they receive divided power/ For 
they were indeed usefully divided in order that one might 
create and the other rule, for they are distinct. «' And they 
were joined together in another way by the eternal attach- 
ment of names to one another,'' in order that the creative 
(power) might be a spectator of* the royal, and the royal 

** So the Greek frag., Aiari ra npoacoTra rdv x^pov^lfi els 
dXXrjXa eKvevei Kol a/x(f)(o TTpos to IXaaTrjpiov; Lxx kol ra Trpoa- 
coTTa avTwv els dXXrjXa' els to IXaarrjpiov eaovrat rd TTpoawTra 
Tcov x^pov^etv. In Be Cherubim 25 Philo paraphrases Scrip- 
ture as follows, Koi yap avrnrpoacoTrd (f)r]aLV elvac vevovra TTpos ro 
IXaar-qpiov TTTepols, eVetSi^ /cat ravra dvTiKpv /xev ianv aAAi^Acov, 
and he adds the brief comment v4vevKe hk eVt yrjv to p.€oov tov 
Tram-OS, (p Kal BiaKplveTai. 

* So the Greek frag., TrayKdXrj ris eon kol OeoTTpeTrrjs rj rcov 
XexdevTwv cIkcov. " See the preceding sections. 

'^ So the Greek frag., eSei yap rds BwafxeLS, tt^v re noi-qriK-qv 
Kal ^aaiXiK-qv, els dXXrjyopiav {I. Cum edd. aXX-qXas) d(f>opdv, rd 
a<f)d)V KaXXr] Koravoovaas koX dfia Trpos Trjv d)(f)eXeiav tcDv ye- 
yovoTOiv avfiTTveovaas. 

" So the Greek frag., Sevrepov eVeiSi^ o deos, els <^v, Kal 
TTOi7}T-qs eari Kal ^aaiXevs. 

^ Here the Arm. translator either had a different text or 
misunderstood the original. The Greek frag, reads elKorcos 
al hiaardaaL Bwdfieis TrdXtv evcoaiv eXa^ov, " rightly did the 
divided powers again receive unity." 

" So the Greek frag, (except for the pronoun added at the 
end), Kal ydp hLearrjaav o}<f>eXLpniiS Iva tJ pikv TTOcfj, rj 8e dpxxj' 
hia^epei ydp eKorepov. 

^ So the Greek frag, (except for the phrase " to one 
another " added in the Arm.), koX rjppLoadrjoav ereptp rpoTrcp 
Kard rrjv twv ovo/iarcov dtbiov TTpoa^oX-qv. 

* Greek frag, (see next note) " might hold to." 

112 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

of the creative.* For both rightly look at each other and 
at the mercy-seat,'' for if God were not propitious to those 
things which exist together," He would not have made 
anything through the creative (power) nor would He have 
been a lawgiver ** through the royal (power).' 

^67. (Ex. XXV. 21a [Heb. 22a]) What is the meaning 
of the words, " I shall be made known to thee from 
there " ' ? 

The most lucid and most prophetic mind receives the 
knowledge and science of the Existent One not from the 
Existent One Himself, for it will not contain His greatness, 
but from His chief and ministering * powers.'' And it is 
admirable * that from these His splendour should reach 
the soul in order that through the secondary splendour ' 

* The Greek frag, diifers in the verb, ottcos koI 17 TTOLrjTiKrj 
TTJs ^aaiXiKTJs KoX r) ^aaiXiKT) rrjs TTOirjTiicfjs e^'f^Tat. 

'' Again the Greek frag, differs slightly (omitting " at each 
other and "), a/x^orepai yap (rvwevovrnv els to IXacrTTJpiov cIko- 

TO*?. 

* The Arm. translator evidently read rols avvovmv, instead 
of Tois vvv ovaiv, as in the Greek frag, (see next note but 
one). 

•^ Aucher " neque disposuisset." 

* The Greek frag, differs slightly (see also note c), el fxr} 
yap tJv TOt? vvv ovaiv lAccos' o deos, ovt dv elpydaOr] ri Std rfis 
TTOLrjTtKrjs OVT* dv evvofjL-qdrj 8ia Trjs ^aaiXiKris. 

^ So the Greek frag., rl cctti" ^^ yvioadriaopLai aoi eKeWev"; 
Lxx Kol yvcoadiqaofiai aoi eKcWev (Heb. " there "). 

«' The Greek frag, reads more concretely " body-guard," 
see next note. 

'^ So (except for the word mentioned in the preceding note) 
the Greek frag., yvaJaiv koL CTnaT-qfirjv 6 elXiKptvearaTOS Kal 
iTpo(f>7)Ti.Ka>TaTos vovs Xafx^dvcL Tov "OvTOS ovK o.tt' aVTOV TOV 
"OvTos, ov yap ;^a)p7jCTet to fidyeOos, oAA' cItto tcDv Trpcorcov avrov 
Kai 8opv(f)6p(ov SvvdfJLecov. 

* Lit. " loved," but this prob. renders the same word as in 
the Greek frag., dyairqrov. 

^ The Arm. translator uses the same word to render 
(l>€yyovs here as he used to render avyds above, see next note. 

113 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

it may be able to behold the more splendid (splen- 
dour)." 



^68. (Ex. XXV. 21b [Heb. 22b]) What is the meaning of 
the words, " I will speak to thee * above from " the mercy- 
seat, between the two '^ cherubim " « .? 

By this He shows first of all that the Deity is above the 
propitious and the creative and every (other) power/ 
Next, (He shows) that He speaks rightly " in the midst of 
the creative (power).'' And this the mind conceives some- 
what as follows.* The divine Logos, inasmuch as it is 

*■ So the Greek frag., koI ayarrrjTov eKeldev els ttjv fpvxrjv 
<f)€p€adai ra? avyas tva 8vv7)Tai 8ia rod Sevrepov ^iyyovs to rrpea- 
^vrepov Koi avyoeiSearepov dedaaodai. 

* The Greek frag, omits " to thee," which is found in lxx 
and Heb. and in other passages of Philo, see below. 

" i.e. " from above." 

^ The Greek frag, omits " two," which is found in lxx and 
Heb. and in other passages of Philo, see next note. 

* The Greek frag, reads slightly more briefly rl iarv 
" XaXrjaoi dvcodev rov IXaaTrjpiov dva fieaov rajv x^pov^ip, "; LXX 
Kal AoAiyato aoL dvcodev rov IXaarrjpiov dvd p,eaov rcov hvo x^pov- 
jSctv TcDv ovTcov em Trjs kl^ojtov tov pLapTvpLov kox {v.l. omits 
/cat with Heb.) Kara TTOvra oaa dv eWeiAoj/xai aoL npos tovs vlovs 
'lapoTyA. In Quis Rer. Div. Heres 166 and Be Fuga 101 Philo 
quotes part of the lxx in the same wording as here, and 
comments more briefly than here. On the symbolism of the 
cherubim see the preceding sections in QE ii. 

^ So the Greek frag., e/x^aivei 8ia tovto (1. tovtov) Trpwrov 
p.kv on Kol Trjs lAeco /cat rijs TTOtrjrLKTJs Kal Trdarjs 8vvdp,€ios 
vnepdvco ro detov iarc. 

" Aucher " quasi." The word, which is missing in the 
Greek frag., is perhaps the Armenian translator's device for 
conveying the force of the superlative ending in p-eaairarov, 
see next note. 

^ The Arm. text is apparently defective. The Greek frag, 
reads more intelligibly eveira on AoAet Kara ro p,eaairarov 
rijs re Troir)nK-^s /cat ^aaLkiKrjs. 

* So the Greek frag., rovro Se roiovrov vrroXapL^dvei vovs. 
114 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

appropriately " in the middle, leaves nothing in nature 
empty," but fills all things and becomes a mediator and 
arbitrator for the two sides which seem to be divided from 
each other, bringing about friendship and concord,'' for 
it is always the cause of community and the artisan of 
peace.** Now the particular features of the ark have been 
spoken of,* but we must also summarily resume and review 
for the sake of finding out what things these are symbols 
of/ Now these symbols are the ark and the ordinances 
stored in it and the mercy-seat upon it and, upon the 
mercy-seat, the cherubim, as they are called in the Chal- 
daean " tongue, and directly above them, in their midst, 
the voice and the Logos and, above it, the Speaker/ And 
so, if one can accurately view and understand * the natures 
of these, it seems to me that one should renounce all the 
other things that are eagerly sought after, being capti- 
vated by their godlike beauty.^ But let us consider what 

" Or " chances to be " : Aucher " est conveniente." 

* The Greek frag, reads slightly more briefly o tov Oeov 
Xoyos fidaos cuv ovSev ev rfj (f>va€L /caToAetTrei K€v6v. 

" The Greek frag, reads similarly but a little more smoothly 
Ttt oAa TrXrjpihv /cat fxeairevei /cat Statra rot? Trap' iKarepa SteCTxavai 
hoKOvai, ^lAi'av /cat oyndvotav epya^d/itevo?. 

•* The Greek frag, reads more briefly aet yap Koivaivias 
oItios /cat 8r]fuovpy69 (Grossmann add. elpi^v-qg). 

* So the Greek frag., ra jxev ovv rrepl ttjv kl^cotov Kara fxdpos 
etprjTac. 

f So the Greek frag.. Set Se avXX-q^Srjv avwdev avaXa^ovra 
TOV yvuipiaat, X^P'-^ rivcov TavTO. iari avfi^oXa Bte^eXdelv. 

" i.e. Hebrew. 

^ So the Greek frag., ^v Se raura avfi^oXiKo.- kl^wtos /cat to. 
ev avrfj 6Tjaavpi!l,6fi€va vd/xi/ta /cat eVi toutt^s to IXaaTrjpiov /cat 
ra eVi rod IXaar-qpiov XaASaiojv yXcorrrj Aeyd/x.eva x^pov^iiM, virkp 
8e rovTcnv Kara ro fidaov <f)0)vri /cat Xoyos /cat vTrepdvco 6 Xeycov. 

* The Greek frag, omits " and understand," see next note. 

* Aucher, taking the participle, here rendered " being 
captivated," to agree with " all the other things " rather than 
with the impersonal subject of the verb " should renounce " 
(infinitive in the Arm. text), renders, " caetera omnia quae- 
cumque aemulationem merent deiformi pulchritudine circum- 

115 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

each (of these things) is like." In the first place (there is) 
He Who is elder than the one and the monad and the be- 
ginning.* Then (comes) the Logos of the Existent One, 
the truly " seminal substance of existing things. ** And 
from the divine Logos,* as from a spring, there divide and 
break forth two powers.^ One is the creative (power), 
through which the Artificer placed " and ordered all things ; 
this is named " God." ^ And (the other is) the royal 
(power), since through it the Creator rules over created 
things * ; this is called " Lord." ' And from these two 

data." The Greek frag, agrees closely with the Arm. as 
rendered above (except for the omission mentioned in note i 
on p. 115), el 8e tis aKpi^ws SvvqOetr] KaTavorjoat tols tovtcdv 
<f>va€i,s, SoKCi jjiOL irdaL tois oXXols airoTd^aadai, oaa ^rjXcord, 
icaAAeai ^coetSeCTTctTots TTepi\T]^QeLs. 

" So the Greek frag., aKoiT(x)fi€v 8e eKaorov olov iart,. 

^ So the Greek frag., to vpcorov 6 kol evos koI fiovdBos Kal 
o.px'fjs TTpea^vTcpos. 

" The adverb ( = Gr. ovrcjs) is missing in the Greek frag., 
and may reflect a mistaken repetition of ovros or ovtcdv in the 
Arm. translator's Greek text, see next note. 

^ So the Greek frag, (except for the omission mentioned 
in the preceding note), eireira 6 tov "Ovtos Aoyo?, rj aTTeppLaTiK-q 
rwv ovTcov ovaia. 

* The Arm. yen ( = eV tov ovtos) is prob. a corruption of 
the usual contraction, ayin, of the adjective astouacayin 
" divine." Aucher renders, " ex ente vero Verbo," adding 
in a footnote the theological comment " Judaeus noster 
Philo Entem fassus est ipsum Verbum, sicut Patrem suum, 
etc." 

f The Greek frag, reads slightly more briefly d-Tro he tov 
Oeiov Xoyov, Kaddrrep diro TTTjyfjs, axi^ovTai 8vo (at 8vo edd.) 
BvvdfieLS. 

' i.e. " created." Philo uses edrjKe for the sake of explain- 
ing the etymology of deos^ the name of the creative power, see 
QE ii. 62 notes. 

^ So the Greek frag., rj fxev TToiTjTiK-q, Ka6' rjv edrjKe rd rrdvTa 
Kal SieKOOfirjoev 6 TexviTrjs, avrr) 6e6s ovofid^eTai. 

* Variant " He rules over things created by the Creator." 
' So the Greek frag., -fj Se ^aaiXiK-q, Kad* ^v dpx^i twv ye- 

yovoTcov 6 BrjfjLtovpyos, ai;T7/ KaXetTai Kvpios. 

116 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

powers have grown the others." For by the side of the 
creative (power) there grows the propitious, of which the 
name is " beneficent," while (beside) the royal (power 
there grows) the legislative, of which the apt name is 
" punitive." * And below these and beside them (is) the 
ark ; and the ark is a symbol of the intelligible world." 
And the ark symbolically contains all things established 
in the innermost sanctuary, (namely) the incorporeal world 
and the ordinances which He has called " testimonies " 
(and) the legislative and punitive powers (and) the mercy- 
seat '^ (and) the propitious and beneficent (powers and), 
up above, the creative (power), which is the source * of the 
propitious and beneficent (powers), and the royal (power), 
which is the root of the punitive and legislative (powers).^ 
But there appears ^ as being in their midst the divine 
Logos and, above the Logos, the Speaker.'' And the 

" So (except for omission of the article before "others") the 
Greek frag., oltto 8e tovtcov rajv Bvelv Bvvdfj.€cov iKire^vKaaiv erepai. 

^ So the Greek frag., Trapa^XaardveL yap rfj jxkv iroL-qriKfj rj 
tAeo)?, ^s ovofia cuepyeVi?, tjj 8e ^aaiXiKjj rj vofj.oOeriK'q, ovoyia Se 
evdv^oXov "fj KoXaar-qpios. 

'^ So the Greek frag., vm Se ravras kol Tvepl ravras ri 

KL^OiTOS' €OTL Sc Kt^OJTOS KOCTflOV VOT^TOV aVfM^oXoV. 

** Arm. haStaJcan " propitious " is an obvious miswriting 
of haUafan " mercy-seat." 

* The Greek frag, has maTij, an obvious corruption of 
irrjyT] (so the Arm.), which occurs in the same connexion 
earlier in this section. 

^ So (with the exception of the word mentioned in the 
preceding note) the Greek frag., exei 8e to. vdvTa IBpyfieva iv 
ToZs iaojTaTois dyiois avfx^oXLKoJs -q ki^cotos, top dacj^arov 
Koofxov, rd vofxifxa d kIkXt^kc fxapTvpia, rrjv vofjLoOeTiKrjv kol KoXa- 
arrjpLov SvvafjLiv, to IXaoTiqptov, ttjv tAeco Kal evepydrLv, rds VTTcpdvo) 

T-qV T€ TTOlTjTlKTfV, T]Tt,S ioTl TTtCTTlS' [l. TT^yTj) TTJS lAeCt) KOL €V€py€Tl.8oS, 

KOLL T-qv ^aaiXiK-qv, tJtis earl pi^a rrj? KoXaarrjplov kol vofxodeTiKrj<;. 

" Arm. araweleal e " there is multiplied " is evidently a 
corruption ofereiceli e " there appears," as in the Greek frag., 
see next note. 

'* So the Greek frag., uTrc/LK^aiverai 8c fxeaos cov 6 ddos Xoyos, 
dvcoTepu) 8e rod Xoyov 6 Xeycav. Philo here repeats an earlier 
part of this section. 

117 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

number of the things here enumerated amounts to " seven, 
(namely) the intelligible world and the two * related 
powers, the punitive and beneficent " ; and the two other 
ones preceding these, the creative and the royal, have 
greater kinship to the Artificer than what is created <* ; 
and the sixth is the Logos,* and the seventh is the Speaker/ 
But if you make the beginning " from the upper end, (you 
will find) '^ the Speaker first, and the Logos second, and 
the creative power third, and the ruling (power) fourth, 
and then, below the creative, the beneficent (power) fifth, 
and, below the royal, the punitive (power) sixth, and the 
world of ideas seventh.* 

" Lit. " is filled up," see the next note but one. 

^ The Arm. lit. = 8i' ov, an obvious error for 8vo, as in the 
Greek frag. 

" So the Greek frag., eart 8e koI 6 twv KareiX^yfievwv 
apidfjios ejSSo/xaSi avfjLTrXrjpovfievos vorjros Koa^LOS, Kol Swafxeis 
8vo avyyevels rj re KoXaar-qpios koi evepy^Tis. 

^ Here we must emend the Arm. on the basis of the clearly 
better readings of the Greek frag., /cat erepac -npo tovtojv 8vo 
17 re TTOirjTLKrj koI t] ^aaiXiKrj, avyydveiav exovaai fidXXov TTpos tov 
Srjfiiovpyov •^ to yeyovos. The Arm. lit. = avyyevetav e;^€i fxdXXov 
6 BrjixLovpyos kol to yevos, which makes no sense. 

* Here again we must correct the Arm. from the Greek 
frag., which reads Koi €ktos 6 Xoyos. The Arm. =/fai eKaaros 
6 Xoyos t which is meaningless. 

^ So the Greek frag., koX e^hofios 6 Xeywv. With this list 
of seven cosmic symbols compare the list of ten cosmic parts 
in QG iv. 110. 

" The Armenian translator appears to have read Karapxqv 
instead of KaTapidfirjaiv, as in the Greek frag., see next note 
but one. 

'' The Arm. lacks a verb to govern the following nouns, 
which are in the accusative case. 

* So (except for the two variants mentioned in the pre- 
ceding two notes) the Greek frag., iav Se dvcudev r-qv Karapid- 
inqaiv ttoltj, evprjueis tov fiev Aeyovra irpcoTOv, tov Be Xoyov 8eu- 
Tepov, TpiTiqv Se Tr]v voiTjTLKrjv Bwafiiv, TeTapTrjv be ttjv apxrjv, 
eiTa be vtto fiev ttj ttoltjtlktj 7T€fji7rTr)v ti]V evepyeTW, j'tto 8e ■ ttj 
^aaiXiK-fj eKTTjv ttjv KoXaoTijpLOv, e^bopuov he tov €K twv Ihecov 

KOOfJiOV. 

118 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

69. (Ex. XXV. 22 [Heb. 23]) What is " the table " and 
why is it " of pure gold " " .'' 

Having spoken symbolically of incorporeal things,* when 
He was discoursing divinely " about the ark in the inner 
sanctuary, "^ He now begins to speak of those things which 
are in sense-perception,* rightly and appropriately be- 
ginning with the table. Since the table is a vessel ^ for 
food and (since) nothing intelligible " is given food but 
only those who have been allotted the nature of corporeality. 
He makes the table a symbol of sense-perceptible and body- 
like substance. '^ Not only that but also because the table 
indicates a kind of communion • among those who receive 
a common share ^ of salt and sacrifices. For (this) leads 
to loving one's fellow * for one's own sake.' But there is 
nothing anywhere so lovable as the parts of the world made 
from their own substance."* For one who is about to eat 
and to be made glad by the Father, (Who is) the begetter 
of these (foods), is taught from above to give in exchange 

" LXX Kal TTOi-qaecs Tpdire^av xpvarjv (v.l. omits xpvaijv) xpvcriov 
Kadapov, 8vo Trrixecov to fjLrJKOs Kal ttt^x^os to evpos Kal tttJx^os 
Kal rjixtaous to viJjos. Instead of " a table of gold " Heb. has 
" a table of sitthn (acacia)-wood," but adds " and thou shalt 
overlay it with pure gold." 

** TTcpl dcnoixaTCov SiaXe^dfMivos (rvfi^oXiKcos. 

*^ eOeoXoyei. ^ eV rots dSvTOis. 

" €v TTj alad-qa€L (v.l. iv Tats aladijaeat) . 

^ aK€vos : Aucher " receptaculum." 



VOTjTOV. 



^ aludrjTTJs Kal awfiaroeiSovs ovaias. 



KOlVCOVLaV TLVa. 



' Here the Arm. uses a different word for KOLvwvlav. 

*= Lit. " one's like." 

' The syntax and meaning are not clear : Aucher " si- 
quidem est adducens similem in dilectionem propter {vel^ 
per) se." 

"• This sentence is also obscure. Aucher in a footnote cites 
the interpretation of the Arm. glossator, who takes " their 
own " to mean " one another's," and thinks that Philo is 
referring to the changing of the four elements into one 
another. 

119 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

and return the benefit as if to brothers by the same father 
and the same mother." Moreover, the table was of pure 
gold because the entire substance of the world was of the 
tested and chosen part, for everything, whatever it was by 
its own substance and nature, was about to receive even 
greater perfection.* 



70. (Ex. XXV. 23 [Heb. 24]) Why are there " wreathed 
waves " around the table ? " 

The corporeal substance ** of all things undergoes turn- 
ing ^ and change ' for the genesis of the parts of which the 
world was constituted. 



71." (Ex. XXV. 28 [Heb. 29]) Why are there, upon the 
table, cups and censers and libation-bowls and ladles ? ^ 

" The Arm. glossator takes this sentence to mean that the 
elements of the world have been taught to give parts of them- 
selves to one another in gratitude to the divine powers from 
which their substance is derived. 

* TeXeLOT-qra. 

" LXX /cat TTonjaeis avrfj arpeTiTa KVfjLaTia xpvad {v.l. orpeTrrov 
KvfjLaTtov xP^oovv) : Heb. " And thou shalt make for it a 
wreath (A.V. " crown ") of gold around." See above, QE 
ii. 55 ( = Ex. XXV. 10) on the " wreathed waves " around the 
ark. 

^ 17 awfiariKT) ovaia. 

* aTpo(f)rjV. 

^ Aucher renders both nouns by the single word " muta- 
tionem," but this obscures Philo's point, which is that the 
" turning " {i.e. twisting) of the " wreathed waves " sym- 
bolizes the changing of the elements into one another, 
mentioned in the preceding section. 

" The four verses of Scripture here passed over in silence 
speak of the gold rings to be made for holding the staves by 
which the table is to be carried, see above, QE ii. 56 ( = Ex. 
XXV. 11) on the gold rings made for the ark. 

'' LXX Koi TTOiijaeLS to. rpv^Xia avrrjs Kal ras OvioKas kol to. 
OTTOvhia {sic) KoX Tovs Kvddovs, iv ols aneiaeis ev avrols' x/'i'ortou 
Kadapov TTOLijaeis avrd. 
120 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

The cups were symbols of foods, and the ladles of ban- 
quetmg, since unmixed wine " is measured by them, and 
the censers are vessels of incense, and the libation-bowls 
are for wine which is poured as a libation. Accordingly, 
through the food and the unmixed wine (Scripture) in- 
dicates '' the graciousness '^ of the greatness and muni- 
ficence of God, Who gives not only necessities ^ but also 
whatever pertains to the abundant and ample enjoyment 
of munificence. And through the incense and libation 
(Scripture indicates) the pleasure of those to whom good 
things happen. For those who are nourished by visible 
food * in the form of allegory ' also say that every soul 
desirous of moral excellence ^ is a libation, that is if one 
first pours out and dedicates one's virtue ^ to God.* And 
this is an act desirable and agreeable ^ and pleasing to the 
heart of the Father, just as is the most sweet-smelling 
incense by its fragrance. 

72. (Ex. XXV. 29 [Heb. 80]) Why does He say, " Thou 

shalt place upon the table bread before Me continually " ^ } 

The loaves of bread ' are symbolical of necessary foods, 

" TO aKpOTOV. 

" ras ;;^aptTas. 

* Auchcr " constantibus cibis." 
^ dXXrjyopias. 

" KaXoKayadlas : Aucher " probitatis." 
^ dpeTTJv. 

* Aucher, construing slightly differently, renders, " liba- 
men est, profundens dedicansque virtutem Deo." A similar 
idea is expressed by Philo in Quis Rer. Div. Heres 184 ttjs 
fpvXT]? TO fiev djxiyes Kal aKparov fJLcpos 6 a.KpaL(f)veaTaTos vovs 
ioTiv, OS . . . oXos eiV lepdv crTTOv8r)v dvaaTOix^icoOels dvraTTO- 
StSorai. 

^ Lit. " to the mind." 

* LXX /cat €TTL9i]a€LS em ttjv rpdrre^av dprovs evioiTLOVs (Heb. 
" bread of face " : A.V. " showbread ") ivavriov fiov Sta 
TTavTos. Philo refers to the showbread briefly in De Con- 
gressu 168, De Vita Mosis ii. 104 and De Spec, Leg. ii. 161. 

^ Lit. " the breads." 

121 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

without which there is no life ; and the power <» of rulers 
and peasants * by the ordering of God (consists) in the 
necessities of nature, (namely) in food and drink. Where- 
fore He adds, " before Me continually thou shalt place the 
loaves of bread," for " continually " means that the gift 
of food is continual and uninterrupted, while " before " 
(means) that it is pleasing and agreeable to God both to 
be gracious "^ and to receive gratitude.'* 



73. (Ex. XXV. 30a [Heb. 31a]) Why is the lampstand 
" turned " (and) of pure gold " * ? 

The lampstand is a symbol of the purest substance, 
(namely) the heaven.^ For this reason it is said later " that 
it was made of one (piece of) gold. For the other parts of 
the world were wholly made through the four elements, 
earth, water, air, and fire, but the heaven of (only) one, 
(this being) a superior form,'' which the moderns * call 
" the quintessence." ^ And rightly has (heaven) been 

" Variant " equality." 

^ Or " commoners " : Aucher " villicorum." 

^ evxcLpt-ariav. 

" Lxx KoX TToiTjoeis Xvxviav (Heb. m^norah : A.V. " candle- 
stick ") €K xpi'o-lou Kadapov, ropevr-qv {v.l. ropvevT-qv, which 
seems to have been Philo's reading, see below) Troii^o-ety T17V 
Xvxviav. The cosmic symbolism of the lampstand is also 
dealt with in De Vita Mosis ii. 102-103, cf. Josephus, Ant. 
iii. 182 and B.J. v. 217. 

•^ avfi^oXov TTJs KaQapojT arris ovoLas tov ovpavov. 

" At the end of this verse, see the following section. 

^ eibovs. 

* 01 v€(x)T€poL, perhaps the Aristotelians, but see next 
note. 

^ Or " fifth substance," T17V 7T€p,7TT7]v ovalav. Curiously 
enough, in Quis Rer. Biv. Heres 283 Philo acribes the notion 
of the quintessence to " the ancients," TrenTTTrj yap, ws 6 tcov 
apxalcov Xoyos, earoj tls ovaia KVKXo({)oprjTLKTq, tojv reTTapojv Kara 
TO KpeiTTOv hia(f>€povaa, e| ^s ol re darepes Kai 6 avfiiras ovpavos 
cSo^e yeyevijodai. 

122 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

likened to the lampstand in so far as it is altogether full 
of light-bearing stars. And riglitly does He describe it " as 
" turned," for the heaven was made and illuminated ^ by 
a certain turner's art " in accordance with periodic cycles,'' 
each of which is accurately and clearly * turned,^ and the 
natures of the stars are all described by divine skill." 



74. (Ex. XXV. 30b [Heb. 31b]) Why is it that the shaft 
and the branches and the bowls '' (and) the knops and the 
lilies were all " of that " * ? 

(Since) the theologian ^ was all- wise," * he clearly knew 
in his wisdom that the heaven itself is a harmony and union 
and bond '■ of all those things which are in heaven, just as 
the limbs which are arranged in the body are all adapted 
(to one another) and grow together."* 

" i.e. the lampstand. 

* Or " adorned " : Aucher " illustratum." 

" Prob. TopvevTLKjj TLVL r4x^TI rather than TopevTiKfj nvi 
rexvrj " by a certain chaser's art," although lxx and Heb. 
refer to chasing or embossing (A.V. " beaten work ") rather 
than lathe-turning. 

^ The Arm. apparently uses two nouns to render -ncpiohovs. 

* The latter adverb also means " accurately." Aucher 
renders both adverbs by the single word " accurate." 

■^ TopvovraL. 

" deia eTncTTijfjLr]. 

'^ Lit. " holders " but here reflecting lxx Kparrjpes. Below, 
in QE ii. 76, a different Arm. word is used, meaning " water- 
jar." 

* LXX o KavXos avTTJs koI ol KoXa^iaKOi koX ol Kparrjpes koI ol 
a(f>aipa}Trjp€S kol to. Kpiva (Heb. " flowers ") ef avTrj^ earai. 
Apparently Philo took e| ainiis to mean " all of a piece " or 
the like. 

^ 6 ^eoAdyos, i.e. Moses. 

* 7Tdvao(f)os, an adjective elsewhere applied by Philo to 
the patriarchs as well as Moses. 

' Aucher renders the three Arm. nouns by only two, 
" conjunctio colligatioque." 

"» Aucher " sicut connexa in corpore membra coaptata 
sunt naturaliter." 

123 




QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

75. (Ex. xxvi. 31 [Heb. 32]) What were the six branches 
which went out from either side, three equally " ? ^ 

Since it is not in a straight line but obliquely " that the 
zodiac '^ lies over and glancingly comes near the summer 
and winter solstices,* He says that the approach ^ to them 
is from the side, (and) the middle place is that of the sun." 
But to the other (planets) He distributed three positions '' 
on the two sides ; in the superior (group) » are Saturn,^ 
Jupiter *= and Mars,' while in the inner (group) "* are 
Mercury," Venus " and the moon.^ 

" i.e. in two identical sets of three. The form 
of the lampstand (menorah) may be schemati- 
cally represented as 

* Lxx €$ 8e KoXafjLLOKOL iKTropevoficvoL €K irXa- 
yicov, rpels KaXafxiaKOi rrjs Xvxv^as e'/c rod kXitovs 
avrrjs tov €v6s, koL rpeZs KaXafxiaKoi ttjs Xvxvlas eV 
Tov kXltovs tov hevripov. Philo comments on the 
two " triads " of branches in Be Congressu 8, 
where they represent the two chief attributes of God, see also 
below, QE ii. 78, 79 on Ex. xxv. 37. 

" ovK €vdv^6XoiS aXXa TrXayicos. 

^ 6 t,(x)0(f>6pos (kvkXos), cf. De Opif. Mundi 112. 

« Aucher " quoniam zodiacus non recte sed oblique jacet 
juxta tropica aestatis et hiemis." Philo is apparently referring 
to the obliquity of the ecliptic. 

f dycoyrj or ^opd : Aucher " inductio." 

" The general sense is that the light on the central shaft of 
the lampstand represents the sun, while the side-lights repre- 
sent the planets. '' ra^ei? : Aucher " ordines." 

» The " superior " or " outer " planets are those whose 
orbits are farther from the sun than is the earth's. 

^ Arm. ereveli, lit. " visible " or " bright " = Gr. 0aiWv. 

* Arm. lousnt'ag, lit. " light-crowned " = Or. ^ae^cov. 

' Arm. hrawor^ lit. " fiery " = Gr. irvpoeis. 
"* Aucher " inferius " (possibly a misprint for " interius "). 
The " inferior " or " inner " planets are those whose orbits 
are nearer the sun than is the earth's. 

" Arm. p*aylol, lit. " coruscating " = Gr. ariX^ajv. 

" Arm. arousek, lit. " dawn-bearer "=Gr. <f)0}o(f)6pos. 

p The ancients counted the moon (and sun) among the 
seven planets. 

124 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

76. (Ex. XXV. 32 [Heb. 33]) Why are there, on each of 
the three branches, bowls « modelled into the form of nuts 
and knops and lilies ? ^ 

At each season of the year the sun completes (its course) 
through three zodiacal signs, « which He has called " mix- 
ing-bowls," since three powers,** distinct and separate from 
one another, undergo a unified mixing to make up the 
time of one year. For example, the spring (consists of) 
Aries,* Taurus,^ Gemini " ; and, again, in the summer (we 
have) Cancer,'' Leo,' Virgo ' ; and in the autumn. Libra, *^ 
Scorpio,' Sagittarius "* ; and in the winter, Capricorn," 
Aquarius," Pisces. ^ And He likens the form and nature 
of the zodiacal signs to those of a nut, perhaps because a 
nut first sends out a bud ^ and afterwards flowers. It 
seems that (this comparison is made) also because har- 
monious sounds are set in motion, for I am not unaware 
that the name of the nut is mentioned in (the festival of) 
Heralds,*" for its shell is wont to make a sound of rattling. 

" Lit. " water-jars," but here ^Kparrjpes, see above, QE 
ii. 74 note h. 

* LXX Kol rpels KpaTTJpes eVTeTUTTcu/xeVot KapvloKOvs (Heb. 
m^hiqqadim "almond-shaped" [?]) eV roi /caAa/iiWoj a^atpco- 
TTjp Kai Kpivov (Heb. " flower ")• ovtcos toIs i^ KaXafxloKois toIs 

€KTTOp€VOp.€VOLS €K TTJS Xv^ViaS. " ^CoSiwV. 

'^ 8vvdp.€is : Aucher " virtutes." 

* Arm. xoy " ram." ^ Arm. coul " bull." 
" Arm. erkaworeakk' " twins." 

'^ Arm. xecgeti " crab." 

* Arm. ariuc " lion." 

' Arm. koys " virgin." 

* Arm. louc " yoke." 

' Arm. karic " scorpion." 
"» Arm. aUlnawor " archer." 

" Arm. ayceljiurn " goat-horn." 

" Arm. jrhos " water-pourer." 

^ Arm. zkounk' " fishes." 

" ^XaoTov. 

*■ Since no such festival seems to be known, one may sup- 
pose that the Arm. translator mistook Kapvareiais for a noun 
derived from KrjpvTreiv " to herald," and that Philo actually 

125 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

And (the bowls) are modelled in the form of spheres," since 
whatever is in heaven is wholly spherical, being given a 
perfect form just as is the world.'' And the lily (is men- 
tioned), perhaps because of its whiteness — since it is 
luminous," and the stars, moreover, are brilliant — perhaps 
also because there are radiant axes around a lily ^ — since 
each of the stars gives off radiance. The statement * also 
contains a description of character.^ The lily has a certain 
contrariety to other flowers, for (of these) some send out 
buds in winter, and (some) in spring, but the lily (buds) 
with the coming of summer, when other (flowers) wither. 
And (it is) a symbol " of the distinction between the human 
and the divine, and between profane or polluted and holy 
sacrifices, and between the imperfect and the perfect. For 
(other flowers) blossom when they are irrigated by streams 
of water, but the lily (blossoms) with the dog-star and after 
the dog-star, when the sun is flaming-hot. Wherefore 
some prophet says that the contemplative nation ^ shall 
blossom like the lily,* indicating ^ that it does not enjoy 

referred to the festival of Artemis Karyatis, celebrated at 
Karyai on the border of Arcadia and Laconia, where Artemis 
was associated with a nut-tree, c/. Lactantius on Statius, 
Theb. iv. 225 (cited by M. P. Nilsson, Griechische Feste von 
religioser Bedeutung, Leipzig, 1906, p. 196). 
" Lxx a<f>atpoyT7Jp€S (A.V. " knops "). 

^ O KOOfJiOS. 
" (f>COTO€t,b€S. 

■* Or " they are circling axes of lily-like radiance " : 
Aucher " propter axes splendoris instar lilium circumdantes." 

* o Xoyos. 

^ ridoTTOuav. 
" avfx^oXov, 

^ TO opariKov (or dcioprjTiKov) yevos, i.e. Israel, so referred 
to in several other passages of Philo. 

* Hosea xiv. 5, lxx eaofiai cos Bpoaos tw ^laparjX, avOrjoei 
d)S KpLvov Kal ^oAei ras picas' avrov cos 6 Ai^avos. Philo quotes 
from Hosea three times, from Isaiah four times, from Jere- 
miah three times, from Ezekiel twice, from Zechariah once, 
and in only one passage does he refer to the prophet (Jere- 
miah) by name. J alviTTopLevos. 

126 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

prosperity at the same time (as other nations) but that 
at the time when others have passed their prime, (Israel) 
begins (to flower) without the things it ought to have as 
inducements," for its flowering without water, when the 
sun is flaming, is not to be compared with what is usual.'' 



77. (Ex. XXV. 38-36 [Heb. 34-36]) Why are there four 
(mixing-)bowls on the lampstand ? " 

Each branch constitutes ** one season of the year through 
three zodiacal signs,* as has been said,^ while the lamp- 
stand (represents) the seasons of the year, which are four. 
Now these undergo a certain mixing to produce a year, 
for a year is nothing else than the completion of four 
seasons, of which it is mixed and consists. For the nature " 
of the seasons is not unmixed and inharmonious but has 
a harmony of mixture and a community '^ of interchanging 
(elements). For the completion of the preceding (season) 
happens to be the beginning of that which follows it. 



78. (Ex. XXV. 37a) Why are there seven lamps on the 
lampstand ? ' 

It is clear to all that the seven lamps are symbols ' of 

" Lit. " without convenient things and persuasions " ; 
Aucher " sine convenientibus expectatisque mediis." 

** Aucher, in a footnote, renders, " sive^ praeter opinionem 
est, velf vix credi potest." 

" LXX Kol €V Tjj XvXVLO. T€a(Jap€S KpaTTJpeS €KT€TV7TO)fjL€VOl 
KapVLOKOVS . . . KOL €V Tjj AvX^LO. T€aaap€S KpaTTJpeS €KT€TV- 

TruifxivoL KapvioKovs {sic : many i.xx ivrss. and Heb. omit the 
repeated half-verse). These four " bowls " {i.e. ornaments 
shaped Uke almond-blossoms) were distinct from the 
" bowls " placed at the ends of the six branches and on top 
of the central shaft to hold the lamps. 

** Lit. " completes " : Aucher " perficit." 

" IcphLoyv. f In QE ii. 76. 

" 7) (f>VaLS. '^ KOLVOivtaV. 

' LXX KOL TTOLljaeiS TOVS Xv)(VOVS auTT^? eiTTa. 

^ avfi^oXa. 

127 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

the planets, for the holy hebdomad belongs to those things 
reckoned as divine." And the movement and revolution 
of these through the zodiacal signs * are the causes, for 
sublunary beings," of all those things which are wont to 
take place in the embrace of concord, '^ in the air, in the 
water, on the earth and in all mixtures * from animals to 
plants/ 



79. (Ex. XXV. 37b) Why does He say that the lampstand 
shall give light " from one side " <> } 

The planets do not travel around all parts and sides of 
the celestial sphere but only in one part, in the south, for 
their motion is, as it were, near our zone,'' whence the 

<* Text slightly emended : Aucher " septenario numero 
in connumerationem cum divinorum sacro calculo con- 
scriptorum." For the thought cf. Quis Rer. Div. Heres 225 

€TTLyeiov ovv ^ovXrjdels apxervnov ttjs /car' ovpavov a(f)aipas inra- 
(f)€yyovs fXLfiTjpLa Trap' rjpuv o Texvirrjs yeveadai rrdyKaXov epyov 
TTpooera^e ttjv Xvxviav 8r)ixL0vpyr]dijvai, but in the latter passage 
Philo also makes the lampstand a symbol of the soul. 

" TOis fxera aeXi^vTjv. 

^ Aucher " causa . . . conciliandi in osculum concor- 
diae." 

« Aucher " temperamentis." 

^ Text slightly emended, reading mind ( = ews) instead of 
miM (=d€i) : Aucher " animalium plantarumque semper." 

" Aucher " ex una regione " : lxx Kal imOiijaeLs roiis Xvx- 
vovs {v.l. adds avrrjs), koI (f)avov(nv e'/c tov 4v6s Trpoawirov [v.l. 
adds avTTJs) : Heb. " and thou shalt make its lamps seven, 
and they shall put up its lamps and cause it to give light over 
against its face." Philo understands the last obscure phrase 
to mean that the lampstand was to be placed in one part (the 
south) of the tabernacle, see next note. 

* Aucher notes that his text represents a conflation of the 
two Mss. in this sentence, but he does not give their separate 
readings. For the thought cf. De Vita Mosis ii. 102 Tr]v Se 
Xvxvia.v iv rols votlois, 8i' "^s alviTTerat, tols tcov (f)coa(f)6piov Kt-vrj- 
aeis darepcov -qXios yap koL aeX'qvrj koI ol dXXoi ttoXv tcov ^opeiojv 
d(f)€aTa)Tes voriovs TTOiovvraL ra? TTcptTroAi^creiS'. 
128 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

shadow •* falls not on the southern but on the northern 
side. For this reason He has said not ineptly that the 
lampstand shall give light from one part, indicating 
(thereby) that the revolution of the planets is in the 
southern regions. 

80. (Ex. XXV. 38) What are the " uplifters " * of the 
lampstand, and the " bases " " ? 

The " uplifters " are so named from " lifting up," ^ for 
the oil, which kindles the light, is lifted upon the lamps,* 
while to the light-bearing stars all their light happens to 
be brought from the celestial sphere.^ For just as whatever 
is luminous in the eyes is irrigated ^ by the soul, for souls 
are most luminous, so is the radiance of light in the stars 
wont to receive its illumination from the most pure 
ether.'' 

" Cast by the noon- day sun in the northern hemisphere. 

'' Aucher " tegmina " : Arm. verarkouk' usu. =dva^oXaL, 
TtepL^oXaia and the like : lxx iirapvaTrjpa " vessels for pouring 
(oil) " ; Old Lat. " suffusorium " : Heb. malqahehd " its 
snuffers" (A.V". "tongs"): Arm. O.T. bazamkakals = 
eTTapvarijpas. Apparently Philo read iTrapvoTTJpa and fanci- 
fully took it to he connected with iTraipeiv " to lift up " as 
well as eirapveiv " to draw a liquid from above." It should 
be noted, moreover, that in the papyri apvar-qp means " dip- 
ping-pail " or the like, such as was used in irrigation- 
machines, cf. Claire Preaux in Chronique (Vflgypte^ xxv. 
(1950), p. 352. 

" Lxx TCI vTTodcfiaTa : Heb. niahtotShd " its coal-pans " 
(A.V. "snuff dishes"): Arm. O.T. necouks—ra v-n-ode- 
fxara. 

** Aucher renders freely, " Tegmina seu Anabola nomen 
sortita sunt ab dva^dXXeiv, svpermittere.'' 

* Aucher " eoquod sicut lucernis ad lumen excitandum 
oleum supermittitur." 

^ See above, QE ii. 78, on the cosmic symbolism of the 
lamps. 

" apSerai (with a play on enapveLv), cf. Leg. All. i. 98 
Tnjyi]? Se rpoiTOV apSet rds atad-qaeis 6 vovs. 

'^ €K Tov KadapcoTOLTOv aWcpos. 
SUPPL. II F 129 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

81. (Ex. XXV. 39) Why did He assign to the lampstand 
the weight of " a talent of pure gold " « ? 

The ark, the table and the censers He described by giving 
their dimensions but in the case of the lampstand He does 
not mention the dimensions but indicates the weight,* for 
the reason that, as I said a little while ago,'' it is a symbol ^ 
of the whole heaven. Now heaven, (being) a sphere,^ is 
unprovided with work-tools and unequal measures,^ being 
adapted to the rule of equality ^ in accordance with its 
figure and the rest of its nature,'' But it does have weight, 
since everything ponderable is after it.* For nothing 
sublunary ^ (stands) by itself, but everything small or 
large is wont to be elastic,*^ as if (affected) by the wonderful 
artificer, the invisible Logos in heaven.^ And the talent 

" LXX TTavra to. OKevrj ravra rdXavTOV (Heb. kikkdr) xp^f^^ov 
KaOapov. 

^ rrjv oXktjv. 

" In QE ii. 73-80. 

** OV/JL^oXoV. 

* a^aipa. 

^ The Arm. lit. = opyaviKUiv oKevaJv Kal dviacov fxerpcov dixer- 
oxos e'cTTi but is apparently a misunderstanding of the Greek. 
The original may have been Spydvcov Kal dviaoTrjroiv, as Prof. 
I.. A. Post suggests, citing Plato, Tim. 33. 

" laoT-qros Kavovi, as in De Aeternitate Mundi 108. 

^ Kara to axrjfia koL Kara. TrfV dXXiqv (f>vaiv vel sim. : Aucher 
" secundum figuram et diversam naturam." 

* Apparently this means that the weight of objects on 
earth is determined by the weight of heaven. 

^ /Lterd aeX-^VTjv. 

* Lit. " sinew-stretching " — vevporeves. Prof. Post thinks 
that this refers to the commutation of the four elements, as in 
wStoic doctrine ; he cites Dio Chrysostom, Or. xxxvi. 50-53. 

^ Syntax and meaning not clear : Aucher " sed omne 
quidquam pusillum ac magnum, tamquam ab admirabili 
artifice secundum caeli rationem invisibilem, vigorem prae- 
ferre consuevit." The Arm. glossator, cited in Aucher 's 
footnote, paraphrases, " sicut oculorum delusores mira 
quaedam apparentia figurant, sic et luminaria invisibiliter 
demutant elementa mundi : nee non Verbum divinum prae 
manibus gerens universum, sicut auriga habenas." 
130 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

is likened to unity (because) the heaven is one and is not 
like anything else in its shape or powers.** For the four 
elements * have a kinship " to one another both in substance 
and in their movement ** — in substance when they are 
transformed into one another, and in their movement in 
that fire and air are confined to a rectilinear motion upwards 
from the centre, while water and earth (move) downwards 
from the centre/ But heaven moves not in a straight line 
but in a circle, having a figure that is equal on all sides 
and most perfect. May it not be, then, since the parts of 
the earth, according to those who study astrology,^ are 
said to measure sixty," that He appointed the talent (to be) 
its form, for the talent consists of sixty minas ? 



82. (Ex. XXV. 40) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Thou shalt make (them) according to the pattern which 
has been shown to thee on the mountain " ^ f 

" Swdjieis : Aucher " vires." 

" avyyeveiav or possibly olKcioyaiv, cf. F. C. Robbins in 
Loeb Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos, p. 65 n. 3. 

'^ Koi Kar^ ova Lav /cat /caret TT€pL(f>opdv (?). 

* Arm. ket = hoth. Kevrpov and oTLyyufj : Aucher " centro," 
adding in a footnote, " proprie punctum sonat.''^ For the 
upward movement of the two lighter elements and the 
downward movement of the two heavier elements (17 686s avo* 
and rj 686s Kdno) see, among other passages in Philo, De 
Aeternitate Mundi 110. 

^ /card Tovs rij fiadrjfjiaTiKi] axoXd^ovras, here meaning philo- 
sophical astronomers like Plato in the Timaeus. 

" Cf. QG iv. 164, where, however, Philo speaks of the 
sixty parts of the cosmos rather than of the earth. 

^ Lxx 6pa TTOL-qaeis {v. I. +7ravTa) /card t6v tvttov (Heb. " their 
form ") t6v SeSeiy/LteVov (Heb. " which thou art shown ") iv 
Tw opcL. The verse is quoted in Leg. All. iii. 102 in slightly 
different wording /card t6 TrapdSeiyfia to SeSeiy/xevov crot eV Tip 
6p€L Trdvra ttoit^ctci?. There Philo quotes it to show that Moses 
was the artificer of the archetypes, while Bezaleel was the 
artificer of the objects made in accordance with these. 

131 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Through the " pattern " He again indicates ** the in- 
corporeal heaven, the archetype of the sense-perceptible,'' 
for it '^ is a visible pattern and impression '^ and measure. 
He testifies to these things by saying " See," * (thereby) 
admonishing (us) to keep the vision of the soul sleepless ^ 
and ever wakeful in order to see incorporeal forms," since, 
if it were (merely a question of) seeing the sense-perceptible 
with the eyes of the body, it is clear that no (divine) com- 
mand would be needed for this. 

83. (Ex. XX vi. la) What is the tabernacle ? ^ 
Having first of all alluded to the incorporeal and in- 
telligible world * by means of the ark, and the substance 
of the sense-perceptible (world) ^ by means of the table, 
and heaven by means of the lampstand,*^ He begins to 
represent ^ in order those things which are sublunary, *" 
(namely) air, water, fire and earth, making the tabernacle 
represent their nature and substance. For the tabernacle 

" alvLTTerai. 

* rov dauifxaTOv ovpavov, dpx€TVTTov rod alaOTjTOV. 
" i.e. heaven. 

<* *.e. seal-impression — a<j>payis: Aucher " signum." 

* It is not necessary to suppose that the word "see " has 
accidentally been omitted from the lemma of this section, 
since Philo occasionally takes it for granted that his readers 
will be able to supply for themselves words omitted from the 
verses he quotes. 

^ Cf. De Vita Mosis i. 289 rots' rrjs fpvx'fjs d/coi/iiyrois' ofifjiaai. 
" etSr) or iSe'as : Aucher " species." 

* Lxx Koi Tr)v aKrjvriv TToi-qans ktX. Philo refers to the cosmic 
symbolism of the tabernacle in De Congressu 116-117, cf. 
Be Vita Mosis ii. 74-88. In several other passages, e.g. Leg. 
All. iii. 46 and Quis Rer. Div. Heres 1 12, he makes the taber- 
nacle a symbol of wisdom or virtue. 

* alvL^dfji€vos TTpcoTov rov dadofxarov Kal vo-qrov Koapuov. 

' Tr]v rod alaOrjrov ovaiav. M 

* See QE ii. 53-81 on Ex. xxv. 9-40. | 
^ d-neLKovlieadaL vel sim. : Aucher " describere." The 

same verb, nmanecoucanel, is used at the end of the sentence. 
"* rd puerd aeXT^vqv. 

132 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

is a portable temple * of God and not a stationary or fixed 
one. And (similarly) those things which are below heaven '' 
are mutable and changeable, while heaven alone is un- 
changeable and self-consistent " and similar to itself. But 
this statement '^ also reveals a certam delineation of char- 
acter." Since they were passing through a wilderness 
where there were no courts ^ or houses but (only) taber- 
nacles," which were made for necessary purposes (such 
as) giving the help of warmth against the cold, he "^ thought 
it right that there should be a most holy temple to the 
Father and Creator of all things. Moreover, he showed 
that the divine name, which is in need of nothing,* dwelt 
together, so far as one might believe, with those who were 
in need of a tabernacle, to receive piety and worthy holi- 
ness.' Now, as for those who saw the structure of the 
divine tabernacle likened to their own dwelling,^ what 
would they have been likely to do ' other than to bow down 
in return for what was done ™ and bless the Overseer and 

" <f>opr}r6v Upov, as it is called in De Vita Mosis ii. 73. 

^ Lit. " behind heaven " — to. /xer' (instead of vtt') ovpavov, 
apparently on the analogy of to. /xera ocXtJi^v. 

" Kad' iavTov : Aucher " stante per se." 

•* Adyos. * rjdoTTOuav tlvol. 

^ Aucher " porticus." The same Arm. word (srah) is used 
to render lxx auAai'a? " curtains " in the next section. Here 
it prob. renders auAai, cf. De Congressu 116. 

'^ oKijvaL ^ Presumably Moses. 

* aTrpoffSees. 

' The syntax is uncertain, and the sense is obscure. More 
intelligible is the corresponding passage in De Vita Mosis ii. 
73 (Colson's translation), " But, as they were still wandering 
in the desert and had as yet no settled habitation, it suited 
them to have a portable sanctuary, so that during their 
journeys and encampments they might bring their sacrifices 
to it and perform all their other religious duties, not lacking 
anything which dwellers in cities should have." 

* Variant " nature." ' ti l/xeAAov TrpdrTeiv vel sim. 
"* The meaning of the prepositional phrase is not clear : 

Aucher renders freely, " pro viribus suis {vel, propter simili- 
tudinem visam)." 

133 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Guardian and Curator of His power ? " And familiar * 
to God is His power, O ministers ! " 

84. (Ex. xxvi. lb) Why does the tabernacle have 10 <* 
curtains ? * 

Many a time has much been said about the number ten 
in other places/ which for those who wish to prolong the 
discussion it would be easy to transfer here. But brevity 
of speech is liked by us, and it is timely and sufficient that 
whatever has been said be remembered.'' 



■^85. (Ex. xxvi. Ic) Why are the curtains (made) of 
woven linen and of hyacinth and of purple and of woven 
scarlet ? '^ 

What is spoken about is the workmanship of the 
(materials) woven together, which are four in number and 
are symbols of the four elements,* earth, water, air and 
fire, of which sublunary things ^ are made, while the 

** Tov €<f)opov Koi eTTLTpoTTOv Kol CTnfjLeXrjTTjv avTov Svvdfiecos vel 
sim. 

* Or " peculiar," as Prof. Post suggests. 
" Or " worshippers." 

** Written as a numeral letter. 

* Lxx Kal TTjv aKTjvqv TTOirja€i? ScKa avXalas ktX. Philo com- 
ments on the ten curtains as symbols of the perfect number 
in De Congressu 116 and De Vita Mosis ii. 84. 

^ For various passages on the decad in Philo's writings 
(including the Quaestiones) see Staehle, pp. 53-58. 

" The exact sense of the clause is not clear. Aucher 
renders more smoothly but more freely, " et quod olim 
dictum fuit, satis juvat ad memoriam." 

^ liXX €K ^vaaov KeKXcoafievqs Kal vaKivdov kol TTop(f)vpas Kal 
KOKKLvov K€KXo)criJ,€vov. Thc interpretation of the four colours 
(linen being equated with white by Philo) is also found in 
De Congressii 116-117 and De Vita Mosis ii. 84-88. There 
is also a brief paraphrase of this passage in Theodoret's 
Quaestiones in Exodum (Migne, 248 d). 

* Cf. De Congressu 117a rwv Terrdpow arotx^lcov avfi^oXd 
eoTLV. ^ TO, VTTO aeXijvrjv. 
134 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

celestial sphere " (is made) of a special substance,^ of the 
very most excellent things which have been brought 
together." For (Scripture) indicates ** the earth by " linen," 
for linen * is earthly and from the earth ; and water by 
" purple," since water is the producer of this ^ ; and air 
by " hyacinth," for the air is black «' and has no illumina- 
tion in itself, wherefore it is illuminated by another light ^ ; 
and fire by " scarlet," for its colour is fiery.' And so he ' 
thought it right that the divine temple of the Creator of 
all things should be woven * of such and so many things 
as the world was made of, (being) the universal temple ' 
which (existed) before the holy temple."* 

86. (Ex. xxvi. Id, 8) Why does He say in addition, " Work 
of weaving thou shalt make the curtains which are woven 
together with one another " " ? 

" TTJs Kar^ ovpavov o<f>aLpas. 

** e^ e'^aipeVou ovaias : Aucher " ex separata substantia." 
•^ Aucher renders less literally, " optimisque rebus con- 
stante " (for " constantibus "). ^ atviTTerat. 

* Here the Arm. renders ^vaaos by votts, whereas elsewhere 
in this section he uses the word hehez. 

f Philo explains this more fully in De Congressu 1 17 to yap 
TTJs jSa^Tj? aiTiov eV OaXdrTrjs, r} oixcovvpuovaa Koyxq (prob. the 
murex). 

" So De Congressu 117 and De Vita Mosis ii. 88 /xeAas yap 
ovTos (f)vaeL. By " black " Philo means " dark blue." 

'^ This further explanation is omitted in the parallels. 

* TTvpoeiS-qs vel sim., cf. De Congress a 117 ipL^epeararov yap 
<f>XoyL : De Vita Mosis ii. 88 Ston (f>oLVLKovv ("bright red," 
not " purple ") eVarepov. ' Moses. 

^ i.e. constructed. ' to iravUpov. 

"* Cf. De Vita Mosis ii. 88 ■^v yap avayKalov iepov x^tpoTTOirjTOV 
KaraoKevd^ovTas tcu narpl Kal rjyefiovi rov vavTos rds 6p.oias 
Aa/Seiv ovaias als ro oXov ih-qpnovpyei. 

" Philo here combines the last clause of vs. 1 and vs. 3, and 
paraphrases : r.xx x^pov^dp, ipyaaia v^avrov ttoltio^is avrds 
{sc. rds avXalas) . . . irevre Se auAaiai eaovrai e^ dXXijXwv 
ixdp,€vaL rj crepa eV ttjs ir4pas /cat Trivre avXalai eaovrai avv€xd- 
fievai irepa tjj eVepa. 

135 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

It " has such a nature as to be perfected ^ (as) one out 
of many. Such too is the substance of the world,'' for it 
was mixed of the four elements,** and these were, after a 
fashion,^ woven together ^ with one another to produce 
one completely worked texture." 

87. (Ex. XX vi. 2) Why was the length of (each) curtain 
28 ^ cubits, and the breath 4 (cubits) } * 

The doctrine ' of the number four is divine and holy and 
most apt (and) has been allotted the proper praise pertain- 
ing to numbers.'' But at the present time the natural 
virtue ^ of the number 28 must be set down. Now it is the 
first perfect number equal to its parts, "" and it has the 
matter of its substance from three," and especially for this 

" i.e. the tabernacle, see QE ii. 88. 

^ TeXeLOvoOai. " rj tov Koofxov ovaia. 

^ eK Tcov rerrdpoiv OTOLX^ioiV, 

* rpoTTOV riva. 

f Aucher " contextus est," apparently taking " world " 
to be the implied subject of the verb instead of " elements " 
as the context demands (neut. pi. subj. with sing. verb). 

" The Arm. = 7T)0os ivos v<j>a.aiiaTOS reXemovpyovixevov yeveaiv 
vel sim. : Aucher " ad unius staminis perfect! productionem." 

^ This and the following numbers, unless they are other- 
wise rendered, are numeral letters in the Arm. text. 

* LXX fJLTJKOs TTJs avXalas rrjs /xia? okto) /cat eiKoai ttt^x^^^' 
Kal evpos reoadpcDV Tr-qx^oiv rj avXaia rj fiia earai' fxerpov to avro 
earai ndaaLS rals avXaiais. There are parallels to this section 
in De Vita Mosis ii. 84 and De Spec. Leg. ii. 40, cf. De Opif. 
Mundi 101. •' o Xoyos. 

* The meaning is not wholly clear : Aucher " eoquod 
numerorum condignam benedictionem sortitus fuerit," 
adding in a footnote " vel, in sermone nostro de numeris 
laudem propriam." 

' rj (f)vaLKrj dper-q, i.e. the philosophical force. 

"» i.e. equal to the sum of its factors, 1+2+4+7 + 14 = 28; 
cf. De Vita Mosis ii. 84 tov oktcd Kal elKoaiv dpidfiov reXeiov 
taov rois davTov pLepeai. 

" Possibly this means that 28 is a cubic number, 1x4x7 
or 2 X 2 X 7. 
136 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

reason is it concordant with the first six," for six is the first 
(digit) equal to its parts.'' Accordingly, this number has 
one good (quality). And it has still another essence * 
through the number seven, since it is composed of units 
which go singly from one to seven, as follows : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 
6, 7, making 28. And the third (property) is that it multi- 
plies the number seven, being four times seven or seven 
times four. Now the number four is also related in 
species <* to the number seven, and there is nothing more 
perfect.* By these numbers the theologian ' says the taber- 
nacle was erected, making the length of the ten curtains 
twenty-eight cubits (each) and the total two hundred and 
eighty, while the (total) breadth was forty." And the 
power '' which the number forty brings to living beings * 
has already been spoken of.' As for the number two 
hundred and eighty, it is forty multiplied by seven, and 
the number seven is dedicated to God. 



88. (Ex. xxvi. 6) Why does He say, " And the tabernacle 
shall be one " ? *= 

Someone may say, " But, Master Theologian,' who does 
not know that many are not one, especially since you "* 
have already said," ' The tabernacle shall be made of ten 
curtains ' but not ' the tabernacles ' ? " May it not be, 
therefore, that the tabernacle's being " one " is a firmer 

" i.e. the digit six. 

* i.e. to the sum of its factors, 1+2+3 = 6. 
" ovaiav, possibly a corruption of (ftvatv. 

^ avyyevrjs eiSet. 

* i.e. than the number seven. 

^ o ^eoAdyo?, i.e. Moses. 

" Each of the ten curtains being four cubits broad. 

* TOLS ova I. 
^ In QG iv. 154. 

* LXX (end of verse) Kal earai -q aK-rjvr] /xt'a. 

' c5 Kvpie 6 OeoXoyos, i.e. Moses. 

*" Speaking in God's name. 
" See QE ii. 84 on Ex. xxvi. 1. 

137 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

seal indicating « the unities of sublunary things ? ^ For 
even though earth is distinct from water, and water from 
air, and air from fire, and fire from each of these, neverthe- 
less all are adapted to one determined form/ For it is 
natural that the matter <* which was perfected out of so 
many things should be one, especially since the interchange 
of the elements * with one another clearly demonstrates 
their common nature/ 



89." (Ex. xxvi. 28) What is the meaning of the words, 
" The middle bar between the pillars shall reach from one 
side to the other side " ^ ? 

Above this straight line of the single walls there is a 
bar between the twenty pillars to take firmer hold of their 
joining.' For by " the bar " He indicates ^ the Logos * 
ascribed to necessity,^ which in heaven above tends toward 

" The Arm. = a(f)payls ^e^aiorepa alviTTOixivq vel sim., 
meaning " confirms the impression given by (earlier) in- 
dications " or the like. 

^ Tcuv VTTO aeX-qvTjv. " ei? ev (Lpiajxevov ethos. 

^ Trjv vXrjv. * TcDv aroix^iiov. 

^ Tr}v KOLvoiviav : Aucher " communionem." 

" Ex. xxvi. 7-27, on which Philo does not comment here, 
describes the covering and framework of the Tabernacle. 

^ LXX /cat o ^ox^os 6 fieaos dva fxeaov rcov aTvXcov (Heb. 
" frame " : A.V. " boards ") huKveiado) o-tto tov 4v6s kXltovs 
els TO erepov kXltos. Philo seems to allude to this verse in 
De Vita Hosts ii. 77-79. 

* The syntax and meaning are uncertain, but cf. Be Vita 
Mosis ii. 78 " for the length (of the tabernacle) the craftsman 
set up forty pillars, half of them, twenty, on each side, leaving 
no interval between, but fitting and joining each to the next 
in order that it might present the appearance of a single wall." 

^ atviTTerai. 

* Aucher " rationem." Arm. ban here prob. means the 
cosmic Logos rather than the individual reason, cf. QE ii. 90. 

' So Aucher, " necessitati adscriptam " (the margins of 
the Arm. mss. have " Fate " for " necessity "), but the mean- 
ing escapes me. 

138 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

heavenly things. For by these " everything is held together 
as by an indissoluble bond. 

90.^ (Ex. xxvi. 30) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Thou shalt erect '^ the tabernacle according to the 
pattern shown to thee on the mountain " ** ? 

Again He indicates * the paradigmatic essences of the 
ideas ^ by saying " according to the appearance ^ which 
was shown to thee on the mountain." But the prophet '' 
did not see any corporeal thing there but all incorporeals.* 
And it is said that the tabernacle is to be erected directly 
before (their) faces,^ for sublunary things * have been 
granted a lower place ^ but are again raised above and 
elevated and established and set up upon the divine Logos,"* 
for the divine Logoi " are the foundations and bars " of 
the security ^ of all things. Do you not see that earth and 

" Aucher " per istam {i.e. rationem)," but the pron. is 
plural. 

^ A similarly framed question is asked in QE ii. 82 on 
Ex. XXV. 40. 

" Reading yaronsces with Codd. A, C : marginal variant 
arasces " thou shalt make." 

'^ LXX Kal dvaaTi]a€LS r-qv OKTjvrjv Kara ro elSos to SeSeiy/xe'vov 
aoi (Heb. " which thou wast shown ") ev to) opei. 

* alvLTT€Tai,. 

^ ras TTapaheiyyuaTLKas ovalas ras tcDv iSccDv vel sim. : Aucher 
" indicativas essentias specierum." 

" Arm. tesil = €l8os, 184a, oi/tis, etc. : Aucher " visionem." 
Note that in the Question a different word (orinak) is used. 

'' o 7Tpo(f>Ti^Trjs, i.e. Moses. 

* TTOLvra dacofiaTa. 

^ KarevavTL ck iTpooaiiTov vel sim. : Aucher " directe . . . 
in conspectu." 

* Ttt VTTO aeXrjVT^v. 

' Lit. " part." 

"* Aucher, construing slightly differently, renders, " elevata 
fundataque super divinum verbum erectum." 
" Or " words " : Aucher " verba." 
" /AoxAoi, cf. QE ii. 89. 
p Aucher " constantiae." 

139 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

water, inasmuch as they are in the midst of all air and fire, 
with the heaven surrounding (them), are not firmly fixed 
by anything at all other than their holding to each other, 
as the divine Logos binds them with all-wise art and most 
perfect adaptation ? " 



91. (Ex. XX vi. 31a) What is " the veil " «' ? 

By the veil the inside (of the tabernacle) is set off and 
separated from the things outside, for the inside is holy 
and truly divine,*' while the outside, though it is also holy, 
does not attain the same nature or a similar one. Moreover, 
it indicates <* the changeable parts of the world which are 
sublunary * and undergo changes of direction,^ and the 
heavenly (region) which is without transient events ^ and 
is unchanging. And (it shows) how they are set off and 
separated from one another, for the ethereal and airy 
substance is, as it were, a covering.'^ 



92. (Ex. xxvi. 31b) Why does He command that the veil 
be made " of hyacinth and of purple and of scarlet and of 
woven linen " * .'' 

" avvBeovTos avTO. tov Oelov \6yov navaocfxp Tixvrj koX reAeio- 
TttTT/ apjxovia vel Sim. For the thought see Wolfson, Philo^ 
i. p. 3.S8. ^ LXX Kal TTOLTjaeLS KaraTTeraafjia. 

" OVTCOS Oetov. ^ alvLTTerai. * vtto aeXi^vqv. 

^ Lit. " turnings ^''—arpo^ds or Tpo-nds : Aucher " varia- 
tionem." " Aucher " caret casu." 

'' VTTO rrjs atOeplas Kal deplas ovalas cJos KaXvpLfMaros vel sim. : 
Aucher " mediante aetherea aereaque essentia." While Arm. 
aragast can mean " partition " or the like as well as " cover- 
ing," the latter seems to be indicated by the partial parallel 
in De Vita Mosis ii. 101 -npovaov elpyofjievov Svalv v^dofxaai, 
TO) jxev €v8ov o KaXilrai KaraTTeraafia, tco 8' cktos o Trpooayopeverat 
KaXufjLfjLa. 

* LXX Kal 7TOi'r]aeis KaTaveTaafia e^ vaKivOov Kal 7Top(f)vpas 
Kal KOKKLVov Ke/cAcoCT/Lievou Kal pvaaov vevrjafievrjs' epyov v<f>avT6v 
TTOLT^acLs avTo x^pov^eLfjL. Here, as in QE ii. 85 on Ex. xxvi, 1, 
Philo omits any reference to the woven designs of cherubim. 

140 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

Just as He commands the ten curtains of the tabernacle 
to be woven of four mixtures, so also (He commands) the 
veil (to be made). For the curtains are veils in a certain 
sense," (although they are) not above the entrance but 
throughout the whole tabernacle. And these, as I have 
said,'' are tokens and symbols " of the four elements.'* 

93. (Ex. xxvi. 32a) Why does He command the veil to 
be placed above four pillars at the end of the tabernacle ? * 

The four columns^ are made solid," but in the tabernacle 
everything is a symbol of corporeal things,^ while incor- 
poreal things stand above the tetrad.* The point ^ is 
ordered in accordance with the monad, and the line in 
accordance with the dyad, and the surface in accordance 
with the triad, while the solid '^ (is ordered) in accordance 

" rpoTTov Tivd or, as in De Vita Mosis ii. 87, o-^eSov. 
^ In QE ii. 85. 

" The two Arm. words prob. render the single word 
cru/Ltj3oAa. 

** TcDv TeTTapcov OTOLX^icov. 

* LXX Koi eTTidrjaeis avro irrl reaadpcov otvXu)v dcr-qiTTcov Ke- 
XpvocofjLcvajv xpvcTLU). By " at the end of the tabernacle " Philo 
means the inner sanctuary at the western end of the taber- 
nacle. 

^ The Arm. translator here uses a diiferent word from that 
rendered " pillars " in the Question. 

" Prob. uTepeovvrai, anticipating the reference to the solid 
(to oTepcov) below : Aucher " firmatae sunt." 

'^ avfjL^oXov acofidTOJV. 

* This may mean that the objects in the inner sanctuary, 
concealed by the veil over the four columns, are symbols of 
the heavenly and incorporeal bodies (see the preceding 
sections) which stand over corporeal and sublunary bodies 
composed of the four elements. 

^ The Arm. text reads nSanaki " of a symbol " but this 
word is obviously meaningless here. Either the Arm. 
translator's eye must have fallen upon the word avfi^oXov in 
the preceding sentence or he must have misread or mis- 
interpreted ariyfia as arjuelov. Aucher renders, " signum 
(puncti)." * TO arepeov. 

141 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

with the tetrad, upon which stands the substance of in- 
corporeal things." Or by solidly drawing the progressions '' 
after the intelligible, "^ you will lead to the sense-perceptible 
form,'' as * all the visible columns of the tabernacle alto- 
gether amount to fifty, omitting the two hidden in the 
corners. And their power is that of a right-angled triangle.^ 



94. (Ex. xxvi. 33b) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Thou shalt set apart " the veil between the Holy of 
Holies " " ? 

I have said ' that the simple holy ' (parts of the taber- 
nacle) are classified with the sense-perceptible heaven, *= 

" 17 TOJV daojixoLTCOv ovaia. 

*> dva^daeis (?) : Aucher " egressum." 

" ficTa TO vorjTOV. 

^ ek TO aladrjTov etSos. The meaning of the clause escapes 
me. * Aucher " ita ut." 

f Cf. De Vita Mosis ii. 79-80, " Thus the whole number of 
pillars visible in the tabernacle, leaving out the two in the 
corners hidden from view, amounted to fifty-five. . . . But if 
you choose to exclude the five in the propylaeum . . . there 
will be the most sacred number fifty, the square of the sides 
of the right-angled triangle, the original source from which 
the universe springs." As Colson notes, "50 = 3^+42 4-52, 
and 3, 4, 5 are the sides of the primary form of the right- 
angled triangle." Cf. also Be Spec. Leg. ii. 176. 

" Aucher " facias dividere," see next note. The Arm. 
translator seems to have omitted the words " the holy (place) 
and " after " between," as the present text is obviously 
defective. 

^ LXX Koi hiopLet {v. I. 8i,opL€ts) KaTaTTCTaafia vfuv dva /xeaov 
Tov dyiov /cat dvd ^eaov rod dylov tcov dyiojv. Philo briefly 
alludes to the veil separating (ottcos Sta/cpivT^rai) the Holy of 
Holies from the " holy place " (the longer chamber of the 
tabernacle) in De Mut. Nom. 43, 192. The preceding clause 
in Ex. xxvi. 33 states that the ark is to be placed " within the 
veil," i.e. in the Holy of Holies. ' In QE ii. 91. 

'" TO. drrXd dyta, i.e. the " holy place," contrasted with the 
Holy of Holies. 

* TaTTerat Kara tov aladrjTov ovpavov. 

142 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

whereas the inner (parts)', which are called the Holy of 
Holies, (are classified) with the intelligible world." The 
incorporeal world is set off and separated from the visible 
one by the mediating Logos * as by a veil. But may it not 
be that this Logos is the tetrad, through which the corporeal 
solid " comes into being ? ^ For this * is classified with the 
invisible intelligible things,^ while the other (part of the 
tabernacle) " is divided into three '^ and is connected with 
sense-perceptible things, so that there is between them 
something (at once) invisible and visible of substance. 



95. (Ex. xxvi. 35) Why does He command the table and 
the lampstand to be placed " outside the veil " ? * 

I have shown earlier ' that by the table He indicates 
sense-perceptible substance, and by the lampstand, the 
sense-perceptible heaven.*' And they are placed ^ outside 
the veil because the things in the inner recess "* are invisible 
and intelligible," whereas those which are more external 
are visible and sense-perceptible. 

" Kara tov votjtov KOOfiov. 

^ vTTo TOV neOopLov Xoyov, cf. Quis Rer. Div. Heres 205. 

" TO aCOfXaTLKOV (TTcpeov. 

^ See the preceding section. 
* i.e. the Holy of Holies. 



Ttt aopara vorjTa. 



.e. the " holy place." 



^ Prob., as the Arm. glossator explains, the table of show- 
bread, the lampstand and the altar of incense. 

* l.xx /cat d-rjaeis r-qv rpdiret^av e^codev tov KaTaneTaaixaTOS, 
Kal TTjv Xvxvlav artivavri ttjs Tpav4t,r]s irrl fxepovs ttjs aKrjvrjs to 
TTpos voTOv Kal Trjv Tpdrre^av dijaeLS eVi fxepovs Trjs aKrjvrjs (Heb. 
om. " of the tabernacle ") to Trpos ^oppdv. 

' In QE ii. 69 and 73. 

*' alviTTCTai . . . TTJV alodrjT'fjv ovaLav Kal . . . toj' aiadrjTov 
ovpavov. 

' The Arm. verb is sing. 

"* iv ToXs iacoT€poLs fivxols vel sim., i.e. in the inner sanctuary 
or Holy of Holies. 

" dopaTa Kal vorjTd. 

143 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

96. (Ex. xxvi. 36) Why does He call the outer (hanging) " 
" a covering " and not " a veil," as in the case of the inner 
one ? ^ 

Since those things which are within (the sanctuary) 
incline toward the nature of incorporeal things," which is 
winged and upward-tending, their substance •* stands near 
to God. Now the veil is brought in (as derived) from 
" spreading wings." * In the second place, moreover, it 
has propinquity to the sense-perceptible things outside,^ 
and is rightly (called) " a covering," for the sense-per- 
ceptible hardly ever tends toward flying upward, since it 
is indeed less winged than incorporeal things, and in the 
same manner as that which is covered," it has an unclear 
comprehension.'' And may (this) not be because every- 

** i.e. the hanging at the entrance to the sanctuary or 
" holy place " contrasted with the hanging at the entrance 
to the Holy of Holies. In D« Vita Mosis ii. 87 Philo calls 
the former KaXvixfxa, while lxx calls it eViWaCTrpov and uses 
KaXvuixa for the hanging at the entrance to the court of the 
tabernacle. The Heb., however, uses the same word, masak, 
for the hanging at the entrance to the tabernacle as well as 
for that at the entrance to the court (Ex. xxvii. 16). The 
various lists may be seen in this scheme : 

1 . Hanging at Entrance to Holy of Holies 

Heb. pdroket lxx KaTaTreraajxa Philo KaTaiTeraayia 

2. Hanging at Entrance to Tabernacle 

Heb. mdsdk lxx iniaTraaTpov Philo {De Vita Mo- 

sis) KoXvfxfia 

3. Hanging at Entrance to Court 
Heb. mdsdk lxx KaXvfxfia Philo (De Vita Mo- 

sis) ttolklXov v(f)a- 
afjLa 

^ LXX KOL TTOL-qcxeis €TTtaTTaoTpov {v.l., followlng Heb., adds 
TTJ dvpa TTJs OKrjvrjs) i^ vaKivdov ktX. 

^ TTpOS TTjV (f)VaLV TTjV TU)V daajpLOLTCDV. '^ Tj OVGia. 

* Philo plays on the resemblance between KaraTreraap-a and 
KaTaTTerdadaL vel sim. 

' TOLS e^coOev aladrjTots. " Or " concealed." 

* dSrjXov KaTaXrjipLv^ i.e. it is not clearly apprehended. 

144 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

thing sense-perceptible is experienced " through sense- 
perception, and sense-perception is unstable and related 
to false belief,* while the intelligible (is related) to reason," 
and the mind <* is inerrant and a friend of knowledge ? * 

97. (Ex. XX vi. 37) Why is the " covering " placed upon 
five columns ? ^ 

Most excellently and carefully ^ has He assigned the 
pentad to the second covering ^ since this part (of the 
tabernacle) looks toward sense-perceptible substance.* 
For the pentad is the number of the senses.^ But to the 
former and inner (hanging ^ He has assigned) the tetrad, 
as I have said,' because it touches incorporeal things,"* and 
incorporeal things come to an end with the tetrad." 

98. (Ex. xxvii. la) Why does He call the altar thysias- 

terion ? ° 

" Lit. " receives experience " : Aucher " probationem {vel, 
experimentum) habet." ** d^e^aia Kal t/reuSei 80^77 avyyevqs. 
'' XoyLa/jLcp : Aucher " consiliis." ** 6 vovs or -q Siawta. 

* <f>LXos iTnaTTjixrjs : Aucher " intelligentiae amantissimus." 
•^ LXX Kal TTOi-qaeis tw /caraTreTaa/xaTt ttcvtc otvXovs ktX. The 

word Karairiraayia in this verse refers to the same hanging as 
that called e-nLaTraaTpov in the preceding verse, see the notes 
to QE ii. 96. In De Vita Mosis ii. 82 Philo refers to the 
bronze bases of these columns as symbols of the five senses. 
For other Philonic references to the symbolism of the pentad 
see Staehle, pp. 31-32. " TrayKaXws Kal eTnfieXws. 

^ i.e. the hanging at the entrance to the tabernacle, con- 
trasted with the veil (mentioned in the last sentence of this 
section) at the entrance to the Holy of Holies. 

* rrjv atadrjTTjv ovaiav. 

^ Cf. De Vita Mosis ii. 81 17 Trevrds alad-qaeojv dpLdfios ioriv. 

^ i.e. the veil, see note /*. 

' In QE ii. 93. "* tu>v dacofidrajv. 

" This prob. means that the tetrad is the boundary between 
the ethereal and the sublunary regions, see QE ii. 93, 94. 

" LXX Kal TTOL-qacLS dvaiaaTrjpiov €K ^vXiov darJTTTcov ktX. On 
the symbolism of this altar see De Vita Mosis ii. 106 and 
De Spec. Leg. i. 274. 

145 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Only this altar does not consume victims but preserves 
them." For the flesh is consumed by fire but the holiness 
of the sacrifice remains, for sacrifice is not flesh but the 
pure and unstained life of a holy (person).^ 



■^99. (Ex. xxvii. lb) Why was the altar quadrangular," 
and its length five cubits and its breadth equal ? <* 

(This is) because it is made for sense-perceptible and 
bloody (sacrifices), and the pentad is the number of the 
sense-perceptible class,* as I have said.^ In the second 
place, it has equal length and breadth because all the 
sacrificial victims which are ofi"ered by the heart of a pious 
mind " ought to be equal, whether one offers a hundred 
bulls or brings (merely) roasted wheat. For the Deity 
does not like wealth nor does He turn away from poverty.'' 
In the third place, the quadrangle * is a symbol of the fact 
that he who offers a sacrifice should stand firm in all re- 
spects ^ and in no way be deficient or lame in soul but with 

" Philo fancifully etymologizes dvGLaarijptov as a compound 
of dvaias " sacrificial victims " and r-qpelv " to preserve," cf, 
De Vita Mosis ii. 106 tov S' eV inraWpcv ^co/xov eico^c KaXeXv 
dvaiaar'qpiov coaavel TrjprjriKov Kal (f>vXaKTiK6v ovra OvaiaJv tov 
dvaXcoTiKov. 

Cf. ibid. alvLTTOjjLivos ov to, fxeXr) Kal ra fxepr] tcDv iepovpyov- 
fidvwv, dnep Bairavdadai irvpl 7T€<f>VK€v, dXXd rrjv npoaipeaiv tov 
7rpoa(f)epovTOS. 

i.e. with a square top. 
LXX Trevre TTrjxeoiv to , , 
TCTpdycovov eoTUL to dvoLaoT-qpLov ktX. 

" TOV aladrjTov yevovs : Aucher " sensibilis generationis " 
(/. " generis "). 

f In QE ii. 97. 

" The Arm. lit. = vtto KapBias vov (or Siavoias) €vo€^ovs. 

^ So the Greek frag, (which begins and ends with this 
sentence), oure ttXovtov doTrd^eTai to Oelov ovte Treviav dno- 

CTTp€(f>€Tai. 

' Or " square." 

' jSc^aiov TTavTeXws vel sim. : Aucher " constanter om- 
nino." 

146 



I 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

sound and full reason should make a thank-offering of 
those things which belong to a sound life." 



I 



100. (Ex. xxvii. Ic) Why is the height of the altar three 
cubits ? ^ 

The literal meaning " (refers to) the service of the several 
priests, that they may easily be able to perform their office 
by standing on a firm base, hiding their bellies and the 
things within their bellies, because of that many-headed 
beast, desire,"* and the farther * (part) around the heart, 
because of anger, the counsellor ^ of evil," that it may be * 
superior to the head. And the head is the temple of the 
mind,* in which firmly dwell thoughts ' and the ministering 
senses.'' But as for the deeper meaning,' the triad is a 
three-tiered, dense and full number,"* having no emptiness 
but filling up whatever is drawn apart " in the dyad. And 

" Aucher renders the last clause somewhat freely, I think, 
" sed integro plenoque consilio, recte tendente ad gratiarum 
actionem." 

^ LXX Kal rpiwv TTrjx^cov to vifjos avTov, " to prjTOV. 

^ Sict TO 7ToXvK€<f>aXov drjpLOv, tt)v iTTidvfjLLav, cf. De Somniis 
ii. 14, where rj8ovi] is compared with " the many-headed 
hydra " {cf. Plato, Rep. 388 c). In the present passage Philo 
seems to mean that the altar is just high enough to conceal 
the lower part of the priest's body. 

* Lit. " farthest." 

' The Arm. uses two words for " counsellor." 
" Aucher " malum consiliarium." 
'^ Apparently the original was " may not be." 

* Tov vov. ^ Xoyiaiioi: Aucher " consilia." 

* ai vTr7]p€Ti8€S alodrjacLS, cf. De Vita Mosis ii. 81 aladrjais 
. avaKa/jLTTTet -npos vovv vrrrjpiTis ovaa . . . avrov. 

' TO TTpos hidvoiav. 
"* rpl^oXos (?) Koi TTVKVos Koi irXrjprjS apidjxos : Aucher omits 
the first adjective (ptc. in Arm.) in rendering, " condensus 
plenusque numerus." For other mystical explanations of 
the number 3 see Staehle, pp. 25-26. 

*» Aucher " discerptum." I suspect that the Arm. trans- 
lator has here misinterpreted hiaararov " having dimensions " 
as " torn apart " or has confused ht,aarar6v with hida-naaTov. 

147 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

so He symbolically indicates " the height of the soul which 
sacrifices, thinking it right that this should be utterly and 
completely * crowded and full, not having in itself any 
desert-emptiness which might admit some evil or act of 
passion.*' But bear in mind that when the dimensions of 
the altar are multiplied, (namely) five by five by three, the 
number seventy-five is produced, concerning which some- 
thing has been said before/ 



101. (Ex. xxvii. 2) Why does the altar have horns not 
attached from above * but united (to it) ? ^ 

(This is) because it is not proper to sacrifice any of those 
(animals) which do not have horns, neither those which are 
offerings nor anything else." Accordingly, those which 
are to be offered as sacrifices are the following three (kinds) : 
the sheep, the ox and the goat. But beside these there are 
seven other (kinds permitted) for food : gazelle, deer, wild 
goat, buffalo, white-rumped antelope, oryx and giraffe '' ; 

" aVfJL^oXlKWS alvLTT€Tai. 

^ Trdaav 8td iravTCov. " TrdOovs. 

^ This may be a reference to Philo's lost book Uepl ^AptOficov, 
since there seems to be no reference to the number 75 either 
in the Quaestiones or in the extant Greek works of Philo. 

* Aucher " supercusa." 

f Lxx Kol TTOLTfaeLS TO. KepoTa eiTL TcDv reaadpcov ycovccbv i^ 
avTOv earai rd Kepara, kol KaXvtpeis avrd ^aXKib. Philo stresses 
the words e| avTov and takes them to mean that the horns, as 
it were, grow out of the altar, see the last sentence of this 
section. 

" The syntax of the last clause is not clear : Aucher " nee 
sacrificare neque alio modo offerre." 

^ BopKas, €Xa(f>os, Tpay4Xa(f)os, ^ovfiaXos, jrvyapyos, opv^, 
KafjLr]Xo7Tdp8aXis. This list is based upon Deut. xiv. 5, which 
names the same animals in slightly different order. In De 
Spec. Leg. iv. 105 Philo gives a list of ten kinds of animals 
(quadrupeds) permitted as food, consisting of the above seven 
plus the three kinds mentioned above (also in Deut. xiv. 4) 
as sacrificial animals, or rather the young males, the lamb, 
calf and kid. 

148 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

each of these has horns. For He wishes to specify * those 
(animals to be used) for food, for even though they are 
not to be oifered as sacrifices, still they are similar to those 
which are to be sacrificed. Wherefore those who use them 
for need * will not offer anything opposed to or unworthy 
of or alien to a sacrifice. In the second place, the horns 
(of the altar) incline and face toward the four sides of the 
world, toward the east, toward the west, toward the south 
and toward the Dipper," for it is proper that those who 
are in all parts (of the world) should all altogether bring 
their first-fruits and new (offerings) to this one altar, and 
sacrifice victims to God, the Father of the world. In the 
third place, (this is said) symbolically,'* for in place of 
defensive weapons He has given a crop of horns to animals 
which grow horns. Just as the (animals) to be sacrificed, 
(namely) the ram, the ox and the goat,* repel their enemies 
with their horns, so also did He wish to rebuke the impious ' 
who presume to offer sacrifices, by teaching that the divine 
Logos " opposes and repels the enemies of truth, goring 
every soul as if with horns and showing up in their naked- 
ness its unclean and unworthy deeds, which a little while 
before it had been concealing. For these reasons the horns 
are not to be placed upon (the altar) from outside but by 
His command are to be united to the altar itself to extend 
it,'' since sacrificial animals have their horns growing out 
of themselves. 



102. (Ex. xxvii. 3) Why does He command all the 
vessels of the altar to be made of bronze ? * 

" Aucher " distinguere." 

'' Aucher inadvertently omits the words " for need " in 
his rendering. " i.e. the north. ^ avfi^oXiKcos. 

* Or " the calf and the kid " : Aucher " taurus et hircus." 
Philo uses the name of the young animal interchangeably 
with that of the full-grown animal. 

' Tovs dcrejSetS". 

" o dcLos Xoyos : Aucher " divinum verbum." 

'* See note /on p. 148. 

^ Lxx (end of verse) Kal iravra to. oKevr) avrov Troiijaeis xoA/fa. 

149 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

The altar is an altar of bloody offerings," for men give 
thanks both by sacrificing victims and (by making) offerings 
of first fruits ; and they offer new (portions) of grain 
together with fine flour, ^ and offerings of wine with oil, 
in which the fine flour is dipped and mixed,*' and with a 
basket of fruit. And all these are of the species "* of bronze 
and iron/ For gold belongs to incorporeal and intelligible 
things,^ while silver belongs to the sense-perceptible 
heaven," but second bronze ^ belongs to things of earth, 
where wars are made. For among the ancients bronze 
was the material of weapons of war. Homer indeed shows 
this in (his poem about) the Trojan war, introducing 
(characters) who used weapons of bronze before there was 



103. (Ex. xxvii. 20) » Why did He command that the 

" dvaiaaTripLov ivaifjLcov. Here the Arm. uses two different 
words for " altar," selan and bag in, both of which sometimes 
render jSco/to?, sometimes dvaiaar-qpiov ; in addition, selan 
sometimes renders rpdneCa. In Philo's passages on the altar 
of the Tabernacle in QE ii. 98 ff. the Arm. translator uses hagin 
as the more generic term, and selan to designate the altar of 
the Tabernacle. 

^ aefiiSaXei. 

" Aucher " cui farina tincta immiscetur." 

^ Tov ydvovs. 

* The Arm. glossator comments, " from where fruits are 
produced, (namely) the earth, from there come iron and 
bronze." 

^ iv dacofjuaTois koI votjtoIs. On the cosmic symbolism of 
gold see Q^ii. 69, 73. 

" Kara tov aladrjTov ovpavov. 

^ I suspect that erkrord, the Arm. word for " second," is 
here a scribal error for erkat' " iron." The original was 
probably " bronze and iron." The Arm. glossator adds 
" bronze is second to iron." 

* The verses of Ex. xxvii (4-19) not commented on by 
Philo in this work describe the fittings of the altar and hang- 
ings of the pillars and gate of the tabernacle's court. 

150 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

oil in the lamps be (made) from olives and without sedi- 
ment ? * 

He has ordained that it is not proper to bring near to 
the holy (place) anything foreign,^ for He has considered 
as foreign the manufacture of oil '' of other kinds, (namely) 
from sesame, from the date, from the nut or the like. 
Therefore, as the name shows,** the (oil made) from olives 
is appropriate and natural/ For the name elaion is given 
to every species (of oil), this being derived from elaia, and 
this conveys the true sense/ In the second place, every 
other (kind), although adulterated " with a mixture of 
other (ingredients) and crushed, is put into the class of 
olive-oil, whereas olive-oil is distinct by itself, for the olive, 
when pressed, distils (oil), just as the fruit of the vine 
makes wine without any admixture. Excellent, moreover, 
is (His saying) " without sediment " and that the prepara- 
tion is to be of pure and refined material, for it was fitting 
and appropriate that everything in the holy (place) should 
be luminous and shining, especially the oil prepared for 
the light, since it was of a very pure substance and, in a 
way,'' without sediment. For what among existing things 
can be found more refined and luminous than light ? What 
is more, it illuminates other things, but first of all itself. 
There you have the literal meaning.' But the symbolical 
meaning ' of light is wisdom,*^ through which all things 

" LXX Kal av avvra^ov rot? viols 'la/Dai^A, koX Xa^ercoadv aoi 
eXaiov e^ e'AaicDv drpvyov Kadapov (Heb. " pure olive-oil ") 
KCKOfiixevov els (f)6Js Kavaai Iva KarjTai Xvx^os Sta Travros'. 

* The negative seems to be misplaced in the Arm. which 
reads lit. " anything foreign not has He ordained that it is 
proper, etc." : Aucher " alienum quidquam non ordinavit, 
etc." * T-qv iXaiovpyiav. 

^ iXaiov " oil " from iXala " olive," as Philo explains in the 
next sentence. * oIkcIov Kal Kara (l)vcnv. 

' o TTpos dX-qdetav KvpioXoyelrai. 

Arm. pitacml " being in need " is prob. to be emended 
^to pitakaceal " being adulterated " : Aucher " studiose 
usurpata." 

^ TpoTTov TLvd : Aucficr " quasi." 

* TO prjTOv. ' TO avfJL^oXiKOv. ^ ao(f>ia. 

151 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

in nature are known," while olive-oil is the material and 
preparation of wisdom. Such are numbers, geometry, 
musical art, school studies,* the pursuit of philosophy " 
and, in first place, the discipline of the virtuous man,** and 
these have nothing like sediment in them. 

104. (Ex. xxvii. 21c) * Why does He command that the 
lamps burn " from evening until morning " ^ } 

(He does so) not in order that they may provide light for 
those who are within (the holy place) — for who was in the 
holy (place) within the veil ? ^ — no one at all remained 
within — , but because the lamps are symbols of the light- 
bearing stars.'' Now the stars shine from evening until 
morning, serving in the necessary service of the whole 
world.* And He thought it fitting to make the lamps bear 
a resemblance to the chorus of heavenly stars from evening 
until morning.^ 

■^105. (Ex. xxvii. 21b) * Why does He command Aaron 
and his sons to light the lamps .'* ^ 

** TTavra yiyvoiaKerai oaa iv rfj (f>va€i earL 

* Tct iyKVKXLa, cf. QG iii. 19, 21. 
" T] rrjs ^iXoao^ias ctttouSt^. 

^ Tj Tov anovhaiov rraiSeia vel sim. : Aucher " honesta dis- 
ciplina." 

* According to the order of the three parts of vs. 21 in 
Lxx and Heb., § 104 should come after § 105, and the latter 
after § 106. 

•^ LXX Kavaet, . . . a^' ioTrepas ecu? irpcot ivavriov Kvpiov. 
i.e. within the Holy of Holies, see below, § 106. 
^ ru)v (f>coa(f>6p(x)v darepcov elalv ol Xvxvol avfi^oXa. 

* TTjv avayKalav vmjpeaLav ttjv tov rravTOS Koafiov. Philo USes 
the phrase dvayKaia v-mjpeaLa in De Sacr. Abelis 98 and Quod 
Omnis Probus 142. 

^ The above is one of three allegorical explanations of the 
verse given in Be Spec. Leg. i. 296-298. 

^ This section belongs after § 106 and before § 104, see 
note e above. 

^ LXX Kavaei (Heb. " shall put in order ") avTov 'Aa/sojv /cat 
ol viol avTov. 

152 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

He represented ° Aaron as one possessed by God and 
by the prophetic spirit/ (thereby) rebuking and shaming " 
the indolence ^ of the high priests after him, who because 
of negligence entrusted the performance of the holy service 
to second and third (assistants),* since they themselves 
did not feel inexpressible pleasure in carrying out all 
(forms) of the ministerial service. For there is nothing 
more delightful or pleasant or seemly or noble ^ than to 
be a servant to God, which surpasses the greatest kingship." 
And it seems to me that the early kings were at the same 
time high priests who by their acts showed that those who 
rule over others should themselves be servants in minister- 
ing to God.^ 



106. (Ex. xxvii. 21a) * Why does He say that they shall 

" Lit. " accepted " : Aucher " suscepit." Apparently the 
Arm. translator has confused napaSetKvvvai with TrapaSex^oOai. 

^ ivdovaLCJvra (or imdeid^ovra) Kal fi€Ta rov TTpO(f)rjTLKOv 
TTvevfxaTOS. 

" Aucher renders the two participles by the single word 
" reprehendens." 

^ rov oKvov : Aucher " negligentiam." 

* Cf. Wolfson, Philo, ii. p. 344 " The reference is un- 
doubtedly to the actual practice in the Temple of Jerusalem, 
as Philo himself observed it there, of assigning the task of 
lighting the perpetual lamp to one of the subordinate priests 
by means of lots." Wolfson cites Mishnah, Tamid iii. 1, 9 
and Yoma ii. 3. 

^ The four Arm. adjectives are prob. doublets of the two 
Greek ones, see next note. 

'' The Greek frag., which begins here, reads slightly more 
briefly ouSev ovre iJStov ovt€ aefivorepov 7] deto SovXeveiv, o Kai 
TTjV ixeyLOTTjv ^aaiXeiav VTrep^aXXei. 

'^ Slightly different (see end of this note) is the reading of 
the last part of the Greek frag., /cat fxoi BoKovaiv ol TrpioroL 
^aaiXcLS dfxa Kal dpxtepeis yeveodai, SrjXovvTes epyois on XPV 
Tovs Tcov dXXcov SeaTTO^ovras' SouAeueiv T0I9 XaTpevovai dew. The 
Arm. translator apparently read SovXevciv XarpevovTas. 

* This section should come before § 105 and § 104, see notes 
to the latter. 

153 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

light the lamps " outside the veil which is over the cove- 
nant " ? * 

May it not be because the things within (the veil) were 
incorporeal and intelligible * and had no need of sense- 
perceptible light,'' for they were themselves their own light 
and more luminous stars than those which are seen ? But 
the one within the veil He calls " of testimony," ^ sym- 
bolically indicating * that the covenant of God is the only 
true one, and that those which (men) write in testaments ^ 
are permanent and secure in themselves and are similar." 
And this is the measure of all things in common, the ideas 
and intelligible forms/ Now external things are also 
secure but still not in the same way, since they have a 
sense-perceptible and changeable nature and do not have 

" Lxx eV TTJ aKrjvfj tov naprvplov (Heb. " of meeting ") 
e^coOev TOV KaTaTrerdafiaTOS rod inl rfjs hLad-qK-qs (" the testi- 
mony ") Kavaei ktX. Scripture here refers to the veil between 
" the holy place " and the Holy of Holies in which " the ark 
of testimony " {i.e. the covenant) stood. In Be Spec. Leg. 
i. 296 Philo, in dealing with this verse, speaks of the lamp- 
stand being " within " (etao)) the veil. If the text there is 
sound, it would seem that he thinks of two lampstands, one 
within the veil, the other outside, but see below, note d. 

^ dacofxara Kal vorjTO.. " alad-qrov <j)wr6s. 

^ The syntax and meaning are obscure : Aucher " quod 
autem internum velum testamonii vocat." Among other 
things it is not clear whether Philo here refers to another 
lampstand within the veil or to the ark within the veil. That 
he refers to the veil as a " veil of testimony " seems rather 
doubtful. 

* avfji^oXiKcos alviTTOfievos. 

f The word htadriK-q has in Scripture the meaning " cove- 
nant " as well as the secular meaning " testament." 

» i.e. similar to the covenant associated with the ark in 
the Holy of Holies. 

^ The last two nouns are nom. plurals but their syntactic 
relation to the preceding nouns is not clear. The general 
idea, however, seems to be that all the parts of the world are 
kept in order by a sort of covenant, which is the work of the 
Logos, see, e.g., QE ii. 90. 

154 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

permanence in themselves as do incorporeal things, and 
they make use of external bonds, some of which are in 
themselves altogether eternal, but others only dissolve 
during long periods. 

*107. (Ex. xxviii. 2) Why does He say that they shall 
make a sacred stole " for the high priest " for honour and 
glory 6 " c ? 

These statements are (made) about the radiant and 
sumptuous ankle-length stole, '^ not about the linen (gar- 
ment)," for the latter is made not " for honour and glory " 
but for still greater and more perfect honour and glory. 
For he ^ wears it when he enters the innermost Holy of 
Holies, whereas (he wears) the ankle-length (garment) 
when he performs the service outside in the manner of 
the sense-perceptible world » before man, among whom 
precious things '' are considered matters of glory. But 
those things which are in truth (glorious), being unkempt 
and unbeautified and adorned (only) by nature, are 
honoured by the Father. But may it not be that " honour " 
is to be distinguished from " glory " ? For glory is the 

" Philo here as elsewhere {e.g. Be Ebrietate 85) uses aroXrj 
in the generic sense of " garment," as does lxx. 

^ Farther on in this section Philo interprets tl^jltj as 
" price " rather than " honour," and Sd|a as " opinion " 
rather than " glory." 

" LXX Kol TTOLTJaeis aroXrjv ayiav 'Aapojv roi dSeXcfxx) aov els 
Tifirjv Kal 86^av. Philo treats the cosmic symbolism of the 
high priest's garments at some length (and somewhat dif- 
ferently) in De Vita Mosis ii. 109-135 and De Spec. Leg. i. 84- 
97. 

^ i.e. the robe which Philo calls vTTohvT-qs in De Vita Mosis 
ii. 109, and 7To8rjp7)s xt^ajv in De Spec. Leg. i. 85, cf. Ex. xxviii. 
4 where lxx has irohrjpT] xi-rcova Koavfi^wTov. 

* i.e. the xtTOJv Xlvovs, cf. De Spec. Leg. i. 84. 
^ i.e. the high priest. 

" Kara tov aloOrjTov Koafiov (possibly, however, Koafxov 
here = " array "). 

* Ti/ita, meaning both " honoured " and " expensive." 

155 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

being praised by men, while honour is the being received 
among those who are truly " most honourable ; and most 
honourable are divine matters, ** so that when the high 
priest is arrayed in the ankle-length (garment), there is 
a participation " in two things, (namely) in proud dignity 
before God,** and m a favourable reception « among men. 
That is the literal meaning/ But this is the deeper mean- 
ing." The ankle-length (garment) is a symbol'' of that 
which is woven of many and various things. But " glory," * 
as the ancient saying has it, is false opinion, and insecure 
opinion is by itself alone incomplete.^ But if opinion is 
mixed with truth, it becomes true opinion,* being con- 
verted to honourableness.' Accordingly, He wishes to 
show that the life of the wicked man belongs to opinion, 
being dominated by and dependent upon "* false opinion, 
while (the life) of the wise man and true high priest " is 
honourable because it is productive of truth, by which he 
changes and adapts falsehood to his better nature.** 

" ovrcDS' 

^ Beta TTpdyfiara vel sim. 

* Koivcovia. 

^ Aucher " venerationis apud Deum gloriosae." The exact 
meaning is not clear, partly because the Arm. adj. xroxtali, 
here rendered " proud," usually means " boastful " or 
" arrogant," partly because the force of the prep, ar, here 
rendered " before," is uncertain. However, the original of 
the last three words was prob. T17? vrept deov aefivor-qros. 

* Aucher " securae susceptionis." 

^ TO pyjTOv. 

" TO TTpos hidvoiav. 

^ ovfx^oXov. 

* Sd^a, here meaning " opinion." 

' The (jreek frag., consisting of only one sentence, reads 
more briefly 86^a, cos 6 TraXmos Xoyos, tfsevhrjs eari. vTToXrjtpis Kal 
SoKTjais d^e^aios. 

^ dX-qdr^s 86^a (or vTToX-qipig) : Aucher " certa opinio." 



^"' Aucher " pendens ac prehendens." 
" Tov ao(f)ov Kal ovtojs dpxi'Cpecos. 
° eiV Trjv ^eXriova ^vaiv vel sim. 
156 



pretiosum).' 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

108. (Ex. xxviii. 7) " Why are the two shoulder-pieces,* 
which are joined together, attached in two parts ? '^ 

The shoulder-pieces "* designate serious labours,* for 
they are a part of the sacred garment, and sacred things 
are serious.^ And there are two " forms of labour : one 
is the desire of pleasing ^ God, and of piety * ; the other 
is being beneficent to men, which is called kindness and 
love of man.^ He therefore exhorts (us) to devote our- 
selves to every labour and to put our shoulders to it.'' The 
theologian ' wishes (these) two things to be known in 
order that what has been said in another place '" may be 
confirmed by deeds, (namely) " With God thou wast strong 

<• In vss. 3-6 (on which see De Vita Mosis ii. 111-126, of 
which QE ii. 108 is only a partial parallel) Scripture names 
the high priest's garments and specifies the colours of the 
ephod. 

^ i.e. of the ephod. lxx uses the word i-rrojixis both of the 
ephod and of each shoulder-piece, while Heb. uses a different 
word for the latter (kateph, lit. " shoulder "). Philo seems 
to be following Heb. in De Vita Mosis ii. 111-112, where he 
calls the ephod eVco/it?, and the shoulder-pieces aKpcofxia, see 
below, note d. 

" LXX hvo eTTCOfitSes avv4xovaai eaovrac avTa> erepa rT]v irepav, 
em Tols 8val fxepeaiv (Heb. " ends " : A.V. " edges ") e^-qpri- 
afxevaL. 

^ Since the Arm. noun grapank\ a plural form, is followed 
by the verb in the singular number, it is probable that it 
renders the Greek neuter plural aKpcopua, see above, note b. 

" Prob. €pya oTTovSaia : Aucher " labores honestos." 

^ The two Arm. adjectives used here prob. render the 
single Greek adj. anovboLa : Aucher " honesta et studium 
merentia." 

« Lit. " two twofold." 

'^ Or " serving " : Aucher " placitum." 

* evae^eias. 

' XprjaroT-qs Kal (juXavdpoiTria. 

* A play on eVco/it? and eV co/noi? <^epeiv vel sim., cf. De- 
Vita Mosis ii. 130 t6v yap copLov ivepyeias Kal npa^eais iroieiTai. 
avfi^oXov. 

' o deoXoyoSi i.e. Moses. 
"* i.e. of Scripture. 

157 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

and with men thou shalt have power." « But of the two 
shoulder-pieces one must be on the right, and the other 
on the left. Now the one on the right was given its place 
for the sake of pleasing God — a labour worthy of zeal, 
while that on the left (was given its place) for the sake of 
helpfulness to men and for kindness of thought concerning 
them.'' 



109. (Ex. xxviii. 9-12) What are the two emerald stones, 
in which are inscribed the names of the twelve patriarchs ? '^ 

In each of them are six impressions,*^ of the two hemi- 
spheres,* of that above the earth and of that below the 
earth. As evidence of this statement there are three 
things to cite. One is their shape, for the stones are round, 
just as the hemispheres are. The second is their colour, 
for the emerald is similar to the heaven in colour. The 
third is the number (of the names) engraved in them, for 
in each of the hemispheres there happen to be six zodiacal 
signs,^ some of them above the earth, and some below the 
earth, (and) the halves of the zodiac " give light. And 
rightly did He call the inscribing " impressions," ^ for all 
the immobile stars in the zodiac are types and type- 

" Gen. xxxii. 29 (explaining the name " Israel "), ivlaxvaas 
fxera deov Kal ^icto. avdpoitTcov hwaros (Heb. " thou hast striven 
with God and with men, and thou hast prevailed "). 

* Aucher "et suavitatem apud istos opinionis {vel, aesti- 
mationis)." 

" LXX KOI X-qfJLtlir] Tovs Bvo XWovs, Xidovs afiapdySov (A.^ . 
" two onyx stones "), /cat yXvipeis €V avrols ra Svo/xaTa rayv 
vlcbv 'lapa-qX. ef ovofiara IttI tov Xidov rov eva Kal to. e^ ovofxara 
TO. AotTrd eVt rov Xldov rov BevTcpov . . . yXvfXfia CT(f)payi8os Sta- 
yXvijjcis Toijs Svo XWovs, ktX. 

^ a<^paylh€s : Aucher " sigilli." 

* TcDv hvolv riixLa(f)aLpLcov, symbolized by the two sets of six 
names. The threefold cosmic symbolism of the two stones 
is discussed by Philo in De Vita Mosis ii. 122-123 and more 
briefly in Quis Rer. Div. Heres 176. 

^ l^wSia. TOV t,ipo<f>6pov. 

^ Referring to lxx yXvfipia a^paylhos. 
158 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

impressions," while the sublunary (bodies) * are in move- 
ment. 

110. (Ex. xxviii. 15) " What is the Logeion,'* and why 
does He call it " of judgments," and why is the Logeion 
made after the texture of the shoulder-piece * ? * 

As its very name shows, it is a symbol of logos.^ And 
logos is double (in meaning) ; one (meaning) is that found 
in natural thoughts,'' and the other is " utterance." * And 
it is the principle ^ of judgments, since everything is 
determined and distinguished by logos — intelligible 
things *= by that {logos) which is in natural thoughts, and 
sounds by (the logos of) differentiated speech.^ Most 

" The Arm. lit. =TU7rot koI rvTrcoOelaai a(f)paylh€s : Aucher 
" normae ac typi sunt ut sigilli." * ra /Liera aeXrjv-r^v. 

" In vss. 13-14, passed over here, Scripture mentions the 
gold clasps (A.V. " ouches ") and gold chains attached to 
the high priest's garment. 

'^ So Philo elsewhere (see below) spells lxx \6yiov. 

* i.e. the ephod ; the Arm. translator has taken lxx 
€7Tcofiis in the sense of " shoulder-piece " (of the ephod) in- 
stead of the ephod itself, see QE ii. 108, note b. 

^ lxx Kal TTOiTyaet? Aoytov rcov Kpiaecov (Heb. " ornament (?) 
of judgment " ; A.V. " breastplate of judgment "), epyov 
ttolkiXtov, Kara top pvOjjLov (Heb. " work " or " workman- 
ship ") TTj? ivcofMiSos (Heb. " ephod ") TTOi-qaeLS avTO- €k 
xpvaiov Kal vaKivdov, ktX. Philo allegorizes the Logeion 
similarly in Be Vita Mosis ii. 112-115, 127-130, cf. Be Spec. 
Leg. i. 87-88 (see also QE ii. 112-114). 

" Xoyov crvfi^oXov, cf. Be Spec. Leg. i. 88 /caAeirat Xoyelov 
€TVfiojs €7T€i8rj TO. €V ovpavcp TTOLVTa XoyoLS Kol dvaXoyiais Sehrj- 
fiiovpyrjTaL. 

^ €v Tols TTJs <f>va€cos Xoyiajxols vel sim. ; Aucher " in 
naturae consiliis." In Be Vita Mosis ii. 128 Philo speaks of 
o T7J9 (f>va€ios Xoyog. The reference is to the Xoyos ivSiddeTos, 
as the Stoics called thinking or reason. 

' Another Stoic term, the Xoyos -npo^opiKos or speech, 
often referred to by Philo. Both terms occur in the parallel. 
Be Vita Mosis ii. 129. 

^ Xoyos again : Aucher " verbum." * rd vor^rd. 
^ Aucher " vocalia autem sermone privato." 

159 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

excellently, moreover, is its workmanship said to be " after 
the texture of the shoulder-piece," for one ought to form 
and adorn one's words by deeds (as if) fitting them to- 
gether," for everything without workmanship ^ is imperfect 
and lame. 



111. (Ex. xxviii. 16) Why is the Logeion " square and 
twofold and a span ^ in length and a span in breadth ? * 

The Logeion is twofold, in the first place because it has 
two logoi ^ ; one, which has the force of a spring, is in 
natural thoughts, and the other, (namely) utterance, is an 
effluence thereof.^ And the latter is twofold, inclining 
partly to truth and partly to falsehood. And in the second 
place, (it is twofold) because the mind sees two (kinds of 
object), divine and mortal. And the voice '' attempts to 
be adorned by these two,* in interpreting both of them. 
And the Logeion is square symbolically,^' for the logos 
should be stable and immobile in all respects and not 

<* Aucher " texendo." Philo means that words and deeds 
are to be fitted together like threads in a texture. 

^ Lit. " working." 

" i.e. the high priest's " breastplate of judgment," see 
QEii. 110. 

<^ Arm. t'iz renders both amdafi-q (as here in lxx) and 
■naXaariq, which is one-third of the aindanrj, see notes h and c 
on p. 161. 

' lxx rerpdyoivov eoTai, bnrXovv aTTiOafxrjS to fiiJKo? avrov 
Kol GmdafxTjs TO evpos. The symbolism of the breastplate is 
discussed by Philo, in part as here, in De Vita Mosis ii. 
127-130. 

f i.e. the Ao'yos ivhidderos (reason) and the Adyos 7Tpo(f)opLK6s 
(speech), see next note. 

" Cf. De Vita Mosis ii. 127 d /xev old ns Trrj-y-q, 6 §€ yeyovws 
utt' iKcivov pecjv. The phrase " in natural thoughts " corre- 
sponds to d Trjs (f>va€ios Xoyos in De Vita Mosis ii. 127-129, 
cf. QE ii. 110. ^ Or " speech." 

* Aucher " et vox his duabus exornari nititur." The sense 
is not clear, but the original prob. meant that speech attempts 
to be in harmony with nature and the mind. 

^ aVfJL^oXlKCOS. 

160 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

waver," whether in thought or in interpreting by tongue' 
and mouth. And its length is a span and its breadth a 
span ^ for the reason that the span is a sixth part of a 
cubit," for the cubit is of six spans, so that it is one-sixth 
in length and breadth. And this symbol gives this kind 
of appearance.** And the mind * is one and is a uniter of 
different intelligibles,^ as if a harmony of these same things. 
And the uttered logos " is one, and again is similarly the 
uniter of different intelligibles, (namely) of letters into 
syllables, of syllables into words, and of many words into 
compositions and long discourses.'' For what is vastly and 
diffusely extended in these is held together by natural 
bonds.* And the mind too has length and breadth, for 
it is extended and prolonged to all intelligibles in appre- 
hension, just as speech ^ (has) both (dimensions), for this 
too is amplified in length and breadth in accordance with 
the words uttered. *= 

" Cf. De Vita Mosis ii. 128 axVH-a 8' aTreveLfxev 6 rexvLT-qs 
T€T pdycDvov TO) Aoyeio), Trdw KaXcbs alvLrrofievos (Ls XPV '^'^^ ''"^^ 
TTJg <f>vaea}S Xoyov Kal tov tov dvdpcoTTOV ^e^rjKevaL Travrrj /cat Kara 
/XT/S' OTiovv Kpabaiveadai. 

** Arm. k'il, like t'iz (see note d on p. 160), renders both 
aTndajxrj and TraXaarri. 

" Philo must here be using amOan-q as the equivalent of 
TTaXaaTT), unless he is following a system of measurement 
different from the one used by other Greek writers. The 
latter commonly reckons the cubit (tttjxvs) as = six palms 
{iraXaaTaL) and twenty-four fingers (Sa/cTuAot)* whereas the 
span (am^a/x^) — twelve fingers. Thus it is the palm, not the 
span, which is one-sixth of a cubit. 

** Aucher " symbolum autem hujusmodi praestat argu- 
mentum." The sense is not clear. * 6 vovs. 

^ iviOTlKOS 8La<f>6pU)V VOTJTWV. 

" d 7Tpo(f>opiK6s Xoyos. 

'' arotx^iajv . . . avXXa^cov . . . Ae^ecov ei? avvOeaeis /cat 
{jiaKpoXoyias. 

* (f)voiKOLS dpfMOTTerai Scct/xois : Aucher " per naturalia 
adaptatur ligamina." ^ Xoyos, 

^ Kara tovs 7Tpo<f>optKovg Xoyovs vel sim. Aucher renders 
freely, " secundum sermonum varietatem atque vastitatem." 

SUPPL. II G 161 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

112. (Ex. xxviii. 17-20a) Why is there on the Logeion " 
a texture '' of four rows, and in each row are three (precious) 
stones placed ? " 

The four rows are an indication of the four seasons of 
the year,** each of which consists of an element.* And the 
three stones are symbolically ^ three months, into which 
each season is divided.' For the zodiac consists of twelve 
constellations ^ divided into four (seasons) of the year, 
through which the sun revolves and produces the seasons 
of the year through the three constellations.* And there 
is a " texture " since all the seasons happen to hasten to 
one end, inasmuch as the fullness of all (the seasons), which 
are woven together, is summed up ' in the year. The 
passage also contains a certain description of character.* 
Each of the four virtues ' consists of an element of three 
things, "" (namely) habit, the thing had and having," just 
as is the case with the senses," for example, sight and the 

« i.e. the high priest's " breastplate of judgment," see 
Q^ii. 110. 

^ y^aa/xa, as in Lxx (see next note) = Heb. " setting." 
" LXX Kol Ka9v(f)av€LS €v avTU) v(f>aafJLa KaraXidov rerpdarixov, 
ktX. (there follow the names of the twelve precious stones, 
three in each of the four rows). The passage is cited in 
Ijeg. All. i. 81-82, and explained partly as here, i.e. as sym- 
bolical of the zodiac, in De Fuga 184-185 and De Vita Mosis 
ii. 124-126. ^ fn^vvfxa tcov rerTapcov irqaioiv wpcov. 

* c5v iKaaT-q <.sc. copa> €k aroix^iov avvearr) vel sim. : Aucher 
" quorum singula <sc. tempora> singula elementa sortita 
sunt." The " element " here refers to a moral element, see 
below. ^ avfx^oXiKws. 

Slightly emending the Arm. text, which reads " which 
are divided into the several seasons " and is so rendered by 
Aucher. '^ 6 yap t,oiO(f)6pos avveanq €k bcoScKa ^w8i<ov. 

* i.e. of each season. 

' K€(f>aXaiovTai, vel siin. : Aucher " reducitur." 

* rjdoTTOuav nva, cf. QE ii. 76. 

^ dpeTcbv. "* i.e. has three aspects. 

" l^eco? (in the sense of " state of being ") /cai tov ixofxivov 
Koi TOV e^eiv : Aucher " habitudine, habendo et habere." 
" at alad-qaeis. 

162 



I 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

thing seen and seeing, and again, audition and tlie thing 
heard and hearing. And similarly (there is) knowledge " 
and the thing known and knowing, just as (there is) 
moderation ^ and the thing moderated and moderating. 
And again (there is) courage " and the thing courageously 
done and having courage, which is more commonly called 
" being manly." ^ The same applies to justice * and the 
just act and having justice, which is called " acting 
justly." ^ 

113. (Ex. xxviii. 20b) Why is each of the rows " covered 
and bound with gold ? ^ 

Thus it is wdth the four rows which make up * the annual 
seasons in the zodiac.^ Each (row) has ether ^ around it, 
setting off the three ^ and, again, bringing them together 

" Arm. gitout'iun usu. = yvcDais or imaTijfxr], but here 
perhaps (f)p6vrjais, which Philo usually includes among the 
four cardinal virtues, as enumerated by Plato and the Stoics. 
Aucher here renders, " scientia." 

* acxi^poavxn). " dvSpeia. 
** Perhaps avhpayadileadai, : Aucher " fortificari." 

* hiKaioavvT]. 

^ hiKaioirpayelv : Aucher " justificari {hiKaioTrpayia, actio 
justa)." 

" i.e. the four rows of precious stones in the high priest's 
" breastplate of judgment " (Logeion), each of which con- 
tained three stones. 

^ LXX 7T€plK€KaXvfJLfJ.€Va {v.l. TT€pLK€KXcoafJL€va) ^pvolco Kol 

auvSeSe/xeVa eV {v.l, om. eV) ;jfpi;CTia), eoraxrav /card arixov avrtov. 
Heb. reads more briefly " they shall be woven {i.e. " at- 
tached ") with gold to their settings." 

* Lit. " complete ": Aucher " perficiunt." 

^ ras iTTjaiovs (Lpas eV t(x> ^coBtaKco <Ku/fAa)>, cf. De Vita 
Mosis ii. 124-126, QE ii. 112 notes. '* aWipa. 

' Aucher amplifies slightly in rendering, " distinguentem 
tres alios." " The three " seems to mean three constellations. 
Perhaps, however, it means the three divisions of the year, 
cf. QG iii. 3, where Philo counts the two equinoxes as one to 
make up, with the two solstices, " three cycles " of the sun 
each year. 

163 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

with one another. For not only do those stars adhere to 
one another which are near the termination," when a 
season terminates and the following one begins, but, as 
I have said, there is between them an intervening space 
and interval of clear and pure ether, which surrounds ^ 
the three and binds (them) with gold, in the likeness of 
which the ether is represented because of its precious 
substance/ 



114. (Ex. xxviiii. 21) Why are the stones'' named after 
the phylarchs,* having seal-engravings of their names ? ^ 

Because the twelve stones are representations of the 
twelve animals which are in the zodiac,^ and are a symbol '' 
of the twelve phylarchs, whose names He cuts and engraves 
in them, wishing to make them stars * and, in a certain 
sense,^ to apportion one constellation *^ to each, or rather 
(to make) each patriarch ' himself become a constellation 
(and) heavenly image in order that the tribal leaders and 
patriarchs may not go about on the earth like mortals but 

" Trepas vel sim. : Aucher " terminum." Here it seems to 
mean one of the seasonal divisions such as a solstice or 
equinox. 

^ Correcting the Arm. which lit. = " has around itself," 
see above. 

" 8ia rrjv Tifxiav {vel sim.) ovaiav : Aucher " propter nobilem 
essentiam." 

** i.e. the twelve precious stones of the high priest's breast- 
plate (the Logeion), representing the twelve tribes of Israel. 

* eVtuvu/xoi Tcov (f)vXdpxcov. 

^ Lxx Kal ol Xidoi earoicrav eV tcDv ovofidruyv twv vlcov ^lapaTjX 
Sc/ca 8vo {v.l. ScuSe/fa) Kara rd ovofiara (v.l. rds yeveaecs) avrcbv 
yXv(f)al a^payihoiv e/caaro? {v.l. dKaarov) /cara to ovofxa earcvaav 
els Se'/ca Bvo {v.l. 8c6Se/ca) (f)vXds. M 

" roiv ev Tco ^a}0(f)6pa). ^ ovp,^oXov. ^ ^ ^ 

* daTpoTTOLcZv vid. (the Arm. is a factitive-denominative 
verb derived from astl^darpov) : Aucher " stellas reddere." 

^ rpoTTov Tivd : Aucher " quasi." 
^ Ccobtov : Aucher " signum." 

* TTarpLdpxfjv, 

164 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

become heavenly plants" and move about in the ether,* 
being firmly established there. And He says that their 
names are " seals," " (that is) something unchangeable 
and unalterable, which always remains in the same like- 
ness. For just as the seal, while stamping many substances 
with its designs, itself remains imperishable ^ and un- 
changeable and, while giving a share of its own possession 
of designs to many other (substances), is not at all affected 
by anything,* so also has He seen fit to immortalize each 
of the patriarchs as (an ideal) form ^ and make him eternal, 
so as not to be affected by any accident but, while changing 
and moving, to be confirmed in the virtues " which are 
similar to the tribe ^ and are apportioned to the (various) 
ranks of the nation. 



115. (Ex. xxviii. 26b [Heb. 30b]) » Why is the Logeion,^ 
on which were the names,* upon the breast of the high 
priest when he enters the sanctuary ? ' 

The breast is the place of the heart, and it is there that 

" Cf. Quod Deterius 85 ^utov ovpdviov 6 Oeos avdpoiTTov 
elpydaaro. * iv alde.pi. 

'^ a^paylhes. '^ dcf>dapTOS. 

* i.e. is not affected by the material upon which it is 
pressed. 

f d9avaTit,€iv ... cos etSos (or Ibeav) : Aucher " tamquam 
formam immortalitate donare." ^ ras dperds. 

^ Aucher " quae imitantur tribum." 

* This section belongs after § 116 according to the order 
of Scripture. 

^ The high priest's breastplate, see QE ii. 1 10 ff. 

* Of the twelve tribes, engraved on the precious stones of 
the breastplate. 

* Lxx KoX earai eVi rov aTrjdovs (Heb. " heart ") 'Aapcov 
orav €laTTop€vr]T ai ets to dyiov evavriov Kvpiov (Heb. " in his 
entering before YHWH ") koL olaei 'Aapcov ras Kfiam (Heb. 

the judgment ") tcjjv vldjv 'laparjX iirl rov ar-qdovs (Heb. 
" his heart ") ivavrLov Kvpiov hid iravro?. Philo quotes this 
passage in part in Leg. All. iii. 118-119 (reading elaepxrjTai 
for etCTTTopeuTjrai). 

165 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

anger " dwells, and anger especially has need of the con- 
trolling and directing reason.* For when it " is left without 
a controller and director, it is borne hither and thither in 
confusion and tossed about as though by stormy waves, 
and overturns the entire soul like a ship without ballast,'* 
the body being overturned with it. Moreover, it is with 
care and cautiousness that He says not that the Logeion 
is to be upon his breast always but (only) when he enters 
the sanctuary. For the sanctuary is the place of piety and 
holiness and every virtue,* and when the mind ^ reaches 
this, it altogether acquires perfect reason,^ which controls 
and directs and seizes the reins so as to restrain the pas- 
sions,'' especially anger,* which is wont to be refractory 
toward it. 

116. (Ex. xxviii. 26a [Heb. 30a]) ^ Why are the Revela- 
tion and Truth *= placed upon the Logeion ? * 

Because the reason "* in it is twofold, one residing in 
thought, and the other uttered and revealed." And 

" dvfios. 

* Aucher " rationis regentis et temporantis," cf. Leg. All. 
iii. 118 rjvioxov Koi KV^epvqTTjv . . . tov Xoyov . 

" i.e. the heart. 

** dvepfioLTLOTov : Aucher " basi carentem." 

* deoae^elas koi ayiOTTjTOS Kal TrdorjS dpiTrjs. 

^ 6 vovs or Tj Sidvota. " reAetov Xoyov. ^ rd irddr]. 

* Aucher " cupiditates," but Arm. srtmtout'iun = dvfi6s, 
not iTTiOvfiia. 

^ According to the order of Scripture this section should 
come before § 115. 

'' These abstract nouns denote the Urim and Thummim, 
the oracular device attached to the high priest's breastplate. 
Philo usually calls them St/jXcools /cat dXijdeia, following lxx, 
but sometimes aa(f>-qv€ia Kal dX-qOeia. For other references 
to them see Leg. All. iii. 132, 140, De Vita Mosis ii. 113, 128- 
129 and De Spec. Leg. iv. 69. 

' LXX Koi €TnQrio€is im to Ao'yiov rrjs Kpiaeco? rr]V hrfXcoaiv koX 
TTjV dXrjdciav, '» o Xoyos. 

" i.e. the Xoyos iubidOeros (reflexion) and the Xoyos TTpo<j)opiK6s 
(utterance), see next note. 

166 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

rightly did He apportion the two virtues, (one) to each of 
them, (namely) truth to that (form of reason) which is in 
thought, and revelation to that which is uttered." For the 
mind of the virtuous man ought not to consider anything 
to be more appropriate or more related '' to it than truth, « 
which one must with all power endeavour to find, while 
speech has no greater necessity than to reveal (things) 
clearly by making plain in clear speech what is signified.** 

*117. (Ex. xxviii. 27 [Heb. 31]) Why is the double*' 
hyacinthine stole ^ called " undergarment " " ? '' 
^ They say that since the hyacinthine stole is a symbol * 
of the air, because the air is almost black,^ it was rightly 
called " undergarment," since it was under ^ the garment 
which was upon his breast,' for the air is placed below 
heaven and the ether."* But I wonder at and am struck with 

<* Cf. De Vita Mosis ii. 129 hval Adyois rots Kad' cKaarov 
■fjfjLcov, Tcp T€ TTpo(f>opLKw KoX ivhiadercp, hvo aperas drreveiixev 
OLKcias, rcx> fxev TTpo^opiKO) ST^Acoaiv, to) he Kara Stavotav dXTJOeiav. 

^ olKCLorepov tj avyyeveanrepov. 

" Philo phrases the same idea somewhat differently in De 
Vita Mosis ii. 129 dpfjLO^ei yap Siarota fj.(v fxrjSev irapahexeoGat, 

^ Aucher renders less accurately, I think, " quam evidenter 
declarare revelata artificioso apparatu." 

* Or " second " : Aucher " duplex " (in footnote, " aliis 
torta"), see QE \\. 119. 

f Aucher " tunica," but see QE ii. 107, notes a and d. 

" VTTohvTT]?. 

^ Lxx KOX TTOLijaeis vttoSvttjv TTohrjpri (Heb. " the robe of the 
ephod ") oAov vaKivdivov. Philo alludes to this garment in 
De Vita Mosis ii. 110 and to its cosmic symbolism in De 
Spec. Leg. i. 95, cf. De Fuga 110. 

* avfjL^oXov. 

' Aucher " subniger." Philo means that it is dark blue, 
see QE ii. 85, note g. * Lit. " stood after." 

' i.e. the ephod, to which the " breastplate of judgment " 
or Logeion was attached, see the preceding sections. 

"* Cf. De Spec. Leg. i. 94- 6 drjp fieXas wv ttjv /Lter' ovpavov 
hevripav rd^iv /cc/cAT^pcorai. 

167 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

admiration by the theologian's « allegorizing of his philo- 
sophical beliefs.* For he has likened the whole heaven 
to the breast, wherefore in his statements he has orna- 
mented the breast of the high priest with the two emerald <= 
stones which stand on his shoulders/ and with the twelve 
stones on the Logeion, arranged in four rows of three. 
Now, (he indicates) the air by the second hyacinthine stole 
(called) " undergarment," and by the other parts * he 
indicates ^ earth and water. [" But where, O theologian," 
someone may say, " is the head of the world ? Teach us, 
for you have brought us as far as the breast, which you 
have shown to be a likeness of heaven." To me it seems 
that he would reply to this with silence, for it is plain to 
those who are not foolish but are wont to help their minds 
with well ordered (thoughts). If, however, there is anyone 
heavy of understanding, let him listen. The head of all 
things is the eternal Logos of the eternal God," under 
which, as if it were his feet or other limbs, is placed the 
whole world, over which He passes and firmly stands.'' 
Now it is not because Christ is Lord that He passes and 
sits over the world, for His seat is with His Father and God, 
but because for its perfect fullness the world is in need of 
the care and superintendence of the best ordered dispensa- 
tion, and for its own complete piety, of the Divine Logos, 
just as living creatures (need) a head, without which it is 
impossible to live.] * 

* rov OeoXoyov, i.e. Moses. 

* T-^S (f)i,Xocro(f)Las dXXrjyopovvTa to. Sdy^ara vel sim. : Aucher 
" una cum philosophia allegorice usum sententia." 

" Aucher inadvertently omits rendering of " emerald." 
'^ See QE ii. 109 on Ex. xxviii. 9-12. 

* i.e. the flowers and bells of the robe, see De Vita Mosis 
ii. 120. ■'' aiViTTerat. 

" Adyos alcovLos (or dtStos') tov alwviov deov. 

^ Aucher " super quern transiens constanter stat." 

* How much of the last part of this section (from " But 
where, O theologian ") is the work of a Christian scribe is not 
clear. The whole passage has here been bracketed to warn 
the reader that some part of it, perhaps all, has been revised 
by Christian hands. 

168 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

*118. (Ex. xxviii. 28 [Heb. 32]) Why does the opening « 
in the middle of this very same ankle-length garment have 
a hem ^ " that it may not be ruptured " ? " 

Of the elements ** some are by nature heavy, (such as) 
earth and water, and others are by nature light, (such as) 
air and fire. Accordingly, from the beginning the air, 
which had heaviness, was placed near water.* And because 
of the contrariety of heavy to light there was fear that one 
(element) might suffer rupture ^ from the other, and the 
world might be imperfect in harmony and unity if this 
obstacle were present. For that reason there was need of 
an opening " suitable to the middle region, that is, of the 
divine Logos as a mediator,'' for this is the strongest and 
most stable bond * of all things, in order that it might bind 
and weave together ^ the parts of the universe and their 
contraries, and by the use of force bring into unity and 
communion and loving embrace those things which have 
many irreconcilable differences by their natures. More- 
over, this passage also presents a description of character,* 

" Lit. " that near the mouth " : Aucher (following lxx) 
" peristomium." 

*> Aucher " gyrum." 

" LXX Kal earai to TTepiarofxiov e^ avrov fidaov coav ^xov 
kvkX(x) tov TrepiGTOfMLov, epyov ixfxivTov, ttjv av^^oXijv avvv(f>aa- 
fjAvrfv €^ avTov Iva fxr} payfj : Heb. " and the mouth of its top 
shall be in its middle, a hem shall be around its mouth, the 
work of the weaver ; like a breastplate it shall be to it that 
it may not be torn." 

•* ToJv aroLxeioiv. 

* The original must have meant that air, the heavier of 
the two light elements, was placed next to water, the lighter 
of the two heavy elements. 

^ prj^Lv, based on lxx jut) payfj : Aucher " ne laedatur unum 
ah altero." 

' Lit. " mouth " : Aucher " peristomium {sive^ orefi- 
cium)." 

^ fieaLTOV Tt,v6s, rod deiov Xoyov. * Seer/Lids'. 

' lAt. " and mix together by weaving." The cosmic 
weaving reflects the mythology of Plato's Timoena^ see below. 

* -qdoTTouav. 

169 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

for the hem is a hard and dense woven work " and very 
compact,^ and he thought it proper that the opening should 
be in it in the middle. Now the mouth " is an organ of two 
things, (namely) of food and speech/ As Plato says, it 
has the entrance of mortal things into itself, (namely) food, 
while speech is the exit of immortal things.* And both 
(functions) must be practised in such a way that they do 
not suffer a rupture,^ which is what happens to gluttons 
and babblers, for out of loquacity they rupture, in a sense, 
that which ought to be kept quiet, and » they pour into 
the ears (of others) ^ things not fit to be heard.* And those 
who are intent upon wine-bibbing and overindulgence 
break out into belchings and burst with insatiable fullness. 
And he admonishes those who philosophize with him ^ to 
place restraints upon the belly and the tongue. 



119. (Ex. xxviii. 29 [Heb. 33]) Why does He command 
that in the lowest part of this undergarment there shall be 

« v^aafia. In De Spec. Leg. i. 86 Philo describes the ephod, 
worn over the ankle-length robe of the high priest, as v<f>aafia 
OcopaKoeiBes. It is not clear how he thought of the ephod as 
related to the " opening " and " hem." 

'' Or " compressed " : Aucher " rigidus." 

" Philo plays on the resemblance between ircpiaroynov and 
GTOfia. ^ Xoyov. 

* Cf. De Opif. Mundi 119 orofxarL Si' ov yiverai dvrjTcjv fjLcv, 
(hs €(f)rj HXdrcov, etaoSos, efoSo? S' d(f>da.pTcov, a paraphrase of 
Timaeus 75 d-e elaoBov tcov dvayKaicov . . . T17V 8' €^o8ov 
Tojv dpCcrroiv. 

f Aucher renders less accurately, I think, " et utrique 
obsequendum est {vel, ambo observanda sunt) ne laceratur 
(sic)." 

" The Arm. has a superfluous indef. pronoun = rives. 

^ Lit. " pour into the inside," but the Arm. translator 
obviously misread eiV cSra (see next note) as iodoraTa. 

* Similarly the brief Greek frag., 01 AaAoi, rd o^fiAovra 
■qavxd.t,ead ai p-qyvvmes, Tpoirov rivd vtto yXajcrcraXyias npox^ovaiv 
els cSra aKorjs ovk d^ia. 

^ i.e. Moses : Aucher " hac in parte," 
170 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

pomegranate-shaped (tassels) as if from flowering pome- 
granates ? « 

That the undergarment was a double hyacinthine (robe) 
and in the likeness of air has been shown. ^ And as water 
is lower than air, the pomegranate-shaped (tassel) was 
rightly (placed) in the lowest part of the undergarment, 
as was the flower of the pomegranate, which is (so) called 
from " flowing " and " being liquid." " Now, as for that 
which is primarily in (the class of) flowing liquids, what else 
indeed would it be but water ? 



120. (Ex. xxviii. 30 [Heb. 34]) Why does He place a bell 
(and) flower "^ around (the hem) beside the pomegranate- 
shaped (tassel) ? ^ 

" LXX Kal TTOiT^aeis im to Xcofia tov vttoSvtov Karcodev coael 
i^avOovoTjs poag potoKovs €^ vaKivOov koX TTop<f)vpas Koi kokklvov 
SiavevTjoiJievov Kal ^voaov K€KXa}(j^€vqs €7tI tov XcofiaTOs tov vtto- 
BvTov kvkXo)- to avTo eiSos potoKovs XP^^'^^S '<^<^' KcoSwvas dva 
fieaov TovTcx}v tt^plkvkXo) : Heb. " and thou shalt make upon 
its hem pomegranates of blue and purple and scarlet, upon 
its hem round about, and bells of gold between them round 
about." For parallels to Philo's allegorical comment see De 
Migratione 103, De Vita Mosis ii. 119 and De Spec. Leg. 
i. 93. 

^ In QE ii. 117, where, however, it is not clear whether 
Philo means a " second " or a " double " hyacinthine gar- 
ment. 

'^ Philo plays on the resemblance between p6a " pome- 
granate " and petv " to flow," or pvais " flowing," cf. De Vita 
Mosis ii. 119 ol 8e potoKoi <.GVfj.^oXov> uSaros, rrapa ttjv pvaiv 
XexdevTcs evdv^oXcos. 

** Lit. " flowering bell " but Philo treats bell and flower 
separately in his commentary and in the parallels. See also 
LXX, next note. 

* LXX vapa poiaKOv xpvaovv KcoScova koi dvdivov eVl tov 
XcofxaTos TOV vTToBvTov kvkXw '. Hcb. " a gold bell and a pome- 
granate, a gold bell and a pomegranate {sic, bis) upon the 
hem of the robe round about." Philo allegorizes this verse 
similarly (see below) in De Migratione 103, De Vita Mosis 
ii. 119 and De Spec. Leg. i. 93. 

171 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

In the earlier (passages) " He has represented heaven 
by the shoulder-piece " and the (object) on the breast, 
which He has called " pectoral," " and (has represented) 
the lower region,** (namely) the air, by the double hya- 
cinthine (robe),* and then water, which is below the air, by 
the symbol ^ of the pomegranate-shaped (tassel). Now, 
however. He mentions the flowers in addition to the pome- 
granate-shaped (tassels), and by them He indicates ^ the 
earth, since everything flowers and grows from the earth.'^ 
But the bell has an intermediate position between the 
pomegranate-shaped (tassel) and the flower, and indicates 
the harmony and community of the elements.' For if 
there had not been produced in the world the harmonious 
blending into a symphony of antiphonal voices as if of a 
choir sounding as one, it would not have received its full 
perfection.^' But since there are four elements,* He has 
spoken very circumspectly ^ in distinguishing and separat- 
ing the bell from fire and air, for the movement of the soul 
is only from itself, as is generally agreed, especially by the 
philosophers of the Stoa. But it *" has united earth with 
water, for earth and water are themselves the body of the 

" Aucher " imprimis." 
^ iiTcoixiSos, see QE ii. 110. 
" TTeptarqdtov. 

^ Lit. " the following (region)." 
« See the preceding three sections. 
^ avfi^oXov. 
^ aiVtTTO/xevos. 

'' Cf. De Vita Mosis ii. 119 to. fjuev dvdiva avfi^oXov y-fjs, 
dvdel yap koI j^Xaardvet, TTOvra e'/c TayTTjj. 

* In De Migratione 103 the bells symbolize the sense of 
hearing, in De Vita Mosis ii. 119 they symbolize the harmony 
of earth and water, in De Spec. Leg. i. 93 they symbolize the 
harmony of the parts of the world {dpfiovlav /cat avfx(f)coviav Kal 
avvTjxrjoLv tcjv tcv Koa^iov /xcpoDv). In the present passage 
Philo combines the three kinds of symbolism. 

^ TcXeaiovpyiav : Aucher " perfectionem." 

* aroix^Za. 

^ Aucher " accurate." 

"* i.e. the bell as a symbol of the unity of earth and water. 
172 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

world." Now, the body itself is inanimate and unmoving,* 
and it was in need of that Logos,'' which, by the art of 
music,'' adapted and reformed it into a harmony and one- 
ness of all things/ 



121. (Ex. xxvui. 32a [Heb. 36a]) What is " the leaf/ of 
pure gold " ? «' 

The leaf has a fine ^ construction and also lacks depth, 
and so it appears to be a surface.* Now, a surface is in- 
corporeal.^ And may it not be that it is called " leaf " 
from " flying,"* so that it may be a symbol of incorporeal 
and intelligible forms of substance ? ' That which is 
always borne upward becomes winged and never turns 
toward a downward course. Wherefore He has also called 
it " pure," as being unmixed and luminous, for sense- 
perceptible things ™ are mixtures which are brought to- 
gether from many things. For the forms which weave 

" TO Tov Koa^iov CToD/Lia. * dijjvxov Kal aKivrjTOV, 

" Aucher " rationis illius." 
•* rfj fxovaiKrj Texvrj. 

* Aucher renders more briefly, " in harmoniam reduceret 
illud pro Concordia universorum." 

/ i.e. the plate (TreVaAov) on the forehead of the high priest. 

" Lxx Kal TTOLTJaeis ireTaXov xP^^ovv Kadapov. Philo briefly 
discusses its symbolism in De Migratione 103 and De Vita 
Mosisn. 114-116. 

'' i.e. thin or light : Aucher " subtilem." But note that 
in iJe Vita Mosis ii. 114 Philo says that it " is wrought into 
the form of a crown." 

* €Tn(f)dv€ia. ' dacoixaros. 

*= Philo plays on the resemblance between TreVaAov " leaf" 
and TrereadaL " to fly." 

' avfx^oXov aauiyLOLTOiv koI vot^tcDv lh€d>v ovalas. Although 
Arm. niut' usu. = uA77, I have rendered the last word as if the 
original were ovalas rather than vXrjs " of matter," since the 
former is not only required by the context but is also con- 
firmed by the parallel in QE ii. 124, where the Arm. trans- 
lator uses goyout'iun = ovaia. 
"* TO aladrjTd. 

173 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

together things not (previously joined) with one another 
also have purity, being like a lamb.'' 



122. (Ex. xxviii. 32b [Heb. 36b]) Why does He say, 
" Thou shalt express <= in it ** the expression of a seal- 
impression, ' Holiness to the Lord ' " « ? 

It pleases Him that the incorporeal and intelligible sub- 
stance ^ should be unimpressed by itself and without shape 
but be formed and shaped like a seal-impression by the 
Logos of the eternally Existent One." Excellently, there- 
fore, has He represented the seal-impression as an " ex- 
pression," '' for there are expressed in them in part * the 
forms which the patterns ^ had. But the divine Logos, 
which is established over all things, is immaterial,*^ being, 
as it were, not impressed upon them but expressed,' for 

" Aucher renders more literally, " quae non sunt invicem." 

"* The sense escapes me. Perhaps the last phrase " being 
like a lamb " is a scribal addition. 

" i.e. " engrave " or the like. I have rendered literally in 
order to make clearer Philo's allegorical interpretation. 

<* i.e. in the gold plate worn on the high priest's forehead. 

* LXX KoX iKTVTTuyaeis iv avrco CKTVTTOifxa o(f)paylSos ayiaa^Jia 
Kvplov {v.l. Kvpio) : Heb. " to YHWH "). Philo briefly dis- 
cusses this half-verse in De Migratione 103 (reading Kvpia>) 
and De Vita Mosis ii. 114-115, 132, where he deals with the 
mystical number of the letters of the Tetragrammaton. 

^ TTjv dacofjiaTov koI vorjT-qv ovaiav^ cf. QE ii. 121, note /. 

" TO) Tov dd {vel Sim.) "Ovtos Xoyco. The idea is more clearly 
and fully expressed in De Migratione 103 eVeivTy p^kv -q a4>payis 
loea eariv iSecSv Kad^ TjV 6 deos irvTrcoae tov Koafiov, dacofxaros 

Bt^TTOV KOI VOTjT-q. 
^ eKTVTTCOfJLa. 

* The original prob. referred to the various parts of the 
cosmos. 

^ 01 TVTToi, i.e. the archetypes. 

* dvXos. 

' ovK ivTVTTcodeis dAA' iKTVTTcoOeis, but contrast De Vita 
Mosis ii. 132 roiv reTTdpcov at yXv(f>al ypapLpidriov iv€a(f>payi- 
ad-qaav. Philo has slightly modified his allegorical interpreta- 
tion to make it conform more closely to the literal meaning. 
174 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

it is external to all substances and to all corporeal and 
incorporeal elements.** 



123. (Ex. xxviii. 33a [Heb. 37a]) Why is the leaf ^ placed 
over the double hyacinthine (robe) .'' " 

Because the double hyacinthine (robe) is almost black,** 
and black is the colour of ink and is opaque. But the 
forms * are not visible, and the leaf presents a symbol ' 
of the forms, since it is the substance of the invisible and 
intelligible." 

124. (Ex. xxviii. 33b-34 [Heb. 37b-38]) Why is the leaf * 
(placed) upon the forehead of the high priest but not upon 
his head ? • 

The head is an assemblage of hair, skin and bones, while 
the place of the brain ^ is in the front of the head. Now, 
the theologians * say that the sovereign part (of the mind) ' 

<* Aucher " quae excellet omnes materias corporeas et 
incorporeas." 

^ i.e. the gold plate (TreVaAov) on the high priest's forehead. 

" LXX Kal €TndrioeLS aino {^SC. tov TreraXov) eVt vaKLvdov kckXco- 
Gnevrjs (Heb. " braid of blue "), ktX. On the problem of the 
" double " hyacinthine robe see QE ii. 117, notes. 

** i.e. dark blue, see QE ii. 85, 1 17. 

* at tSe'ai or to. elBr]. 
^ avfjL^oXov. 

" rod dopdrov Koi vorjTov ovala eoriv, cf. QE ii. 121. 

'' i.e. the gold plate (TreVaAov). 

' LXX Kal lorai irri ttjs fiirpas' Kara rrpocrcoTTOV rijs fiirpas 
earai. Kal earai eirl tov fX€Ta)7T0v 'Aapcov, ktX. Contrast De 
Migratione 103, where Philo says that the gold plate is on 
the high priest's head, enl /xev rfis K€(f>aXrjs. Here, as in some 
of the preceding sections, Philo s allegorical interpretation is 
based upon a more literal reading of Scripture than are the 
interpretations in his fuller and earlier commentary on the 
Pentateuch. 

^ TOV €yK€(f>dXov. 

* ol OeoXoyoi, i.e. the Greek philosophers. 

175 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

has its settled habitation « in the brain. ^ For this reason 
it was in the front of " the principal and sovereign (part) 
of the soul, to which the mind and the reason ^ have been 
allotted, that the leaf was placed (as) a symbol of intelli- 
gible substance * (and as) ^ a likeness of the divine Logos 
and (as) an expressed seal-impression, s' (namely) the form 
of forms.'' 

" Lit. " constancy of habitation " : Aucher " constantem 
habitationem." 

^ Philo sometimes follows Aristotle and the Stoics in 
locating the mind in the heart, but more often follows Plato 
in locating it in the brain, as, e.g., in QG i. 5, ii. 5, QE ii. 100. 
See, for the various passages, Helmut Schmidt, Die Anthropo- 
logie Philons von Alexandreia (Wiirzburg, 1933), pp. 51, 143. 

" Lit. " before " : Aucher " in regione." 

•* o vovs (or 17 Siavota) Koi 6 Xoyos. 

* avfJL^oXovvorjrrjs ovataSy cf. QE ii. 121, note I. 

' Aucher inserts " praeseferens." 

" eKTVTTOiOetaa o-^payi?, cf. QE ii. 122. 

^ iSe'a tSecDv, cf. Be Migratione 103, QE ii. 122. 



176 



APPENDIX A 



APPENDIX A 

GREEK FRAGMENTS OF THE QUAESTIONES 

Although Philo's Quaestiones in Genesin et Exodum has 
survived as a whole (or in large part) only in the ancient 
Armenian version, the original Greek text of parts of about 
two hundred sections has been preserved in the works of 
some of the Church Fathers like John of Damascus or Byzan- 
tine chroniclers like Leo Grammaticus or antiquarians like 
Johannes Lydus or the anonymous authors of catenae 
arranged in the order of Scriptural verses. A number of 
these fragments (some of them being rather paraphrastic 
than literal) were collected by Mangey in his edition of Philo's 
works published in 1742. Since that time other scholars 
have added to their number. While it may be expected that 
future research will discover more fragments of the Quaes- 
tiones as well as of other lost works of Philo, it still seems 
worth while at the present time to bring together the frag- 
ments of the Quaestiones which have been collected by 
various scholars and published in half a dozen separate works. 
It should be noted in passing that Dr. Ludwig Friichtel of 
Ansbach, Germany, to whom we owe the identification of 
several fragments (published by Harris) formerly unlocated 
in the Quaestiones, proposes to bring out a more complete 
collection of the fragments of Philo's various lost works and 
has, as he informed me in 194.9, already located a few more 
hitherto unidentified fragments of the Quaestiones. 

The fragments (or paraphrases) reproduced from the 
various modern collections listed below are here given without 
an English translation, partly because the differences be- 
tween them and the Armenian have already been mentioned 
in the footnotes to the translation of that version, and partly 
because many of the fragments are such free quotations of 
the original that it might be misleading to translate them 

179 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

and thus make them appear to be of equal weight with the 
translation of the Armenian version. 

The six modern works from which the Greek texts are 
reproduced are herewith listed in order of publication. 

Harris, J. Rendel, Fragments of Philo Judaeus. Cam- 
bridge, 1886 (includes fragments earlier published by 
Mangey, Mai, Pitra and Tischendorf). 

Wendland, Paul, Neu entdeckte Fragmente Philos. Berlin, 
1891 (consists mostly of selections from Procopius, including 
those published earlier by Mai). 

Praechter, Karl, " Unbeachtete Philonfragmente," Archiv 
fur GescUchte der Philosophie, N.F. 9 (1896), 415-426 (gives 
nine fragments from Leo Grammaticus and Pseudo-Poly- 
deuces with parallels in other Byzantine chroniclers). 

Staehle, Karl, Die Zahlenmystik hei Philon von Alex- 
andreia. Leipzig-Berlin, 1931 (gives about a dozen frag- 
ments from Johannes Lydus). 

Lewy, Hans, Neue Philontexte in der Ueherarheitung des 
Ambrosius mit einem Anhang : Neu gefundene griechische 
Philonfragmente. Berlin, 1932 (gives about a dozen frag- 
ments from the Sacra Parallela of John of Damascus and the 
Catenae). 

Friichtel, Ludwig, " Griechische Fragmente zu Philons 
Quaestiones in Genesin et in Exodum," Zeitschrift fur die 
alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, N.F. 14 (1937), 108-115 
(locates several fragments listed by Harris as " unidenti- 
fied "). 

Three of Harris' " unidentified " fragments have been lo- 
cated by Emile Brehier, Les Idees philosophiques et religieuses 
de Philon d'Alexandrie, 2nd ed., Paris, 1925. 

The reader is asked to overlook some inconsistencies in 
abbreviations, forms of citation, etc., in the following pages. 
They are largely due to the fact that I have in most cases 
followed the style set by the modern authorities listed above. 



180 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

1. (Gen. ii. 4) Ata ri ttjv Koafioirouav eViAoyt^d/Lievos' (f)'r]al 
Mcovarjs' " avTT] rj jSi/3Ao? ycvecrccos ovpavov Kal yij?, ore iyiv^To "; 

To /Lt€v " oT€. iyevero " dopiCTTOv" eoi/ce XP^^^^ efjt,(f)alv€LV tovto 
8' €otIv eXeyxos Svocottcov tovs ovyK€(f)aXaLoviJL€vovs apid^xov eVcDv, 
d^' ov rov Koafiov otovrat yeveadaf to 8e " avTr] rj ^l^Xos yeve- 
aeois " rJTOi Sei/crtKOV can to£> vttok€iix4vov Tevxovs, o rrjv Koafio- 
TTOitav nepicx^i-' <ev e/ceiVo) yd/>> t^ dva(f>opa tcDv eipiy/xevcDv Trepi 
rrys KoafiOTTOuas rrpos to, eV dXrjOelas yeyovora. 

Lewy, p. 55, from Sacra Parallela of John of Damascus, 
Cod. Hierosolymitanus S. Sep. fol. 124'" and Cod. Con- 
stantinopolitanus Metochion 274, eV roJv iv Feveo-et ^rjTrjfxdTcov. 



17. (Gen. ii. 18) 

Oi'Aous TjyrjTeov rovs ^orjdelv /cat avrto^eAeiv ideXovras Kal dv 
fiTj bvvcovrai. <j}i.Xia yap <,ovk'^ iv to) ;(;/)€toijS€i /taAAov '^ Kpdoei 
Kal avfX(f>a}VLa ^e^aico tcov rjddjv, d)S eKaoTOv tcov avveXdovTwv els 
<f>t,XLKr)v Koivoiviav to \\vday6p€L0V prjua €TtL(j)diy^aadai, on " dpd 
icTL (f)LXos €T€pov d)s iyo)." 

Harris, p. 12, from Dam. Par. 788 (Cod. Riipef. f. 275) 
€K rov a' rdjv ev Tevdaci (,r]T7]p.dTojv. " The first sentence (with 
change to the singular number) in Maximus (ii. 548) and 
Anton Melissa, col. 849." 



20. (Gen. ii. 19) 

'AvSpos 8e iTTiaTTjfiovtKCOTdrov Kal (f>povrja€i hLa<j>4povTos oIk€l6- 
rarov tovto to epyov ov ao(f>a) fiovov dXXd Kal t<x> irpajTco yrjycvei^ 
TcDv ovo/xctTcov Tf d4oL£' ISci ydp Tjyepiova fxev tov dvdpco-neLOV, 
jSaaiAea Se tcjv yrjyevcov irdvTwv Kal tovto Xax^iv yepas e^atpeTov 

" dopiorov ex Arm. Lewy : dptaTov codd. 
^ yriyivel ex Arm. Harris : euyevet codd. 

181 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

tva, wanep irpwros ij^^i' to. ^coa, /cat Trpcoros d^icodfj tt^s ctti Trdaiv 
dpxfjs Koi Trpcoros eiarjyrjTrjS Kal evperrjs yGvqTai tcov ctt-covu/xicDv. 
"Atottov yap ■^v dv(i)vvp,a aura /caraAeK^^evra vtto tlvos vecoTepov 
TTpocTOVofiaodrjvaL errl KaraXvaei, ttjs rov Trpecr^vrepov TLfJirjs re koX 
evKXeias. 

Harris, pp. 12-13, from Dam. Par. 748 (Cod. Rupef. f. 21 b) 
" with reference to the questions on Genesis." 



21. (Gen. ii. 19) "Hyayev o deos rd ^a»a rrpos rov 'Abdp,, Ibelv 
ri KaXeaei avrd. 

Ov yap evSua^ei deos' dXX' €7761817 vovv eSto/ce rw dvdp(x)TTcp ra> 
TTpcoroyevet Kal OTTOvhalcp Kad^ o iinarrjpiovLKOs <x)v TTe<f>VK€ Xoyi- 
l^eadai, KaOdirep v(f)rjyqrr]S yvcopifiov /ctvei rrpos eViSet^tv oiVet'av 
Kal d(f)opa rd dpiara avrov rijs ^vx^js iyyova. ^avepws Se rrdXiv 
Kal hid rovrov rtdv rd ckovcflov Kal €(f>' rifjuv SiarvTrol, rovs vdvra 
Kar^ dvdyKr]v etvai Xeyovras Svocottcov. "H inel e/xeXXov ol dvQpoi- 
TTOi ;(p'^CT^ai, Std rovro dvOpcorrov avrd deadai irpoairarrev. 
^ Harris, p. 13, from Dam. Par. p. 748 (Cod. Rupef. f. 21 b), 
€K rd>v iv Teveaei tprjrovpievoyv. 



24.^(Gen. ii. 21) 

'O VTTVos Kard rov 7Tpo(f>'qrr]v CKcrraais iariv, ovxl Kard fxaviav, 
dXXd Kard rrjv rcov aio6r}aeo)v v(f>€aiv Kal rrjv dvaxwp'qaiv rod 
Xoyiafiov. Tore ydp al fxev alad-qaeis e^iaravrat, rcov aladrjrwv ,'* 
6 Be ovKeri vevpooTraarwv ov8e napexojv Kivrjaiv avrals ripep-el, al 
Se rds evepyeias dirorerfirj fievat rco 8ie^evxdat ru)v aladrjrcov 
aKivr^roi Kal dpyal inreKXeXwrai. 

Harris, pp. 13-14, from Joh. Monachus (Mangey ii. 667 = 
Cod. Rupef. f. 265), and Cod. Reg. 923, f. 342 b. 



27. (Gen. ii. 21) 

ATTOLKtav areXXerat yvvrj rrjv drro yoveojv -npos rov dvSpa' Sto 
irpoarfKeL rov [xev VTroSe^d/jLevov dvrLXa^eiv rrjv rwv SeScoKorcov 
evvoLav, rr)v Se p,ereXdovaav , ^v roZs OTreipaai rifjLrjv Trapeix^, rco 
XapovTL SiBovai' vapaKara9i]K7]v ydp dvrjp eyxeipi^erai yuvalKa 
rrapa yoveojv, yvvrj Se rov dv8pa irapd ru)v vo/acov. 

Lewy, p. 55, from Dam. Par. Rec. Rupef. f. 243^', Ot'Acuvo?. 

Post aiad-qrojv verba Kal 6 XoyiafjLOS dvax<JopeL €k rwv 
alod-qaeoiv ex Arm. suppl. Harris. 
182 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

28. (Gen. ii. 23) ^ ^ 

*Q.S TTpo<f>rjTris (f>rjaiv, ovre ycyovevai. ck avvo^iXias ovre €K 
yvvaiKO^, ws ol fiereTreiTa, aXXd riva (f)vaw iv fxedopLco KadaTrep 
arro dfnreXov KXr]p,aTL8os d(f>aLped€Lcn]g els irepas dp-TriXov yeveaiv. 

Harris, p. 14, from Dam. Par. 748 (Cod. Rupef. f. 21 b), 
e/f Tcav €v Feveaei ^rjTOvpLevcov. 



29. (Gen. ii. 24) Aid ^r^criv " "Evc/ccv tovtov KaraXeitpei 
dvdpcoTTOS Tov TTaripa kox tt/v jXTjTepa avrov Koi TrpoaKoXXrjO-qaeTai 
Trpos TTjv yvvaiKa avrov- koI eaovrai hvo els adpKa p-iav " ; 

... TO €va<f)€aTaTOV koL aladrjTiKcoTaTov, ev a) Kal to dXyelv 
/cat TO rjhead ai. 

Harris, p. 14, from Dam. Par. 748 (Mangey ii. 654== Cod. 
Rupef. f. 21 b), e/c tcuv eV Feveoei ^rjTovixevcov. 



31. (Gen. iii. 1) 

OpdvijLtos Se eKX-qdr] 6 6<f>LS on ro XoyiKov ^wov tov dvOpojvov 
Kal ro)v dXXciiv dyxt-vola hia^epovra i^aTTardv efieXXev. 

Praechter, p. 420, from Ps.-Polydeuces, pp. 30, 25-32, 1 
(cf. Theod. Mel. p. 7, 31-32, Cedr. p. 10, 10-12). 



32. (Gen. iii. 1) 

*Apa Se KOL 6 6<f)is TO) Kara 7Tpo(f>opdv Xoyo) exp'^oaro; ov 
TrdvTcos, aAA' ol vpajTOTrXacrTOi are KaKtas ovTes dp-iyels dKpi- 
^eardras elxov Tas aladrjoeis Kal ttoXv tcov TjfxeTepcov SiaXXar- 
Tovaas axrre ttjv dKorjv avTa>v Trdcrqs vndpx^LV (fxjjvijs dKovcnriK-qv. 

Praechter, pp. 416-417, from Ps.-Polydeuces, p. 32, 8-12 
(cf. Sym. Log. p. 910, 16-20, Theod. Mel. p. 8, 4-8, Cedr. p. 10, 
12-16). 



41. (Gen. iii. 7) 

*Os ydp rj8vs 6 KapTTOs rrjs avK'qs, rpaxv Kal TTLKporarov to 
^uAAov, ovTws irdaa dfiapria eV ttj Trpd^ei beLKVvrai -qbeia, fxerd 
8e ravra 68vvr]v irapex^t tco rre-npaxoTi. 

Praechter, p. 417, from Ps.-Polydeuces, p. 36, 13-16 (cf. 
Sym. Log. pp. 911, 28-912, 2, Theod. Mel. p. 9, 10-13, Cedr. 
p. 14, 19-21—" stark verflacht "). 



51. (Gen. iii. 10) Tt eariv ** eco? tou eTTiarpetpat ae els rrfv y-fjv 

183 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

el ■^S iX'i](f)dr]s " ; ov yap eV yrjs hi^TrXdadrj fiovov 6 dvdpcoTTOS 
dAAa Kal delov vvevixaros- 

'ETTCiSiy Se ov bUfxeLvev dSiaarpo^os, rrpoaTa^ecos deias ■^XoyrjKe 
Kal rov KpeiTTOvos [xepovs aTTOTefivopLCVos ovpavop,ip.7jrov TToXireiav 
oXov avTov TTpoo€V€i.p.€ TTJ yfj. El fxkv yap dpeTrjs, ^ns ddavaTi^eL, 
ipaarrjs iyevero, Travrcos dv iXapL^ave KXrjpov rov ovpavov eVeiSii) 
Se rjBovrjv e^-^rrjae, 8t' -^s ipvxi-Kos ddvaros i-myLveTai, ttj yjj 
irpoaevepLijOT]. 

Harris, p. 15, from Dam. Par. 748 (Cod. Rupef. f. 20 b), 
€K TcDv iv Tevdaei ^TjTovpLevcov. 



55. (Gen. iii. 22) 

OvT€ ivBvaanos ovre (f>d6vos 

TTepl deOV XPW°'-^ ^^ TToXXdKLS 

6v6p,aaLV ivSvaoTLKols rj Btavor]- 
TLKOLS Kar' dva(f>opdv eVt to 

*' d)S dvdpCOTTOS " K€<j)dXaLOV. 

Airrd ydp, cos TroAAd/cts' ^(f>r)v, 
CCTTtv TO, dvcoTdro) K€(f)dXai.a' to 
fjbkv " ovK <l)s dvdpcoTTOS 6 deos," 
TO Se " d)S dv9p<x)TTOS TraiSeuet 
Tov viov." To ixev Trporepov 
e^ovaias, to 8e h^VTepov rrai- 
beias Kal elaaycoyfjs eariv. 

Harris, p. 15, from Paral- 
lels of Job. Monachus (Man- 
gey ii. 669 = Cod. Rupef.), 
CK r<jL>v avTd}V = iK rov jS' tcDv 
€v Feveoet ^rjTrjixdrcov. 



"AXXos Se <f)T]aiv cos ovk iv- 
Soict^ei TO delov Kav ivhoiaari- 
Kols ovofjuaat, xP'fJTai. AtTTa ydp 
ioTi TO. dv6t>TdTa> K€(f)dXaLa, to 
fiev " ovx d)S dvdpojTTos 6 dios," 
TO Se "(Ls dvdpcoTTOS 77aiSeuei 

TOV vloV, OVTWS KVpiOS 6 dcOS 

TratSeuaei oe." To /Ltev ovv vpo- 
T€pov i^ovaias eoTi, to Se Seu- 
T€pov TTaiSeias Kal e^aycoyrjs, 
Lva Kal TO Ikovolov irapeioeXdr] . 
To ydp " p,riv0T€ " ovk eoTLV 
i7TapL(f)0T€pLap,6s tov deov dAA' 
dva(f)opd TTpos dvdpoiTTOV tov 
€7iap,(f)0T€pLaTr)v ttj <f>va€i. Kal 
ILrjVvpLa tov Trepl €K€lvov Trddovs' 
OTav ydp vpoaTrear} tivos (f>av- 
Taaia, Tpia evdvs e'TnyiveTai, 
d(f>opp.7] e/c Toi; <f)av€VTOS, dpp,rj 
TTpos TO <f)av€v, TpLTOV eVSotao- 

(JLOS dljLcf>LKXLV7)S dvTLa7T(DfM€V7)S 

TTJs ifjvxrjs, et^' alpcTdov etTe 

pL-q. UpOS S17 TOUTO TO TpLTOV 

TO " p.rjTTOT€ " dva(f)€peTaL. 

Wendland, pp. 36-37, from 
Procopius 225 b. 



59. (Gen. iv. 2) 

'Opa Se 7TWS iv p,€v ttj yeve'oei tov KdiV TT/JoeVa^e KaTd Ta^iv 

184 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

T17V ;^poviK7^v, eV 8e rots' eViTTySeu/xaCTi TrpoTCtTTei tov SiKaiov to. 
yap efxi/juxa rCov dtpvxcov tco ttjs (f>va€ajs Xoyco Sta^epei, /cat 17 
TTOt/iai'Tt/ci) 7TpooLixLd(,eTai TTjv iavTov T€ /cat aAAcov a/);^T7v. Ou/c 
€pp-q9r) 8e yewpyos o KatV, dAA' epya^Ofievos ttjv yrjv. Ov yap ■^v 
dcrelos Kara tov NtDe, oorts' y^oypyos, ovk ipydrrj^ etpiqTat.. 

Wendland, p. 37, from Procopius 233 d, " . . . aber Pr. 
oder sein Gewahrsmann benutzt vielleicht am Schluss ein 
verlorenes Stiick der Quaest." 



60. (Gen. iv. 34) 

'Opa Toivvv (f)iXavTov Kal 
(f>i.Xod€ov hiaifyopdv 6 fiev fied* 
Tjixepas dAA' OVK evdvs Kal dno 
Ttov KapnaJv, dAA' ovk dno twv 
rrpcoTcov Kal rovroiv earl 8ta- 
vofxevs npos dcov roiavTT] yap 
■f] dvaia' 6 8e rd TrpojTOTOKa 
[xrjbev p-eXXi^aas Kadiepol /cat 

TOV TTpOO€V€xQeVTOS TTaVTOS 7Ta- 

pax">pet ru> deep- eV€t8e" yap 
6 deos €7rt TOis Scopois avrov' 
hcoprjTLKos, ov 8i,avop,€vs ye- 
yovios. "Opa 8e /cat on daov 
€K TTJs rd^eciiS dp^afievov Trpco- 
Tov, TOV KdtV BevTepov jxefivT]- 
rat Xeycov " eTretSev d Oeos €7tI 
"AjSeA, inl 8e KdtV /cat rat? 
dvaiaLS avTov ov TTpoadax^v.** 

Wendland, p. 38, from 
Procopius 236 a. 



OvTcos olfxai ra irpoiTOTOKa 
KaOiepcov 6 "A^cX^ <f>iX6deov 

fldXXoV T] <f>LXaVTOV TTfV iavTov 

avvLGT-qai TTpoaipecnv. 'Eauroi 
be 6 KdtV dTTov€ficov rd yevv-q- 
puaTa Kal Ttov SevTepicbv" dae- 
jSdjS' TOV deov d^icjv T(x> Kal 
fied^ Tjixepas dXXd jxr) evdecos 
TTpoa€V€yK€tv (fyiXavTOS fidXXov 
■q <j)iX6deos i^eXeyx^rai. 

Praechter, p. 418, from 
Leo Grammaticus, pp. 244, 
34-245, 21 {cf. Theod. Mel., 
pp. 11, 18-12, 13, Ps.-Poly- 
deuces, pp. 44, 8-46, 11). 



61. (Gen. iv. 4-5) 

OvTcos ovx "f) rd^t? TO TrpwTeiov dAA' -fj yv(i)p,T) ;^a/)t^eTai. 

Wendland, p. 38, from Procopius 236 a. 



" €77€t8€ Wendland : iv-dbrj codd. 

^ KaOupwv 6 'AjSeA edd. : Kadi€povv{Ta) tov 'A^eA codd. : 
KadUpcoaev "AjScA Sym. Log., Cod. Vind. 91. 
" 8€VT€p€uov corr. Praechter. 

185 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 



62. (Gen. iv. 4-5) 

TiTjTCOv rivL hia- 
(f}€p€L Scopov dvalas, 

eVpLGKO} OTL O fM€V 

dvcov eTTtStaipei, to 
/icv alfxa Tcp j3a»/Lia> 
TrpoxeoiV, to. 8e Kpea 
OLKaSe Ko/it^cov o 

§€ 8copOVfjL€VOS oXoV 

eoiK€ TTapax(opcLv 
TW Xajx^dvovTr 6 
fiev ovv (f>lXavros 
biavoixevs otos 6 
KalV, o 8e <f)iX6deos 
b(x)pr]Tai otov" o 
"AjSeA. 

Harris, p. 15, 
from Cramer, Ca- 
tena in Heb., p. 
580 (Cod. Paris, 
238). 



pOV dvOiaS, OTL 6 

fxev dvoiv eViStaipei 
TO /Lcev af/xa tco jScd- 
/xa» TTpoax^cov, ra Se 
/cpea oi/caSe /co/tii- 
^CDV, 6 5e Bojpov- 

pL€VOS oXoV^ €OLK€ 

TTapaxoipelv tw Xafx,- 
jSavovTi. 

Wendland, p. 
38, from Pro- 
copius 237 B (c/. 
Gennadius, Cat. 
Lips. 108). 



"Eot/ce yap eViSi- 
aipelv 6 dvcDV /cat to 
fikv af/xa toj Ovol- 

aaTT]pL(X) TTpOX^CLV," 

TO. Be Kpea ot/caSc 
dnoKOfjiL^eLV,^ 6 8e 
Scopovjjievos vavTr) * 
Toi XapLpdvovTi va- 
paxcopel TO Bcopov. 

Praechter, p. 
418, from Leo 
Grammaticus, pp. 
244, 34-245, 21 
(cf. Theod. Mel. 
pp. 11, 18-12, 13, 
Ps. - Polydeuces, 
pp. 44, 8-46, 11). 



64. (Gen. iv. 7) 

(a) 'Op^i) Se Sialpeais koI TOfJt,r)f ovbev CTepov ioTtv t] Tacts' 
Kad^ ^v 6 KoafjLos BeSrjjXLOvpyTjTai. Kai TavTijv bet /caTO, TravTa 
Tou ^Lov fXLp,eladai to. Trpdyp,aTa koX fxaXiOTa iv ;faptTcov d/xotjSaiS'. 

Wendland, p. 39, from Procopius 237 d. 

(6) To fxev ovv €vxapiaT€LV To evxa-piOTeiv deo) Kad^ 

to) Oecp Kad^ eauTo" opdcos exov eavTO opdws exov iaTi- to Be 



eoTL, TO be p.rjTe TrpoyTW p,r}Te 
eK TcDv TTpcoTwv d7Tapx6p.evov 
ijjeKTOv. Ov yap Set TCt pcev 
TTpea^ela ttjv yeveaiv eavTjj, to, 
Se bevTepa tw dyevqTW irpoa- 



lxr)Te vpojTOV ft'qTe eK tcov 
TTpdiTOiv dTTapxdfievov xfieKTOv. 
Oi5 yap Set to. (xev Trpea^eia ev 
Tjj yeveaei, Tidevai,^ Ta 8e 8ev- 
Tepa TU) 8a}pr]aafi,ev(x) dew rrpoa- 



bwprjTLKos otos con. Harris. '' oAov Mai. 

" TTpoaxeoiv Theod. Mel. et Cod. Vat. 163. 

^ Kop.il,eLv Ps.-Polydeuces. 

* edd. : TTavTL codd. 

^ TopLT) Wendland : to /lit) codd. 

" eavTO Wendland : eaxnov codd. 

'' eavTcp Tidevai con. Harris. 



186 



GENESIS, BOOK I 



v€fi€Lv, OTTep e$ dXrjdeLas ovk 
Icttiv evxo-pLcjTeXv. 

Wendland, p. 39, from 
Procopius 237 d (continuing 
frag. (a)). 



(f>ep€iv. "HSe iarlv cttlXtitttos 
StaipeaLS, dra^iav rivd rafeo)? 
elcrqyovfievrj. 

Harris, p. 16, from Joh. 
Monachus (Mangey ii. 668 = 
Cod. Rupef. f. 269 b). 



65. (Gen. iv. 7) 

To ^7] afiaprdveiv firjbev to 
TTapdrrav fxiyiaTov dyadov to 
dfj-apTavovTa ivTpaTrrjvai avy- 
yeves ckclvov, vcwrepov, cos av 
Tt? eiTTOi, TTapd TTpeo^vrepov. 
Eilal yap ol iirl dp^apTavofxevoiS 
(hs errl Karopdcop-aoLV dyaXXo- 
/xevot hvaiaTov, fxdXXov 8e dvi'a- 

TOV VOaOV €XOVT€S. 

Harris, p. 16, from Dam. 
Par. 751 ( = Cod. Rupef. f. 
46 b), e'/c Touv iv Teveaei I^tjtov- 
pueviov. 



Me'yicTTOv pi€v yap dyadov to 
p.r]S€v dfiapT€Lv, bevrepov Be to 
evTpaTTTJvai rots dp.apTT]fjiaai,v 
6 Se Sea rrjv drifiiav, ov Tr)v 
dfxapTiav XeXvTrrjTO. 

Wendland, p. 39, from 
Procopius 237 d. 



66. (Gen. iv. 7) 

or? dvTLXeyovTes ercpoi, ov nepl tov Ocoae^ovs Aeyeiv <f)aaiv, dXXd 
irepl TOV npaxdevTos epyov. Ot^cti yap avrco on tovtov tov dae^-q- 
p.aTOS rj drrooT po<j)T] /cat rj dva(f>opd irpos ere ioTiv, Iva to eKovoiov 
TTapaoTT^arj- " Kal av," (f)T}aLV, " dp^cis avTov," TrpcoTos yap 
dae^elv rjp^ev"- eTrerai hk ws KprjTTlhi ttj dae^CLo. Kal Ta XoLrrd 
TTXripLp.eXrip.aT a cos e^apxov /cat rjyefxova navros d8iKTJfi.aTos 
eKovoiov TOVTOV^ elvai. 

Wendland, p. 40, from Procopius 240 b. 



68. (Gen. iv. 9) HwOdverai Oeos' ttov "AjSeA o dheX<f>6s aov; 

Ovx o^S dyvowv roiyapovv dpvovfievov rjXey^ev aAA' cTnaKOTrrjs 
TTpos larpelav airrov d^icov /cat e<j>LaTU)v avrov rev p-eyedei rod 
rrX-qp.p.eXrip.aTOS /cat TTp6(f>aaiv p.eTavoias hihovs /cat heiKvvs St' oAt;? 
rris vop-odeoLas cos -nap" rjp.ds eari rdhLKripiara- 6 p.kv yap a/ccov 
TTpd^as 6p.oXoy€L avyyvoip.T]v alrcov, 6 8e e'/ctov dpvetTat. 

\\'endland, pp. 40-41, from Procopius 240 d (" Das philo- 

" rjp^as ex Arm. con. Wendland. '' touto Cod. Aug. 

187 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

nische Original ist zum Teil erhalten in Barberinus VI 8 f. 82 
unter dem falschen Titel ^LXoivos iinaKOTtov : ovx ojs dyvowv 
roiyapovv tov apvovficvov bis hihovs ohne Abweichungen vom 
Texte des Pr."). 



69. (Gen. iv. 9) 'Os he ttjs fieravoCas iJAAafaTo rrjv dvalSetav 
eiTTCov dyvoetv Koi fxrj (f>vXa^ elvai tov dSeA^oiJ. 

KaiTOi TCTTdpcov ovrcov dvQpoiTTWv, ovs €lk6s -qv fJiTjbe rroppo) 
Xlav dAAfyAcov KadiaaaQai, Kal Ttavros (jloXXov tov d8eX(f)6v (f>vXdT- 
Teiv 6<f)€LXovTOS , ert Se Kal ddeov BeiKvvvros VTToXrjipiv tw fir) vofxi- 
t,€Lv vdvTa TOV deXov i(f>opdv 6(f)6aXfi6v. 

Wendland, p. 41, from Procopius 241 a. 



70. (Gen. iv. 10) 

Tt S' eCTTlV " 00)- 

vrj alfxaTos tov dSeA- 
(f)Ov GOV jSoa TTpos 
fi€ €K TTJs yrjs "; 

AoyfJLaTLKCOTaTOV 

ioTLV TO yap Oeiov 
OGLcov fjLev vrraKovei, 
Kav TeXevTT^acoai, 

l,TJV aVTOVS UTToAa/i- 

fidvov TTjv docofiaTOv 
CojT^v, evxds 8e (f>av- 

XcDV dTTOOTpe(f)€Tai, 

Kav €V€^La xPV^oj^- 
Tai, vop-L^ov avTovs 
TOV dXrjdr} ^iov re- 
dvdvai, TO acofia 
olov Tu/x/3ov TTepi- 
cf)epovTas, a) ttjv 
TTavddXiov fpvx'^v ey- 
KaTcLpv^av. 

Lewy, p. 55, 
from Dam. Par., 
Cod. Len. f. 27^ 
^IXojvos 'Fj^paiov 
{cf. Cod. Barb. f. 
82^, Cod. Mosqu. 
124'-). 
188 



Aifcaicov yap eV- 
aKovei {sc. 6 deos), 
Kav TeXevTT^aavTes 
cooiv, dSiKwv Se Kal 
avTas dTT0OTp4(f)€TaL 
Tas evxds' tovs p,kv 
yap Kal TcdvecjTas 
v€v6fiiK€ t,riv, TOVS 
hk Kal t,a)VTa^ tt^v 

dXrjdrj K€KplK€ T€- 

6vT]K€va(, ^wqv. 

Praechter, p. 
419, from Leo 
Grammaticus, p. 
245, 27-30 (cf. 
Theod. Mel. p. 12, 
18-20, Ps.-Poly- 
deuces, p. 46, 15- 
17). 



<^rjalv 6 deos' 
" (f)a)vr] alfiaTos tov 
dSeA^ou (jov jSoa 
Trpos /xe." 

AvvaTov 8e koI to 
alfxa dvTt tt]? ^vx^js 
ivTavda elp'^adai, 
Kol eCTTt SoyfxaTt- 
KcoTaTov TO yap 

deloV OGLCOV pL€V V7T- 

aKov€i, Kav TcXev- 

TTjOCOGL, 1,7}V aVTOVS 

vnoXa/jL^dvov T17V 
dddvaTov ^ttiT^v, ev- 
xds Se (f)avXo)v 
dTTOGTpe(f)€Tai, Kav 
eve^ia ;^p'^CTajVTai, 

VOflL^OV aVTOVS TOV 

dXrjOrj ^Lov Tcdvdvai. 
Wendland, p. 
41, from Pro- 
copius 241 A. 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

72. (Gen. iv. 12) 

Aoyiov be, <f>aaiv, iarl koX tovto KadoXiKdoraTOV Travrl yap 
if>avXw TcSv KaKU)v to fxkv -qhrj Trpoaecm, to, Se /xe'AAei- to. fi€v ovv 
fxeXXovra <f)6^ovs, to. 8e irapovra Xviras ipydt,erai.'* 

Wendland, pp. 41-42, from Procopiiis 241 d (" Das philo- 
nische Original ist erhalten in Barb. VI 8 f. 83 "). 



73. (Gen. iv. 13) ^ ^ ^ 

OvK €cm avyt^opa /iei'^cuv rj to d(f)€drjvaL koL KaTaX€i<j>d'fjvai vtto 
hov. 
Wendland, p. 42, from Procopius 243 b. 



74. (Gen. iv. 14) Tiva 8e SeSoi/cev 6 KaiV /xT^Sevoj ovto? ttXtjv 
avTov Kal TU)v yovioiv; 

YipoaehoKa 8e, ^aai, koX ttjv €k tcDv ficpcbv rov KoayLOV eVt^eaiv 
(XTTep €7r* ci^eAeto. yevofieva^ ovSev ■^ttov dfjLvveTai, roiis TTOvrjpovs, 
elra koI ttjv aTTO ru)v dr]picov Kal epTTCTcov €Tn^ovXrjV, dnep rj (f>vaLS 
€iTL TifiajpLa Tcov dbiKwv iyevvTjaev. " "laojs 8e Kal ttjv drro tcDv 
yoveojv tlolv VTTOvoel, oh kolvov TT€vdos TTpoad^aXcv dyvoovai tov 
ddvarov. 

Wendland, p. 42, from Procopius 245 a. 



76. (Gen. iv. 15) 

To /xev yap TeXevrrjaai twv iv T(h jStoj novTjpoJv eVayei T171/ 
KaTarravaLV to 8e ^ijv iv (f>6^a} Kal XvTrrj fjLOplovs eVayei tous avv 
aladria€L^ davdrovs. 

Praechter, p. 419, from Leo Grammaticus, p. 246, 11-13 
(c/. Theod. Mel. p. 13, 10-12). 



77. (Gen. iv. 23) 

'O fikv KaiV,* eTTCiSii) to fiiyedos tov dyovs "^yvorjae, tov fiT]- 
SeVoTe TTepnreaeiv davdru), Ti/iajpia? Si'Souctiv aTrXovcrripas. 'O 

" d-nepyd^eTai Cod. Barb. 
^ y€v6fi€va Wendland : yivofieva codd. 
' TtVa . . . iyivvrfaev, cf. Cat. Lips. 112, 'ASi^Aou. 
** avvaiad-qaei Theod. Mel. : iv avv€odi^a€L Sym. Log., Cod. 
Vind. : iv aiadriaei con. Praechter. 
* add. fcra)? Cod. Reg. 

189 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

8e fiifirjTrjS €K€lvov, fir) Svvdfievos els rrjv avrrjv'^ airoXoyiav rrjs 
ayvoias av[jL(f>vyelv,^ Se/caTrAas " eiKOTios VTTOfievei SiKas. . . . Ata 
rovTO " eV 8e Adfj,€X i^bo/jLTjKOvrdKis enrd "• 8ta tt^v elprj^e- 
vqv alrlav, Kad' rjv 6 Sevrepos dfiapTOJV Kal firj acocftpoviaOels rfj 
Tov TTporjSLKrjKOTOs Ti/icupici TTyv TC eKetvov TTavTcXcos dvaSexcTUL 
dnXovarepav ovcrav, Kaddvep iv dpidyLois at /lOvaSes exovai, Kal 
TroXvirXaaioirepav,^ OfioLOvixevqv rats eV dptdfiols beKaaiv. ■jyv 
yvwmixaxoJv Adfiex xad^ eavrov. * 

Harris, p. 17, from Dam. Par. 776 (Cod. Rupef. and Cod. 
Reg. 923, f. 356 b). 

79. (Gen. iv. 26) 

'EAtti's iari vpoTTddetd tis x^P^^^ "^P^ X^P^^> dyaOwv ovara 
TrpoahoKia. 

Harris, p. 17, from Anton Melissa {Patr. Gr. 136, col. 789). 

81. (Gen. v. 3) 

Kat TO /u,€v eV KaiV yevos fJi-expi' tovtov fxviqfiTjs Trjs iv ^l^Xols 
rj^CcoTai, rov Se" dpidfiov twv TTarepcov^ dTTOK€KripvKTai, Iva ixrjhk 
rots TTpcoTOis €17) CTf VTaTTO/xevo? fjLTjbe Tcov e^rjs d(f)r]yovfi€voLS,^ 
Sid 8e TO rfjs TTpoaipeaecos dypiov woTTCp im ttjv dXoyov €k ttjs 
XoyiKTJs <f>v(T€a)S i$u)piaTaL. 

Praechter, pp. 419-420, from Ps.-Polydeuces, p. 54, 9-14 
{cf. Leo Grammaticus, p. 246, 26-29, Theod. Mel. p. 13, 
24-27). 

85. (Gen. v. 23-24) 

''H8'>; TLves di/jLKopoi yevadfievoi KaXoKayaOias kol iXiTLSa 
napaaxovres vyieias els rrjv avrrjv irravearpeipav voaov. 

Harris, p. 17, from Dam. Par. 784 (" apparently as eV ra)v 
iv 'E^d8a) IrjTTjixdTwv, an easy confusion "). 

" auTi7v om. Cod. Reg. ^ Karac^vyelv Cod. Rupef. 

" hiTtXds Cod. Rupef. 
Tt/xcopia . . . TToAuTrAaCTttuTepav] ripuxipiq. ov p.6vov rfj ckclvov 
TravreAoj? dvaSix^odai dXXd koL ttoXv TrXeiorepav Cod. Reg. 

* ^v . . . iavTov susp. Harris. 
' Harris : x^-pd codd. 

" TOV 8e Praechter cum par. : /cai tov Ps.-Polydeuces. 
^ TTpdoTwv Sym. Log. et Leo Grammaticus. 

* d(f>7)yoviJL€vos mal. Praechter cum Sym. Log. et Leo. 
Grammatico. 

190 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

89. (Gen. vi. 1) ^ ^ 

'Acl (f)ddvovai rrjv hiKrjv al rov deov ;^apiT€9. "Epyov yap avra> 
TTporjYovfjLevov to euepyeretv, to Se KoAci^eiv dnoixevov. OtAei Se, 
OTav aeXXr] fieydXa avviaraadai KaKo., fxeydXcov Koi ttoXXujv dya- 
Owv a<f>dovia -npoyeveadai. 

Harris, p. 18, from Joh. Monachiis (Mangey ii. 670), 
€K TcDv eV 'EfoSa> t,r]TOVfi€V(iiv. 



92. (Gen. yi. 4) ^ ^ 

IIveu/LiaTiKat rcov dyyeXcov ovatar et/ca^ovTat 8e TroAAa/ciS' 
dvdpwTTiov ihiais, Trpos rds UTTOKei/xeva? XP^^°-^ fjL€Tap.op<f)ovfi€voi,. 

Harris, p. 18, from Dam. Par. 309, 772, eV tou a twv eV 
Teveaet, l^rjTovfievwv. 



93. (Gen. vi. ^) , , , 

"Evioi vofJLL^ovoi ixerafieXeLav epL^aiveadai rrepl to Oelov 8ta tcDv 

OVOfxdTCOV OVK €V §€ UTTOVOOUai. X^P'-^ y^P ''''^^ t^V Tp^TTeadaL TO 

dclov, ovre to " iveOvpLT^Or} " ouTe to " evevorjaev " BrjXcoTiKa 
/ieTa/LteAeta? eoTiv — to Se dclov aTpcTTTOv — dAA' dKpai(f>vovs Xo- 
yicjfMOv TTepieaKenfMevov ttjv aiVi'av, ^S' eve/ca eTTOirjaev tov dvdpcorrov 
€ttI Trjs yrjs. 

Harris, p. 18, from Joh. Monachus (Mangey ii. 669), 
eV Toiv j3' TU)V €v Teveaei ^rjT7]fxdT0Jv. 



94. (Gen. vi. 7) 

Aia Ti dvOpcoTTOV aTreiAoiv 
aTToXeliljaL Kal to, ctAoya npoa- 

AiOTi ou Trpor]yovpL€V(DS 8t' 
cauTct yeyo^'^ ''■O' aAoya aAAa 
Xdptv dvdpu)TTO)v Kal ttjs tov- 
Tiov vvripeaias, cov 8ia(f>d€Lpo- 
fievcDV ctKOTCos Kal €K€Lva avv- 
8ia(f>deip€Tai., fjLr]K€TL ovtcov 8t' 
ovs yeyove. ['E/c tovtov BijXov 
OTi 8id TOV dvQpojTTOV TvdvTa TO. 



Atd TL aTreiAcDv tov dvdpWTTov 
dTTaXeitpCLV^ Kal tci dAoya* 
TTpoohiacfydeipei ; 

"Oti ov Ttpoiqyovfxlvios 8t' 
eauTa yiyovev Ta dAoya dAAd 
xdpi.v dvOpcoTTOiv Kal Tfjs tovtcov 
VTTrjpeatas, cbv 8ia(f)9€tpofxeva)v 
ei/coTcos' KaKCLva avvhia^Qiipe- 

Tttt, fJLTJKeT* OVTCOV TCOV 8l' Otis' 

y€yov€, avfifxcTpovvTog tov dcov 
TOV dpidpiov Tlov acoOrjaofxevcov 



* e Cod. Barb. Wendland : aTraXelipai, vulg. 
* AotTrd Mai, Aug. 



191 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

t,a>a iyevero' 8l6 Kal aTroXXv- avd poiircov , atOTrep ovv Kal an 
fievov Tov BeanoTOV avvaTroX- Oipx^js 8uo Svo CKnaev. 
Aural Kal avrd, avfifierpovvTos Wendland, p. 47, from 

TOV d€ov TOV apidpLov Twv oco- Procoplus 272 B (cf. ThcO" 
drjaofievojv t,oio)v TTpos ttjv doret, Quaest. in Gen. 1, 
Xpeiav Tosv <f>vXax9T]oofi€vajv Chrys. Cat. Lips. 142). 
dvdpcoTTwv wairep ovv Kal an 
dpx'^S 8vo 8vo e/cTiaev.]" 

Harris, pp. 18-19, from 
Cat. Ined. Cod. Reg. 1825 
(Mangey ii. 675), and Cat. 
Mus. Britt. Cod. Burney 34, 
f. 35, Ot'Acovo? 'E^palov, cf. 
Cat. Lips. 1, col. 141, " where 
it is attributed to Procopius." 



95. (Gen. vi. 7) ^ 

'On Se TTJs KaKias KoXat,Ofi€VT}S rj dpcTr) Siacrcu^eTat NcDe 
BehijXcoKev. 

Wendland, pp. 49-50, from Procopius 292 a. 



96. (Gen. vi. S) . . . os Aey^rat x^P''^ cvpetv napd tco deco. 

'Os T(x}v aAAcov Si' axo-piOTtav dnoXoiXoTiDV ov yap cos X^P^^ 
Xa^wv €K deov — kolvov yap tovto ndvTcov dvdpwnoiv — dAA' inel 
ixovos evxdptOTOs 8i€<f)dv7j. "ESei 8e Kal X'^pi''''os d^LOidrjvai deias 
TOV TOV viov yevovs /carapfavTa* /xeyio-TT/? yap ;;^a/)iTOS' dpxrjv Kal 
TeXos dvdpa)na)v yeveadai. Aio Kal dno tu)V dpcTcov avTOV 
yeveaAoyei* tov yap anovhaLov to npos dX-qOeiav yevos eWtv dpcTrj. 
Upos ov Kai (furjat,' " Kaipos navros dvdpconov rjKei ivavTiov ip,ov." 
"OvTO)? yap ovhkv cos dbiKia npos tov deov evavTiov. 

Wendland, p. 50, from Procopius 292 a. 



99. (Gen. vi. 12) 

KoAcos Se Kal adpKa Kivovfjievrjv Xeyei Trjv ev (f>dopa' Ktvel yap 
Tas Tjbovds rj adp^ Kal KiveiTai vno tcov rjbovcov, tJtls KLvrjoLS ai'ria 
yiverai <j)6opa.s tols ijivxals ws rj cyKpdTCia aoiTrjpias. 

Wendland, pp. 55-56, from Procopius 269 d. 

" 'Ek tovtov . . . €KTLaev'] e Cod. Barb. vi. 8 add. Wend- 
land. 

192 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

100. (Gen. vi. 13) 

(a) OuSev evavTLov /cat ixaxofievov rat? oaicoTOLTais tov deov 
SvvdfMeaiv iartv ovtws cos dSi/cta. 

Harris, p. 70 (identified by Friichtel), from Dam. Par. 787 
(Cod. Rupef. f. 238), eV tov ^' rtDv iv Feveaet t,r]Tr]ixdTcov. 

{b) *0 Katpos Trapd tois <j>av- 'ETrayet 8e koX to ttjs ivav- 

XoTepois vo/xt^erat elvai deos Ticoaecos aiTiov to rrXrjadrjvai 
TOV ovTa ovTOJS TTapaKaXvTTTO- Trjv yrjv aSt/cias'. Kai eVei deos 



jjievoLS . . . /cat OeoTrXaoTOVV- 
Tcov /cat e^ eVavrta? Tt^eWojv 
TO) dXrjdel deo) to Aeyetv tov 
Kaipov aiTLOv tcov iv tcu j3ta> 
Trpay/xaTcov eivat. Tot? ya/j 
evae^eac ov Kaipov dXXd deov 
■nap' ov /cat oi Kaipol /cat ol 
Xpovor ttXtjv aiTiov ov iravTcov 
dXXd {Movcov dyaOiov Kal tcov 
KaT dp^TTjv diS yap a/x€To;^os' 
KaKias, ovTOJ Kal dvaiTLOs. 

Harris, p. 19, from Cod. 
llnpef. f. 193, Ot'Acovo? Trept 
KOGfioTTouas. " The last sen- 
tence also in Pitra {Anal. 
Sacr. ii. 307), from Cod. 
Coislin. 276, f. 238, and again 
in Rupef. 222 b." 



o Kaipos TTapd toIs (f>avXoLS 
vo/xt^erat, beiKVvatv cos Kaipcov 
Kal xpovojv avTos TTOirjT-qs Kal 

TOVTOIS OpOV eVTLdrjOLV, UiOTe 

Kal dXXaxov <f>T)aLV " d(f)eaTr]K€V 
6 Kaipos d'n avTcov, 6 Se Kvpios 
€v 'q/juv.""' To 8e " Kaipos 
17/cet " OTjiJiaivei TTjv oiovel ovp,- 
TTXrjpcoaiv TCOV rifiapT7)iJ.€vojv, 
fxed' rjv 6 TTJs BiKrjs Kaipos- 

Wendland, pp. 50-51, from 
Procopius 292 a (Wendland 
adds a passage as " vielleicht 
. . . auch aus Philo," but 
this seems doubtful). 



" Num. xiv. 9. 



SUPPl . II 



193 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

5. (Gen. y. 15) 

(a) "On 6 TpiaKovra apiOfios (fivaiKUiraros eariv, o yap iv 
fiovdai rpids, tovto ev Se/cacrt rpiaKOvrds. . . . Tivv€aTr]K€V eK 
reaadpcov rwv dvo fjuovdSos iiijs Terpaycovcov a' 8' 6' ts'. 

Staehle, p. 63, from Joh. Lydus, p. 55, 10-13. 

(6) Avvarov ev TpiaKoaro) eret ainov dvdpcoTTOV TrdTnrov yeve- 
odai' Tj^dv fiev Trepl ttju reaaepeaKaibeKdTrjv rjXtKiav, iv fj aveipet,, 
TO 8e oTTapev ivros ivLavrov yevofxevov, vdXiv TrevTCKaibcKdra) 
€T€L TO ofjLOLOv iaiTru) yevvdv. 

Harris, p. 20, from Dam. Par. 314. 



9. (Gen. vi. 17) 
Cf, QG i. 94. 



10. (Gen. vi. 18) 

"AvOpcoTTOi fi€v KXrjpovofxovvTai oTttv fj.7]K€TL (LoLv dAAtt TeOvdJaiv,^ 
6 Se deos diSio? wv /u,eTa8i8a)CTi rod KXi^pov tols ao<f)dts [^oiv det]^ 
€V(f>paLv6ix€vos avTJj rfj Trepiovaia. " 

Lewy, p. 5Q, from Dam. Par. Cod. Rupef. f. 136% Ot'Awvoj. 



11. (Gen. vii. 1) 

(a) YipcjTOv ivapyrjs Tricms on Si' eva dvhpa SiVatov /cat oaiov 
TToAAoi dvOpcoTTOt ao)t,ovTaL. Aerjrepov iiraivel rov SiKaiov dvSpa 
(t)S fir] ixovov eavTU) TrepiTTCTTOiriKOTa dpeT-qv, dAAd /cat ttovtI t<x> 
oIko), 8t' ^v atTt'av /cat aojT-qpias d^iovvrai. Tlay/cdAo)? 8e roin-t 
TTpoaeTedT] on " ae elBov 8t/catov evwTTiov ifiov." 'Erepo)? yap 

" dAAd Tedvcomv ex Arm. et Ambros. ins. Lewy. 

^ '' t,wv det (ex marg. ad dtSios) recte seel. Lewy. 

* avrfj rfj Trepiouota] avrcov t^ ktIocl ex Arm. COn. Lewy. 

194 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

dvdpcoTTOi BoKLfxd^ovai Toiis ^Lovs Kal iripois to delov, oi yikv €K 
Twv (f>av€pcov, 6 Sc eV roiv KaTO. ipv^'^v dopdrcov Xoyiafiajv. 

Wendland, p. 48, from Procopius 280 b-c. Cod. Barb, 
vi. 8, f. 101. 

(6) Kal TO " ev T^ yevea ravrj]," Iva fi-qre to? Trporepov Kora- 
Kpiveiv hoKfj {JL-qre rds avOis OLTToyLVwaKiiv. 

Wendland, p. 5'2, from Procopius 293 b. 



12. (Gen. vii. 2-3) 

(a) 'O yap /cut' avTrjv dpLd(j.6s dfjuyqs eoTL Kal dfxrjTCjp, fiT]T€ 
yevvcov [x-qre yevvcoixevos cos eKaaros tcov ev ttj Sc/caSt dpLdficbv. 
'Odiv Kal ol Ilvday6p€LOi Wdrjva Tr)v CTTTaSa dvaTiOevTai. 

Staehle, p. 36, from Joh. Lydus, p. 43, 2-5. 

(6) "Oo-Te o 8vo dpiOfjLos ov Kadapos, rrpojTOV fxev on k€v6s ion 
Kal ov vaaros, to 8e /at) TrXrjpcs ov Kadapov . . . dpxr) Se dTreipias 
KoX dvLaoTTjTOS, dTTCLpias fiev 8id tt]v vXtjv, dviooTTjTO? 8e Sid tou? 
erepojxrjKei^. . . . 'Odeu ol TraXaiol cos vXr]v Kal erepor-qra ttjv 
SudSa TTapaXafM^dvovat.. 

Staehle, p. 23, from Joh. Lydus, p. 24, 7-12. 

(c) 'H iv rip <f>avX(x> KaKta SiSu/iOTO/cei. Aixovovs yap <Kat> 
i7Tafji.(f>0T€p'qs 6 d^poiv, rd dpuKra fiiyvvs, Kal (f>vpa)v Kal avyxecov 
rd SiaKpLveodai Svvdfxcva, Tocavra eV tpv^j] XP^f^^'''^ eVt^epcur, 
oidnep 6 Xenpos iv rep Gcofxan, /tiatvcuv Kal tovs vyiels Xoyiafiovs 
(XTrd rd>v davarovvrwv dfxa Kal (fxDVcovrcov . 

Harris, p. 20, from Joh. Monachus (Mangey ii. 663 = Cod. 
Rupef. f. 125 and 138 b). 

{d) ... To" T17V T7/x€Tepav tou aiLfiaros ovaiav y€u)8r] vtt- 
dpxovaav pLrj elaaTrav Trepiopadrjvai XPV TTvevfjLanKrjs Kal acol^ovarjs 
irrLpLcXetas^' olvot^XvyiaLS fiev ydp Kal 6ipo<f)ayiais Kal Xayviiais 
Kol avvoXojs vypip koI hiappiovn j3ia> p^poi/xcvot v€Kpo(f)opovfi€v 
avv TTJ ^vxf] Kal to acS/xa, idv Se dTToarpacfxZpLev tcov Tradiov tov 
^opL^vapLOV, l!,o)r)(f>opovfX€v Kad^ CKdrepov. " 

Lewy, p. 57, from Dam. Par. Cod. Const, f. 501^, OlXwvos 
(" mit christlicher Tendenz tiberarbeitet "). 

" rjdLKcoTaTov ydp to ex Arm. con. Lewy. 

* Trepiopadrjvai cooTrep t,a)(xiv eprjpLOv ex Arm. COn. Lewy. 

" idv Se d Oeos iXc-qaas dTTOcrTpitpr] tu>v nadcjv tov KaraKXvofiov 
Kal ^rjpdv d7T€pyd(rr}Tai rrjv ipvx'jv, dp^eTai l^woyovelv Kal ipvxovv 
TO adJfjLa KaOapcoTepa 4'^X'fi> ^^ 1 ao(f>ia Kv^epvi^T-qs ioTLV ex Arm. 
con. Lewy. 

195 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 



13. (Gen. vii. 4, 10) 

Me^' eVra 8e tov elaeXdeiv 
-qfiepas 6 KaraKXvoixos yiveraL, 
TOV (f>iXavdpiovov deov StSovTOj 
avT0L9 dvax(op7]oiv ei? fxeravoLav 
dfiapTTjiJidTcov opcoaiv avTOXPT]- 
fxa TrXrjpT] ttjv ki^cotov dvTi- 
fjLipLOV yrjs' Kal to eVieiKres 
Set/cvurai tov Oeov ttjv TToXverrj 
pLOxOvpLav Tcbv dvdpcoTTiov eVi- 
Xvopi,€vov Tols pi€TavoovaLV 
rjjxlpaLS oXCyais. "Ecrri he 6 
CTTTa dpidpLOS vv6pLvrip.a Trjs tov 
Koapiov yeveaecos, ivapycos 8r]- 
XovvTOS TOV deov OTt avTOS elpLL 
Kal Tore Koap.07TOLcov Kal ra pirj 
ovTtt dycov els to elvai Kal to, 
vvv ovTa hLa<f>d€Lpoiv. 'AAAd tov 
/xev aiTior dyadoT-qs ep.-fj, tov 
hk Tojv €V€pyeT7]d€VTu>v dae^eia. 

Wendland, p. 53, from 
Procopius 296 b. 



Aid TL pLeTO. TO eloeXOetv ivTa 
■fjpiepai SiayiVovrat, pLcd* as 6 
KaTaKXvopLos ; 

UpcoTOV dvaxioprjOLV StScocriv 
d IXecos els /xerdvoiav dp-apTTj- 
/LtctTCuv, Iva deaadp,evoL Tr)v 
KL^coTOV dvTip,Lp,ov yijs eveKa 
TOV Kaipov yevofievTjv Kal rd 
Toiv !^(pcov yevTj Tapnevovaav , 
(x)v e(f)epev rj yrj Ta fcard p.epos 
et8rj, TTLaTevcrcooL pukv tco irepl 
TOV KaTaKXvapLOV KrjpvypLaTi, 
TTjv hia(j)9opdv evXa^7]6evTes, 
KadeXcoGi Be dae^eiav Kal Ka- 
Kiav d-TTaoav. AevTepov ttjv 
VTTep^oXrjv T'^s eTTLeiKeias tov 
ocDTTJpos Kal evepycTov Ttapi- 
OTTjaiv evapycos to Xoyiov Trjv 
voXveTT] pLOxdriplav tojv dvdpco- 
TTOiV eTTiXvopievov ToZs /Liera- 
voovaiv ■qp.epais dXiyais. 

Wendland, p. 53, from 
Cat. Barb. vi. 8, f. 103^, 
OiAcuvos emaKOTTOV. 



14. (Gen. vii. 4, 12) 

'O^ev Kal "ApTepLLS XeyeTai dird tov dpTiov koX vXlkov dpiOp,ov 
[sc. hexnepa -qpLepa). To yap dpTLOv pLeaov SiaCTTxarai hiaipovp^evov 
TOV evos. Mdvo? he dhialpeTOS 6 TrepiTTOS. *0 pikv yap dpp-qv 
dpiOpLos . . . TeTpdycovos, avyrj Kal (f)a>s e^ looTrjTOS irXevpcov 
avveoTcos, 6 he drjXvs eTepopL'qKTjS, vvKTa Kal okotov ex<ov hid T-qv 
avLaoT7]Ta. 'O he eTepopirjKrjs ttju /xev eXdTTOva TvXevpdv eXdTTOva 
exei evi, ttjv he pLeit,(o vepiTTOTepav evL. 

Staehle, p. 23, from Joh. Lydus, pp. 23, 21-24, 7. 



15. (Gen. vii. 4) 

(a) Ti cCTTi' " e^aXelipo) irdaav 
TTjv e^avdoTaoLv r/v eTroirjaa dird 
TTpoacorrov Trjs yfjs"; 

196 



GENESIS, BOOK II 



Ti <f)aai ovK " OLTTO TTJs yrjs " 
aAA' " OLTTO rod Trpoadnrov rrjs 
yijs " ; TovreoTL ttjs €Tn(f>av€Las 
Iva €v Tip jSa^ei rj t,cx)TLKT] hv- 
vafus Tcbv CTTepfiaTcov oXcov 
ovaa <f>vXa.TTT)TaL oiLa /cat ava- 
dr)S vavTos rod ^Xdnreiv Bvva- 
fjLivov rijs yap ISlas TTpodeoecos 
OVK iinXeX-qarai 6 TTOLrjrrjS' 
dAAa ra fi€v avw /cat /car' avrrjv 
rrjv eTTi^avetav KLVovfieva (f>9€L- 
p€L, ras 8e pt^aj ^vdiovs^ id 
vpos yeveaiv dXXcov. 

Harris, p. 21, from Cat. 
Burney, f. 35 b and Cat. 
Lips. 1, col. 144, ^lXcovos 
eTnaKOTTOV. 



riaCTav Se rrjv dvdaraaiv ovK 
dno yrjs e^aXeiipeiv dXX " d-no 
TTpoacoTTov," Xdyei, " rrjs yfjs," 
rovr' eari rijs eVt^avetas, tva 
€v ro) pddei ly ^cotlkt] BvvafiLS 
ru)v OTTepixdrcDV oXwv <f)vXdr- 
Tqrac. 



Tds yap pLt^as ^vOiovs id vpos 
yiveaiv dXXwv. 

Wendland, p. 54, from 
Procopius 296 c. 



(6) &€OTTp€7Ta>S 

yap ro " i^aXcLtpoj " 
axnrep rcov dnaXei- 
<f)Ofxiva)v ra /xev 
ypdfxfiara drraXei- 
<f>ovrai,, al SeAroi 8e 
Siafxivovaiv r) fxev 
yap dae^rjs yeved 
i^rjX^LTTraL, ro Se 
Kard hiahox^v rrjs 
ovoias yivos Ste- 
rqprfdr], (hs hiKaiov. 
Harris, p. 21 
( = Pitra, Anal. 
(Sacr. ii. 313), from 
Cod. Vat. 748, f. 
23 and Cod. Vat. 
1657, f. 23. 



©eoTrpeTTtDs' yap 
TO " i^aXeiipo) " yi- 
yparrrai. Su/i^atVet 
yap irrl rcov <d7T>a- 
Aet^OjLtevcDv ra fxev 
ypdfifxara d^avi- 
^eodai, rds Se Se'A- 
rovs ^ ^i^Xovs 8ta- 
fxivciv. ' 'E^ ov 
TTapiarrjaiv on rrjv 
/.tev iTTiTToXd^ovaav 
yeveaiv 8td rrjv dai- 
^eiav drraXelipcL 81- 
Krjv ypajx/Jidrcov, rrjv 

Se x'^P^^ '^^^ '''^^ 
ovaiav rod yivovs 
rd>v dvdpcoTTOJv 8ia- 
<f)vXd^€L rrpos rrjv 
au^i? anopdv. 

Wendland, p. 
54, from Cat. 
Barb. vi. 8, f. 105. 



" ^ArraXeiipoj " 8e 
(fyrjoLv, incl /cat rcov 
drraXeLcjiojiivcxiv ra 
ypdixjiara jxkv dcf>a- 
vl^erat, at SeAroi Se 
hiajiivovaLv odev 
inrpi^cov rrjv dae^rj 
yevcdv rrjs ova las 
rod yivovs i(f>eiaaro. 

Wendland, p. 
54, from Pro- 
copius 296 c. 



^vdlas Cat. Lips. 



197 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

(c) Alo Koi '* T17V dvdaTaalv " (f>rjaLV' dvaardaei, he dvTiTToXov 
Kadaipeais, to he KaQaipedev ovk els dirav dnoXXtrrai. 
Wendland, p. 54, from Procopius 296 c. 



16. (Gen. vii. 5) 

"ETTttivo? he Tov hiKaiov to 
Trdvra TTOiijaaL rd irpoaTaxOevTa, 
hevrepov ro evreXXeadai puaXXov 
edeXeiv rj KeXeveiv avrco tov 
deov evTeXXovTai p,€v yap (J>lXol, 
KeXevovoL he heajroTai' vvep^dX- 
Xet, yap eTrl deov to TrpcoTOV, el 
Kat fxeya to hevTepov. 

Wendland, p. 55, from 
Procopius 296 c. 



Meyas CTratvo? tov hiKaiov 
OTL TO, -npooTaxOevTa irdvTa 
eveTeXeaev laxvpoyvcofiovt, Xo- 
yiafJLW Kat deo<j>LXei hiavoia- 
hevTepov he otl ovk edeXei Ke- 
Xeveiv avTU) /xaAAov rj evTcX- 
XeaSai. KeAeuoyat p-ev yap /cat 
TrpooTdTTOvai hovXois heoTTOTat., 
evTeXXovTai he <j)iXoi. 0au- 
fiaoTT] /xev ovv Scoped Kal to 
Taxdrjvai ttjv ev hovXois Kal 
depdrrovai irapd tov Oeov Ta^iv, 
vrrepfioX-f) he evepyealas eoTi to 
Kal (f)LXov yevTjdijvaL yevrjTov 
dyevi^TO). 

Wendland, p. 55, from Cat. 
Barb. vi. 8, f. 101, Oi'Acuvos 

eTTiaKOTTOV. 



17. (Gen. vii. 11) 

Kara tov tt;? 
l(yr)p,eplas Kaipov 
eTTiaKrjTrTei 6 KaTa- 
KXvap,6s ev fj Kal 
TOV TOV yevovs dp- 
XrjyeTTjV hiavev-Xd- 
aOai (f)aaiv 6 he 
IjSSo/xos [jLTjv XeyeTat 
Kal irpCoTos Kad' 
eTepav Kal eTepav'* 
eVijSoAijv Sto Kal 17 



UXtjclov he TOV 
Trjs larip,eplas Kai- 
pov yeyovev 6 KaTa- 
KXvGfios ev Tji ndv- 
Tcov av^Tjoei Kal 
yeveaei tcov t,cpa)v 
<f)oPepcoTepav T17V 
d7r€iAi7V endyovTOS 
TOV deov Trjs dae- 
jSetas els eXeyxov. 
Tore he Kal ye- 



EuAoyov yap Kal 

TOV TOV dvdpa)7TCOV 

yevovs dpxTjyeTTjv * 
'ASd/x hiaTTevXd- 
aOai Tcp Kaipcp ttjs 
€apivi]S la-qpiepias. " 
^IaT]nepia 8' eapivrj 
yiveTai Kal tw e/S- 
hoficp pn]VL' 6 8' av- 
Tos XeyeTai Kal 
TTpoJTOS KaO^ eTepav 



" KaO* eTepas Kal eTcpas Cod. Burney. 

^ T] yevdpxTjv ^ iraTepa rj ottojs hei KaXeiv tov irpea^vraTov 
eKeivov ex Arm. add. Lewy. 

" OT 17V KaTdiTXe(x}s 17 yrj <f>vTU)v ex Arm. add. Lewy. 
198 



I 



GENESIS, BOOK II 



Tov Ncoe TTpoaoSos 
i^ofioiovrai, tu) vpu)- 
Tcp yrjyevel ws o.px'^ 
avaTaaecos bevrepov 

KOUflOV. 

Harris, p. 22, 
from Cod. Burney, 
f. 36 a, OiAcuvos, 
and Cat. Lips. 1, 
col. 149. 



yovevai ttjv 8r]fii- 
ovpylav eiKos Kal 
TreirXdodai tov av- 
dpOJTTOV. Ta> ovv 
'ASd/u. i^opLOiovTai 
Kal NcDe, yev€ds 
dvOpwTTOJV Bevrepas 
dpx6fJi€vos. 

Wendland, p. 
55, from Pro- 
copius 296 D. 



Koi €T€paV iTTL^oXrjV. 

Ettci ovv " dpxT} 
ytverai Sevrepas dv- 

OplOTTCOV OTTOpaS, €^- 
OflOlOVTai TCp TTpCOTCp 

yrjyevei. ^ 

Lewy, p. 57, 
from Cat. Barb, 
vi. 8, f. 106^' and 
Cat. Mosq. f. 157% 

OlAcDVOS. 



26. (Gen. viii. 1) Ilais Se " tov Na>€ fivrjodels 6 deos Kal 
KTrtvoiV Kal drjpicov," yvvaiKos ^ reKvojv ov ix€p,vrjTai; 

Ottov avfM<f>o}VLa iravroiv, ovofxdrcov ov XP^^^ ttoXXojv ovv Se 
TU> TTpdiTO) Kox TOV oIkov dvdyKTj ovvvTTaKoveadat,. 

Wendland, p. 56, from Procopius 296 d. 



28. (Gen. viii. 1) Kal " errijyayc," (f>7]ai, " TTvevfia els ttjv yijv 

Kal KiKOTTaKC TO vScop." 

OvK dvefjLO)'^ vSojp p-eiovTai, KVfiaiveL Se*^ Kal TapaTTCTar TrdXai 
yap dv Ta [xeyLOTa tcov rreXaycov i^avdXojTO. Hvevfxa toIvvv to 
deiov <f>T]aLV, o) 8r) iravTa Kal yiVerat Kal Xa}(f>a- ovk ■^v yap cvXoyov 
vSojp TOcrovTov dvep-cp Travdfjvai, dopdTU) Be Kal deia Svvdp.€L. * 

Wendland, p. 56, from Procopius 296 d, with variants of 
Cat. Lips. p. 148, 'AB-qXov. 



29. (Gen. viii. 2) 

ArjXov he eoTLV (Ls rats fxev TrpcoTais p^' rjpiepats dXrjKTOS^ rj ttjs 
pvpLrjs TU)V vBaTCov VTrrjpx^ (f)opd, Tais Be dXXais p' Kal v' exovaa 



" Kal Noie pLeTa Trjv tov KoraKXvapiOV <f>9opdv TrpwTri tov yevovs 
ex Arm. add. Lewy. 

^ Kad' oaov BvvaTov ex Arm. add. Lewy. 

" dvepiois Cat. Lips. 

"* KvpLaiveTai Cat. Lips. 

* TTttAai . . . Swd/xei] dAAd tovto tJv to tov deov TTvevp.a, o e^ 
dpx^is eTTe<f>epeT0 evdvoj tov vBaTOS Cat. Lips. 

^ W^endland : aXeKTos codd. 

199 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

TTpaa)S ovKeri Trpos av^rjaiv, rrpos Siafxovrjv 8k Ti]S avaKoXv^eoi^'^ 
Koi rod vijjovs avve^dXXeTO' " /xe^' ly/Liepas " yap (f>7]aLV, " pv' 
iiTLKaXvt^drjvai rds re mjy as Kal roiis KarapaKras "' evrjpyovv 
apa TTpo rrjs eTTtax^oews. Mera v' hk Kal p' rjfxepas rjXarrovro ro 
vScop- apa rd's vpoeLprjfikvas, iv als vi/jovro ro vBcop iq fxera roaav- 
ras irepas ovk €v8r]Xov. 

Wendland, pp. 56-57, from Procopius 296 d. 



34. (Gen. viii. 6) ^ ^ 

At aladrjaeis dvpiaiv coLKaai. Ata yap rovrcov wGavel Ovpibcov 
€TT€i.o€pxerai ru) vw rj KardXrjipis rcbv aladTjrcov /cat TrdXiv 6 vovs 
eKKVTTrei 8t' avraiv. Mepos 8e eori rcov dvpLhcov, Xeyo) 8r] rcov 
aladijoecov, rj opaais, eVet Kal ^vxr]S fxdXiora ovyyevrjs, ornrep 
Kal rw KaXXiartp rcov ovroiv (f>corl oiKeia, Kal VTrqpert]? rcov deicov. 
"HrLS Kol rrjv els (f>LXoao(f)Lav 686v ercfie r-qv TTpcorrjv. QeaadfjLevos 
yap rjXLOV KLV7]aiv Kal aeX-jjvrjs Kal rds rcov darepcov TrepioSou? Kal 
rrjv aTrXavrj Trepi^opdv rod avpirravros ovpavov Kal rrjV Travros rod 
Xoyov Kpeirrova rd^iv re Kal dpfxoviav Kal rov rod Koofiov fiovov 
di}tev8eorarov KOOfxoTTOLOV, 8iT]yyeXXe ra> riyefiovi XoytapLW a 
el8ev. 'O 8k ev ofifxari 6$v8epKeorepcp deacrdfievos Kal TTapa8eiy- 
pLariKa ciSt; rovrcov^ dvcorepco Kal rov dirdprcov atriov, evdvs eis 
evvoiav rjXde deod Kal yeveaecos Kal vpovoias, XoyLadjjievos on oXtj 
«f)vaLS ovk avrofiariadelaa yeyovev," dXX* avdyK-q TTOirjrrjv etvai Kal 
Trarepa, Kv^epvrjrrjv re Kal rjvloxov, os Kol TreTTolrjKe Kal TTOirjpLara 
avrod aco^ei.'^ 

Harris, pp. 22-23, from Joh. Monachus (Mangey ii. 665 = 
Cod. Rupef. f. 221), eV rod Uepl KoafMonoUas. The two variants 
in the footnotes, printed by Harris on p. 70 among " un- 
identified fragments " and located by Fruchtel, also come 
from Joh. Monachus (Mangey ii. 669), eV rod a' rcov ev Tev. 
i-qriqp,. 

" dvaXvaectiS Cod. Aug. 

* rrapabeiypLOTLKd . . . rovrcov COn. Mangey : 7rapa8eiyp.aTi 
Kal eiSet Sta rovrcov codd. 

" on . . . yeyovev] dfx-qxo-vov dpfjLOViav Kal rd^iv Kal Xoyov 
Kol dvaXoyiav Kal roaavrrjv ovfjL(f>covLav Kal rw ovn euSat/Ltovt'av 
aTTavropionadelaav yeveadai Joh. Monach. in alio loco. 

^ dXX . . . acot,ei] avdyKT) yap elvai TTOi-qrrjv Kal rrarepa, 
KV^epvi]rr)v re Kal tjvloxov, os yeyevvrjKev Kal yevvqdevra acol^ei 
Joh. Monach. in alio loco. 
200 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

39. (Gen. viii. 9) 

YtVfx^oXa 8e KaKLas Kal dperrjs o t€ Kopa^ Kal rj TreptaTepd. Ei 
yap avrrj Sevrepa e^eXdovaa ovx €vp€v dvdrravcrLV, ttojs d Kopa^; 
OuSe Y^P ''"0 ^d)6v eoTLV vSpo^iov. 'AAAd yap rj KaKia rols kv- 
fiaivovmv icjt-qheTai, r] 8e dperrj tovtojv dvoTrrjBa. TTpos ttjv npcioTTjv 
Svaxcpdvaoa deav, dvdnavaiv Kal ^daiv iv rovrois ovx €XOvaa. 

Wendland, pp. 57-58, from Procopius 297 c (c/. Cat. Lips. 
150, 'AS^Aou). 

41. (Gen. viii. 10) ^ 

'0 KaXos Kal dyados tov 8i8aoKdXov rponos Kal dv iv dpxjj 
aKXr]pavx€vas iBr) cfivoei, ovk d-noyLVoyaKeL ttjv dfxeLVOi fxera^oXrjv 
aAA' wairep dyados larpos ovk evOvs eVt^epei ttjv OepaTreiav dp.a 
rco KaraaKrjifiai ttjv voaov dAA' dvaxcopyjoiv rfj (f)V(j€i, Bovs tva 
TrpoavaTefivr] ttjv els owT-qpiav ohov, r-qviKavra xP'^to.i rols vyuivoZs 
Kal acoT-qpioLS 0ap/u,d/cois, ovtoj koI aiTOvSalos Xoyois Kara (f>t,Xo- 
ao(f>Lav Kal Sdy/naatv. 

Harris, p. 100, from Cod. Rupef. f. 137 (located by Friichtel). 

47. (Gen. viii. 14) 

'H fJLCv ovv dpx^j TOV KaTaKXvojxov yeyovev 4^86 fir) Kal eiVdSt 
Trjs eapivrjs lorfpLcpLas, rj Se fj.eLCoais i^SofjLO) fxeTa Tavrrjv jxrjvl rfj 
jjiCTOTTCOpLvij larjiiepia, e^hojjurj Kal etVdSi tov firjvos. Ovtos yap 
rripas jiev Trjs rrpcoTrjs lorjjiepLas, dpxr) 8e Trjs SevTcpas, uiarrep 
6 drrd tovtov e^Bojios rrlpas Trjs 8€VT€pas, dpxrj Se tt^S' rrpcoTrjs, 
eV <L Kal tov KoopLOV rj yeveats. 

Wendland, p. 57, from Procopius 296 d. 

48. (Gen. viii. 15-16) 

ISivXa^rjs (x)v 6 NcDe dKoXovdov rjyqaaTO jxeTa to Korrdaai to 
vhojp dvajJLilvai. Trjv tov Oeov vpoaTa^iv iv', (Zarrep xPV^H-°^^ 
elaeX-qXvdcv els ttjv kijSojtov, xPV^^H-^^^ rrdXiv VTre^eXdr), elrrev yap 
Kvpios d deos Tu> Nwe- " e^eXde av Kal rj yvvrj aov " Kal Ta e^rjs. 

Wendland, p. 58, from Procopius ap. Cat. Barb. vi. 8, f. 108, 

OtAojVOJ iviaKOTTOV. 

54. (Gen. viii. 21) 

(a) *H irpoTaois €fi<f)aiv€L jieTafieXciav, dvoiKciov nddos deias 
hvvdjicios. ^AvdpcoTTOLS jikv yap dadevels at yvcopLai Kal djSc'/Satot, 
cos Ta TTpdyfjLaTa noXXrjs ycfiovra dSrjXorrjTos . @€a> 8e ouSev 
d8rjXov, oi)8ev dKaTdXrjTrroi'- laxvpoyvioixoveaTaTos yap Kal j3e- 

201 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

^aioraros. Hcos ovv ri^s avrrjs tnrovcrqs atrias, CTnardixevog i^ 
dpxrjs on eyKenai 7) Siavoia tov dvdpcoTTOV iTTLfieXws im rd irovrjpd 
€K veoTT/TOS, TTpcorov pL€v €(f)d€t,p€v TO yevos KaraKXvafiw, fxerd 8c 
TauTCt (f)T]aLV fjLrjKeTt, Bta<f)d€ip€iv, KaLroi hiapievovcrqs e'v rfj iffvxij 
TTJs avTTJs KaKLas; Ae/creov ovv otl Trdaa 17 rotaSe tcov Aoyo)v 
iSea TTepL€X€Tai e'v tois vofxoLS TTpos iiddiqaiv kol cu^e'Aciav SiSa- 
aKoXias fidXXov 7] Trpos Tr)v ^uctiv ttjs dXrjOeias. Alttwv yap 
ovTcov K€<f)a\aL(xiV a /ceirai Sio. vdcrrjs rijs vofxodeoias' €vos p^ev 
Kad' o Xeyerai, " ovx cos dvOpcorros 6 deos "' iripov hk KaO^ '^ u)S 
dvdpcovos " rraiBevcLV Xeyerai vlov. To fxev rrpoTepov tt]S dXyjdeLas 
ioTiv ovTOJS yap 6 deos ovx o)S dvdpcorros aAA' ov8e ws 'qXios ovBe 
cos ovpavos ouSe ws Koafios aladrfros t] votjtos dXX cos oeos, et 
Kal TOVTO depLLS el-rrelv. 'OfxoioTTjra yap ^ ovyKpiaiv rj Trapa^oXrjv 
ovK imSexeTai to jLta/cctpiov eKeivo, /zaAAov 8e piaKapiorr^TOS avrrjs 
VTTepdvo). To Se varepov ttjs 8i8aaKaXlas Kal v(f>r)yqa€0)S, to " oj? 
dvOpcoTTOs" Ive/ca tou TraiSeiJaai tovs yrjyevels rjpLds tva pi.r] ras 
opyds Kal ras TLpLCopLas fJ'^XP'' "n^OLVros (iTroTetvco/Ltev dairovbctiS Kal 
dovpL^drcos exovres. 

Harris, pp. 23-24, from Pitra, Anal. Sacr.ii. 304 (e Cod. 
Coislin. 276, f. 220 b), OlXcovos eV tou Uepl KoapiOTTouas y' 
KC^aXaiov (also in Cod. Rupef. f. 205 b, OiAcovos, " with much 
variation "). 

(6) To ovv " BievoTJdr) " eVi deov ou** KvpioXoyeiTai, tov Trjv 
yvcLfirjv Kal Tr]v 8idvoiav jSejSatOTaTOi;. 

Harris, p. 24, from same source as Frag, (a) above. *> 

(c) *H Tvxovaa ttjs KaKLas ydvecris BovXol tov Xoyiopbov Kal dv 
pLTjiTCxi TeXciov avTTJs iKcftxmjar) to yevvrjpia. *Ictov yap eWt tu> 
Kara ttjv -napoipiiav Xeyopidva) '* rrXivdov TrXvveiv rj Blktvco vSojp 
Kopii^etv " TO KaKiav e^eXclv dvdpcoTTOV ipvxrjs. "Opa yap als 
iyKexdpaKTai TrdvTcov r] hidvoia, Ois (f>riaLV, " impLeXdJs " Kal ov 
rrapepycos' TomeaTiv avyKCKoXXrjTai Kal rrpoa'qppioaTai,. To o€ 
avv eTTt/xeAeio. Kal ^povrihi KaT€aK€p.p.€vov earl Kal Si.rjyopevpievov'' 
€LS d/cptjSeiav, Kal tovto ovk 6i/j€ Kal pLoXis dAA' " eK vcott/tos "• 
piovovovxl Xeycov, " i^ avTwv tcDv arrapydvwv," warrep tl picpos 
'quajpuevov. " 

Harris, pp. 24-25, from Joh. Monachus (Mangey ii. 663 = 
Cod. Rupef. f. 138 a, eV tou Ilepi fierovopba^opidvcov) . 

" ov om. Cod. CoisHn. vid. 
'' 8Lr}p€vvripL€vov ex Arm. conieci. 
* "qvtopLevov ex Lat. con. Mangey : rcivopLcvov Codd. 
202 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

59. (Gen. ix. 4) Ti iariv " iv aifian t/jvxfjs Kpeas ov (f>d- 
yeade "; 

"EotKev Bia TOVTOV 8rjXovv on 'pvx'fjs ovala alfxd e'oriv fpvxijs 
/Lte'vTOi TTJs aladrjTLKTJs'^ ovxi ttjs /car' efo^V yevofievqs yjTLS earlv 
XoyiKTj re Koi voepd. Tpla yap pepr) iJjvxt]?' to p.€v OpcTTTiKOV, to 
8e atadrjTLKOV, to 8e XoyiKov. Tov p,€v ovv XoyiKOv to delov 
7rvevp,a ovaia Kara, tov deoXoyov, <f)r]alv yap oti ev€<j>vaT]a€v els to 
TrpoacoTTOV avrov TTVorjv Ccofjs- rov Se alodrjTiKOv Kal t,oyriKov to 
alp,a ovala, Aeyet yap eV eTepois oti tpvxTj TrdoTjs oapKos to ai/xa 
eoTiv Kal KvpicoTaTa i/jvxrjv crapKOS alp-a etprjKCV, vepl be adpKa 
T) aladrjois koX to Trddos ovx o vovs Kal 6 Xoyiap.6s. Ov pLrjV dXXd 
Kal TO iv atp,aTL ipvx'fjs p.r]vv€i, oti €T€p6v eoTiv if/vx"}) Kal (TCpov 
af/Lta, COS etvat ^vx'fjs p.ev dipevScbs ovaiav irvevpia, p.7] Kad* avTO 
Se x^^pts ai/xttTOS TOTTOv inexeiv dAA' e/x^e'pca^at Kal avyKeKpdaOai 
alp-aTL. 

Harris, pp. 25-26, from Cod. Reg. 923, f. 376 b and Cod. 
Rupef. f. 279 b. 



62. (Gen. ix. 6) AtaTt, cos Trcpt eVepou deov, (f>T]aL to " ev 
eiKOVL deov eTroirjaa tov dvdpwTTOV " aAA' ovxl ttj iavrov; 

HayKdXws Kal ao(f>cos tovtI K€XP'T}<yp-a)BT]Tai. Qvtjtov yap ovSev 
aTTeiKoviadijvaL irpos tov dvwTdTco Kol TraTepa twv oXcov eSvvaTO, 
dXXd TTpos TOV SevTepov deov, 6s ecrnv cKeivov Ao'yoj. "ESei yap 
TOV XoyiKov iv dvdpcoTTOV ipvxjj TVTTOv VTTO deiov Xoyov x^P^X^W^-^' 
irreihT] 6 Trpo tov Xoyov deos Kpeiaaoiv eoTlv rj vdaa XoyiKT) <f)vais' 
Tcp Be VTrkp tov Xoyov iv ttj jSeATi'aTT^ KaL tivl i^aipcTw KadeoTWTL 
Ihia ovhev Oepus t^v yevvrjTOV e^op.oiovadai. 

Harris, p. 26, from Eusebius, Praep. Evang. vii. 13, eK tov 
TTpwTov pLOi Keiado) Tcov OiAcovo? l^-qT-qpidTiov koX Xvaewv. 



64. (Gen. ix. 13-17) 

(a) Tives Se ^aai* p,ijvoTe vapd tt7v tpiv eTepa aTTa pL-qvvei, 
TOVTeoTLV dveoLV Kal iniTaaiv twv eViyeicov pirjTe ttjs dveaecos els 
eKXvoiv v(f>Lep,iv7]s TravTeXrj Kal dvapp.ooTlav p.rfTe Trjs iTTiTdaeoiS 
dxpi p-q^eois eTnT€LVop,evr]S dXXd fieTpois (Lpiapievois eKaTepas 
BvvdpLecos OTadp,7]delcrT]s. *0 yap p,eyas KaTaKXvap,6s prj^ei yeyovev, 
(Ls Kal avTOS <f}r}aLV " ippdyrjaav at trqyal ttjs a^vaaov " dAA' ovk 

" alaOrjTiKTJs Kal ttjs ^cotlktjs ex Lat. con. Harris. 

203 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

iviTaaeL Troofj tivl.°' "AAAco? re (f>aoLV ovk eoriv ottXov to to^ov 
aXX opyavov ottXov, ^eXovs TirpcLoKOVTOS, onep /ca^i/cvetrat tov 

TTOppCO, TOV TtXtJOLOV OLTTadoVS 8tafX€V0VT0S. OVTCOS ovv, (l)rjaLV, ov 

Travres KaraKXvad-qaovTai, Kav tovto Tivas VTrofxevcLV avix^ij. To 
ovv TO^ov avjjL^oXiKcos 9eov Suva/Lti? eariv aoparos iKarcpov kv- 
Bepvcoaa, /cai rrjv iTriraaiv kol ttjv dveaiv, tw dept eV 6eov ivvTT- 
dpxovaa. 

Wendland, pp. 59-60, from Procopius 300 c-d. 

(b) "EcTTtv odv dead Swa/ii? aoparos avpL^oXiKOiS ro to^ov, tJtls 
ivvTrdpxovoa tco depi dveiixevcp Kara Ta? aWpias Kal eTTtretvo/xevT/ 
Kara rds vecfxJoaeis ovk id rd v€(f)7] Si' oXov €ls v8wp dvaXveadac 
TW jXT] yeveadaL KaOoXov KaTaKXvofxov. Kv^epvd ydp Kal rjvLox^l 
TTJV TTVKVwaiv TOV depos, 7Te(f)VK6TOS fidXcara t6t€ dnavxevl^CLV 
Kal ivv^pi^etv bid TrXriafjiovijs Kopov. 

Harris, pp. 26-27, from Cat. Lips. 1, col. 160, ^iXotvos 
iTTLCKOTTov, " also ill Cod. Burney, fol. 37 b, with frequent in- 
accuracy of transcription." 



65. (Gen. ix. 18-19) 

El Se fxvTjoOels Terdprov tov Xavactv eTnyvey/ce* " rpcls ovtoi 
viol TOV NcDe," Seov, (j>aoiv, eiTretv Teaoapes, ovk dXoycos. Ata 
ydp TTjV OjjiOLOTpoTTLav els €v ovXXapL^dvei toj Trarpl tov vlov. Oi 
Kai (jiacTiv ws cIkotcos vvv tov Xd/u. v7Toypd(f)€L T-qv yevedv els 
ep,(f>aaLV tov otl TraTrjp rjbr) yeyovws tov eairrov varepa ovk eVi- 
fiTjaev ov8e /xcreScDKe tco yevvrjaavTi oiv dv irapd tov rraihos rj^iov 
TVX^LV, Kal COS vecoTepOTTOLOv TTpos dfxapriav eKdXeaev elKOTCos 
vecoTepov. 'ETnrTjSes' Se tocos eixv-qodn) Kal tov ILavadv tov tcov 
^avavalcov oIkiotov mppcodev eXeyxoiv to hvayeves, wv T-qv yrjv 
d<f)eXd)V ra> deo<f)LXei napeox^ Xato. 

Wendland, p. 61, from Procopius 301 d, 304 a. 

66. (Gen. ix. 20) 

'E^o/Liotoi Se TOV Nd;e tw irpwTW hiaTrXaodevTi dvOpconw. 
E^rjXde ydp cKaTepos, 6 fiev tov Trapaheioov, 6 he ttjs kl^wtov. 
"ApxcL yewpyias eKarepos iierd KaTaKXvapuov Kal ydp ev rfj tov 
Koapiov yeveaei TpoTTOV TLvd KareKeKXvaro rj yij. Ov ydp dv eXeye' 

avvaxdriTW to vSwp els ttjv avvaywyrjv fxiav Kal 6(^9i]TW rj 
^-qpd." 

Wendland, p. 63, from Procopius 305 a. 

<* TToafj Ttvt] TTepiTTfj cou. Wcndlaud. 
204 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

68. (Gen. ix. 20) 

EtTTOt 8' aV TIS €K TUiV pTjTWV <liS OuSc TOV olvOV oAoV ttAA' tV 

Tov OLVOV TTi'vet hi eyKpaTCiav, 8t' rjv cfierpei ttjv xP1^^^> '^^^ 
aKparovs ovk air aXXarToyLlvov rtov avpiTToaicov irplv <av> oXov 
€KTTLrj TOV OLKpaTov eiTa Kol ra> jxedvcLV rj ypacf)-}) vvv olvtI rrjs 
OLva>o€OJS KexpyjTai. Aittov yap to fiedveLV, rj to Trap' olvov Xrjpelv, 
onep ap.dpTr]fia /cat (fiavXov iStov, tj to olvovaOat, o-nep kol ei's 

aO(f)6v TTtTTTei." 

Wendland, p. 6"i, from Procopius 305 a. The variant to 
the last sentence, given in the footnote, is printed by Harris, 
p. 27, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 104, from Cod. Vat. 1553, 
e/c TOV a Tcjv iv Tcveaei ^rjTr] fiaT cov. 

71. (Gen. ix. 22) ^ ^ 

Tov Se Xa/i av^et to ey/cATj/xa, vpoJTOV fiev eV tov VTrepLbetv, 
Seurepov S' eV tov eiVeiv /cat ovx evt /Ltdvoj tcjv dBeXcfxZv^ aAA' 
dii(f>OT€poiS' et 8e Kot vXeiovs '^oav, drraoLV i^eXdXrjaev dv Stap^Aeua- 
^cov TTpdyfia ov ;^Aeu7^S' aAA' atSou? /cat evXa^eias d^iov 6v. Eira 
otJK evSov dAA' e^o) StTjyyeiAev OTrep e/i^atVet to jLti) aKr^/coeVat 
fiovov Toiis d8eX((>ovs dXXd /cat tou? e^o) TrepteCTTtDra? dv8pas re 
/cat yuvai/cas. " 

Wendland, p. 62, from Procopius 304 c. The variant to 
the last sentence, given in the footnote, is printed by Harris, 
p. 27, from Cat. Lips. 1, col. 163, also from Cat. Burney, 
f. 37 b, OiAoiVos eVtCT/coTrou. 

72. (Gen. ix. 23) 

'O cvxcprjS /cat dTTepiaKenTOS to. ctt* evdeias /cat npos ocfyOaXpLwv 
jjLOVov opd' 6 8e ^povtpLOS /cat Ta kutottlv, TovreoTi ra fieXXovTa' 
cooTTcp yap ra OTTLao) tcuv ifiTrpoaOev voTepi^ei, ovtco /cat Ta 
fieXXovTa Ttov iveoTCOTCDV. *Q.v ttjv deoipiav 6 doTeios ^CTCimv, 
avyaiois'^ vdvrodev ofiiJLaTiodeLS' rrds ovv ao<f>6s ovk dvOpcorros 

" AtTTov . . . TTiTTTet] AtTTOV TO [x€9v€t,v €v fjLev TO Xrjpclv Trap' 
olvov, oirep eoTt (f)avXov tbiov dfx,dpT7]p.a' CTcpov 8e to olvovodai, 
onep etV ao(f>dv TrtWet Cod. Vat. 

* Post dSeA^oit' verba to to£5 naTpos dKovatov d/xdpTT^/xa ex 
Arm. suppl. Wendland. 

" TO firj dKTjKodvai . . . yvvaiKas] ov fxavov tovs dSeA^ows 
dKr}KO€vai dXXd /cat tovs 7T€pt,eaTd>Tas dvSpas e^oi ofiov /cat yuvat/cas 
Cat. Lips. 

** Auy/ce'cos <8lk7}v> ex Arm. con. Harris : "Apyos <Ls con. I'ost. 

205 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

dAAd vovs Karadeiofievos koI Treptadpcov 7T€pt7r€(f)paKTaL irpos ra 
ivearayra kol to. olSoktJtcos KaraaTTiXdl^ovTa. 

Harris, p. 28, from Cod. Rupef. f. 142, ^IXwvos- e'/c tojv iv 
Teveaei t,r]TrjfidTcov. 



77. (Gen. ix. 27) Kal ttws Xd/t koI avros cov dae^'^s ov rrjs 
awT'^? ixereaxe Kardpas; 

'AAAoi Se (f)aaLV d)S 6 /xev X.avadv eAajSe ttjv Kardpav ovk cov 
dXXoTpios rrjs TTarpiKrjs Trpoaipeaecos, 6 8e Xd/n els rrarepa dp.ap- 
Tqaas els viov KaTrjpddr] d^iov ovTa Kal tojv lBlcov KaKoJv rijs 
Kardpas. 'AAAd koI jLtei^dvco? TjXyet. 8id rod TratSd? rtfjiOjpovfjLevos' 
fieC^o) yap wv <auToi> Trdaxojjuv Ta ru>v iTaihoiv iarlv els avpLcfyopdv, 
Kat** fjidXiara "qvLKa yivaxjKOfiev cos dpxt]yol Kal StSda/caAot tcov 
KaKwv avTots ^ovXevfxdrcov yeyovafxev. 

Wendland, pp. 60-61, from Procopius 301 c-d and Theo- 
doret, Quaest. Iviii. (c/. Cat. Lips. 165-166). 

" Post Kal lacuna est quam per verbum dvtcofieda siippl. 
Wendland. 



206 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

3. (Gen. xv. 9) ^ 

^ AroTTU)? 8pa>aiv oaoi ck fiepovs rivos Kpivovai to oAov aXXa to 
evavTtov" eV tou oAou to fxepos. Ovtoj yap dfieivov /cat acofxa^ 
Kal TTpdyfia Soy/xaTt^oiTO dv. "Eortv ovv rj Oeia vofiodcaia rponov 
rivd t,a>ov rjvcofxevov, rjv oXov 8t' oAou XPV ft^yaAois- ofifiam irepLOKO- 
irelv, Kal ttjv ^ovX-qv ttjs avfnrdoTjs ypa(j>rjs aKpi^dJs Kal TTjXavyws 
nepiadpciv, fxr) KaraKOTTrovras Trjv dpjjLovlav, fnj8e ttjv evcoaiv 
Siaprcbvras. *Erep6fiop<f>a yap kol CTepoetS'^ <f)aveiraL ttjs kolvw- 
vias arepovfieva. 

Harris, p. 29, from Dam. Par. 774, from Cod. Rupef. 



7. (Gen. xv. 11 a) 

IldCTa 17 vvo T-qv aeXi^vrjv (f>VGis fxeaTT) iroXipiOiv Kal KaKwv 
e/x^uAicov iarl Kal ^dvujv. 

Harris, p. 29, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 98, from Cod. Vat. 
1553, e/f Toi? y' tcDv ev Veveaei ^T]Tr)[jLdTiov. 



8. (Gen. XV. lib) 

"Evc/ca fj,€v ruiv <f)avXcov ouSe/ni'a voXis ■f]pepit)aev dv. Aia- 
fxevovai, 8e daraaiaaroi 8t' evo? rj Serrrepov BLKaLoavvrjv doKovvros" 
o5 Tj dperri rds noXiTiKas^ voaovs Idrai, yepas dnovefiovrog tov 
(f>iXap€TOv' deov KaXoKayadias^ rod jxrj fiovov avTov dXXd Kal tovs 
TrXrjaLd^ovras cu^eAeiCT^at." 

Harris, pp. 29-30, from Mangey ii. 661, from Joh. 

" ov TO evavTiov con. Harris. ^ ovo^a con. Harris. 

* oIkovvtos Cod. Rupef. : owolkovvtos Anton Melissa. 

'^ TToXepLiKas Joh. Monachus. 

* (f)t,Xav9pu)TTov Joh. Monachus. 

•^ KaXoKayadcov Cod. Rupef. 

" co<f)€X€Lv Anton MeUssa. 

207 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

Monachus ( = Cod. Rupef. f. 33 b), and from Anton Melissa, 
col. 1105. 

11. (Gen. XV. 15) 

Evapya)? d(f>9apaLav ^vyfis atvLTreraL fjLeroLKL^oixevrjs dvo rod 
OvTjTov acofxaros. To" yap tco TeXevrwvri, (f>daK€iv " dTTcXevarj 
<77-pos Tous'> Trarepas oov " ri irepov rj ^corjv erepav TTaplarrjaL rrjv 
dvev aiofxaTos, Kad* rjv ^^xV fJ^ovrjv au/x/SatVet ^rjv. Uarepag Se 
*AppadfjL ov SrjTTOV tovs yevvrjaavTas avTOV TrdTTTTOVs Kal vpoyovovs 
TTap€iX-r]<f>€V ov yap Trdvres evaLveTol yeyovaaiv dAA' eoiKev alvir- 
readai irarepas ovs irepwOi, KaXeiv dyyeXovs etcodev. Ei Se Kal 
Tovs trepl rov "AjSeA kol 'Erco? Kal T,rj9 Kal 'Evco;^ Kal NcDe (f)-r]a€is, 
ovx dpLapT-qaiL^ tov TrpcrrovTos . . . fxaKpov yap alcjva t^lvovol" 
fxvpLOL TcDv d(f>p6va)v, KaXov 8e Kal OTTOvSalov fxovos 6 (f)povT^aecos 
ipaoT-qs. 

Wendland, pp. 67-68, from Cat. Barb. vi. 8, f. 128, ^IXcovos 
'EjSjOatou . . . j)LXoivos eTTLaKOTTOv {cf. Cat, Lips. 209, 'ASiqXov). 

12. (Gen. xv. 16) 

Kat ovTW fxev IttI rov votjtov, ouSev Se i^ttov Kairl tov aladrjTov 
ioTL avviBelv iv rats tcDv ^ojcdv yeveaear TrpoJTOv fjuev yap eWi 
OTTepfiaros Kara^oX-q, Sevrepov Se rj els rd yevt] Siavopiij, rpLrov 
av^TjGis, Kal T€TapT0v TeXelcoais. 

Staehle, p. 30, from Joh. Lydus, p. 29, 7-11. 

18. (Gen. xvi. 1) 

Sretpa rj tov edvovs /x'^tt^/d eladyerai, TrpcjTOV p.kv^ Iva TrapdSo^os 
rj Tcov iyyovojv avopd ^aivqTai davjxaTovpyqdei.aa, Bevrepov be 
vvep TOV p-T]" avvovaia fidXXov dvSpos aAA' eTncfypoovvr)^ Oeia avX- 
Xafi^dveiv re Kal ti/ctciv." To yap OTelpav ovaav diroKveiv ov 
yevv-qaecos dXXd delas Swdfiecos epyov ^v.^ 

Wendland, pp. 68-69, from Cat. Barb. vi. 8, f. 129 {cf. 
Theodoret, Quaest. Ixxv), and Procopius 349 c. 

" TO Wendland : to) codd. 

^ Wendland : dpLaprqaeis codd. 

" Wendland : Tivovai codd. 

** vpcoTov fjL€v om. Procopius. 

* SevTepov . . . firj] Kal Iva p,r) Procopius. 

^ ev^poavvTj Cat. Barb. 

" 6 eta . . . TiKTecv] 6eov avXXafi^dvr] Kal tUttj Procopius. 

^ TO yap . . . -j^v om. Procopius vid. 

208 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

20. (Gen. xvi. 2) 

'Opas TavTTjs TO aw<f)pov /cat to a^dovov TTpoaeri Kal <f>iXavhpov 
Koi rod 'AjSpaa/i T'r]v OLTrdOetav. 

Wendland, p. 69, from Procopius 352 a (c/. Cat. Lips. 213, 
Wb-qXov). 



21. (Gen. xvi. 3) 

Ovx u>07r€p ol daeXyils oXiyojpia ruiv dariov'* iirl rds deparraLvas 
€Kp,aivovTai. '0 Se ^A^paap, Tore ^e^aLOTcpos Trept Tr)V avvoiKov, 
ore TraAAa/ctSt ;^/37^a^ai napT^yyeXXov ol Kaipoi, /cat Tore ravTrjv 
€vp€ yvvoLKa Traytcorepav, ore TrapeiofjXdev irepa. Upos fiev yap 
T17V TraAAaKtSa [ml^ls '^v aoifxaroiv eveKa rraihoiv yevdaeojs, Trpos 
8e TTjv yafierrjv evcoais ^vxrjs dpixoi,ofj,€VT]s epcort. deico. 

Wendland, p. 69, from Procopius 35!^ a (c/. Cat. Lips. 215, 
Evae^iov : " Philonische Gedanken sind durch eine ver- 
mittelnde Quelle, Eusebius, iibergegangen "). 



22. (Gen. xvi. 4) 

Kara Kaipov KVpiav eKoXeaev, ore rrjs rrapd rrjs depaTraiviqs^ 
■qXdrrcorai. Tovro Se koI €ls iravra hiareivei rov ^iov rd npdy- 
fiara' Kvpicorepos'^ yap 6 <^p6vLpLOS Trevr^g d(f>povos ttXovolov Kal 6 
dSo^os eVSo^ou Kal 6 voawv vyiaivovros. Ta p,€v yap avv (f)pov^o€i 
navra Kvpia, rd Se ev d<f)poavvrj hovXa Kal aKvpa. Ovk cIttc Se 
*' rjTLixaae rrjv KvpLav avrrjs " dXX' " rjrifjidadr) rj Kvpla." Ov ydp 
eWAet KarrjyopeZv, SiyAaicrat Se to CTU/LtjSejSTj/cd?. 

Wendland, pp. 69-70, from Procopius 352 b (c/. Cat. Lips. 
215, 'AS^Aov). 



23. (Gen. xvi. 5) ^ 

To " eV CToiJ " OVK dx'rl rov " vtto aov "... dAA' ecrrt xP'^vikov 
Tcp e^rjs avvaTTTOixevov i^ ov aoi Kal d<f)' ov xpdvov iyw " Se'Scu/ca 
T7JV TTaihioK-qv ixov^ Ov ydp yvvaiKa etTrev "q ya/jLerrjv rrjv e^ 
auToO Kvovoav. 

Wendland, p. 70, from Procopius 352 b (the next two 
sentences in Procopius do not belong here). 

*• darelcov ex Arm. con. Wendland. 

* depaTraivTjs ripirjs con. Wendland. 

" Kvpiuirepov Mai. 

209 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

24. (Gen. xvi. 6) 

"FiTraivov exei to prqrov tov ao(f)ov fi-qre yvvaiKa fii^e yafi€T7]v 
dAAa TTaiSiaKTjv ctVdvros ttjs yafxeTTJs rrjv e| avrov Kvovaav. 

Wendland, p. 70, from Cat. Barb. vi. 8, f. 130, Oi'Aoivos 
eViCTKOTroy. 



26. (Gen. xvi. 6) 

Ov yap*^ rrdaa i/jv^r) hex^rai vovdeaiav dAA' 17 fxkv IXews ayaira 
Tovs iXeyxovs koI rots TraiSevovai /xaAAov oiKeiovrai, r) 8e ix^P°- 
fjLLoel Kal OLTToaTpe^eTai'' koI OLTToSiSpdaKei tovs irpos rjSovrjv 
Xoyovs, Twv ci^eAetv Svvanevcov TrpoKpivovaa. 

Wendland, pp. 70-71, from Procopius 352 b = Harris, p. 30, 
from Cat. Lips. col. 216, lipoKOTrLov. 



29.^ (Gen^, xvi. 8) 

Kai TO evyvw/jLov Se avTrjs irapiaTaTai e/c tov Aeyeiv Tidppav 
Kvpiav Kal fiTjSkv vepl avrrjs ^avXov elireLV. Kai to tov rjOovs Se 
dvvTTOKpiTov TTws ovK ivaivcTOV ; ofioXoyel yap o TTCTTOvdev, on 
TO TTpoacoTTOV, X4yo) 8e TrfV ^avraaiav Trjs dpeTrjs Kal ao<f>Las, 
KaTa7T€7rXrjKTa(, Kal to Ti]s i^ovaias ^aaiXiKov ov yap vTrofxevei 
TO vijios Kal fxeycdos decopelv dAA* dTroSiSpdoKer evioi yap ov fxiaet 
TO) TTpos dpcTTjv <f)€vyovai,v avTijv, dAA' aiSot KpivovTCS iavTOvs 
ava^iovs avfi^iovv ttj SeanoLvrj. 

Wendland, p. 71, from Procopius 354 b. 



30. (Gen. xvi. 9) 

To VTTOTdTTeadaL tols KpiLTToaiv d)(f)€Xifiu)TaTOV. *0 ixadcbv 
apx^aOai koI dpxeiv evOvs fiavddvei. OuSe yap el Trdarjs yijs Kal 
daXdTTTjs TO KpaTos dvdi/joiTO TLS, dpxojv dv etrj Trpos dXrjdeLav, el 
firj fjiddoL Kal TTpovaiSevdcLr] to dpx^oQai. 

Harris, p. 30, " The first sentence from Mai, Script. Vet. 
vii. 103, e Cod. Vat. 1553, eV tov vpcjTov tcov iv ttj Teveaei 
C'r]T'r)p.dTa)v. Also Dam. Par. 359 and Cod. Reg. 923, fol. 74, 
in each case referred to Greg. Nazianz. The last part in 
Dam. Par. 359 as from Philo, and in Cod. Reg. I.e., €k tov 
a' TcDv eV Feveaei ^TyTT^/LtaTfuv." 

" yap om. Cat. Lips. 
^ Kal d7roaTp€(f>€Tai om. Procopius. 
210 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

38. (Gen. xvi. 16) 

(a) *0 yap e^ dpidfxos yevvTyTi/ccoTaTOS eWtv ws aprtOTrepiTTOS', 
fxerexiov Kal ttjs SpaoTLK-ns ovaias Kara tov vepLTTOv Kal rrjs 
vXiKTJs Kara tov apriov. Odev Kal apxoXoi ydfjLOV Kal apfioviav 
avTOV €KdX€oav. 

Staehle, p. 33, from Joh. Lydus, p. 32, 4-8. 

(6) MaKapia (f>vaLS rj eVi Travrl x^-^povaa Kal ftiySevt hvaapea- 
Tovaa Tcov ev rco Koafiw to TrapaTrav," aAA' evapearovaa^ tols 
yivofj,€vois d)S KoXcJs Kal avpi,(f)€p6vTO}S yivofievois. 

Harris, p. 97 (" unidentified," but located by Friichtel), 
from Dam. Par. 372 and 675, also Cod. Reg. 923, f. 38 b, and 
Georgius Monachus, col. 1116. 



40. (Gen. xvii. 1-2) ^ 

*H COS" fiT^TTCo d/xe/LiTTTOj 7] WS TOLOVTio fxev, Beo(M€vcp 8e del ivepyelv 
TO d/xe/iTTTOv, tt»s dv Sid Travros d/i.e/uTTTO? iy. To Se " O-^aofiai T'qv 
BtadT^K-qv fjLov " o)S irepl ddXov eVayyeAia, Kal avTrjs 8i8ofi€vr)S rco 
evapiOTOvvTi ivavriov avrov Kal yevofievco dfiefiTTTO). 'Evrdyei 
Se Kai' " TrXrjdvvdj ae o(f)68pa." 

Wendland, p. 71, from Procopius 353 c (" die philonische 
Vorlage hat Pr. wohl auch hier . . . nicht selbst benutzt; 
denn die Uebereinstimmung ist keine wortliche "). 



41. (Gen. xvii. 3) 

To Se fieyedos tcov eVayyeAidiv Kal to tov deov d^iovv avrov 
deov elvai KaraTrXayels erreacv eVi to vpooajnov. 

Wendland, p. 72, from Procopius 356 b, " passt durchaus 
in philonische Gedankenkreise." 



48. (Gen. xvii. 12) 

Otrjais, cos 6 TcDv dpxaicjv Adyo?, cVtiv eKKorrrj TTpoKOTrrjs' 6 yap 
KaToid/xevo? jSeATicoaiv ovk dvexcrai. 

Harris, p. 99 (" unidentified," but located by Friichtel), 
from Dam. Par. 704 (" note that on p. 629 this is given to 
Cyril, and so in Cod. Reg. 923, f. 36 b "). 

" Toiv . . . TTapdirav om. Georg. Mon. 

'' €Vxapi.aTOvaa Georg. Mon. : t<ov . . . evapeoTovora om. 
Cod. Reg. 

211 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 



52. (Gen. xvii. 14) 

OvSeV TWV OLKOVOLCOV €VOXOV 
d7T0<f)aiV€L 6 VOfXOS, 6ttot€ Kal 

TW (f)6vov aKOvaiov Spdaavri 
avyyivdocTKei. . . . To Se okto) 
"quepcov ixerd yevvrjoiv Pp€(f)os 
el fxr) TTcpiTepLV-qrai, ti aSi/cei 
CO? Koi davdrov Tip,oipiav vtto- 
fievetv; "Eviot fiev ovv ^aaiv 
dva(f>opiK6v elvai tov ttjs ep- 
/xTjvetas" TpoTTOv eVt Toils' yovels, 
Koi €K€Lvovs KoXd!^€adaL otovrai 
Seivco?, cos oXiyoiprjKOTas rrjs 
TOV vofxov 8iaTd^€a>s. "Evtoi 8e 
OTL VTrep^oXfj ;^paj/Lievos KaTO. 
TOV ^p€(f)ovs, oaa tco So/ceiv, 
'qyavdKTTjoev, iva toIs reAetois 
KaTaXvaaai^ tov vofjiov dnap- 
aLTrjTos eVayTyrai TLpiOjpia "• 
OVK iTreihrj to epyov ttjs TTcpi- 
TOfirjs dvayKoiov dXX* on ly 
hiadiqKrj dOiTeiTat,, tov crqfxeiov, 
hi ov yvajpi^erat, firj TrX'qpov- 
fiivov. 

Harris, p. 31, from Cat. 
Ined. Cod. Reg. 1825 (Man- 
gey ii. 675), and Cat. Burney, 
f. 45, OiAtuvos' 'EjSpaiou, also 
Cat. Lips. 1, col. 225 (" the 
last sentence looks like an 
added gloss "). 



OuSev Tojv dKovaioiv evo^ov 
dvo(f>aLveL 6 v6p.os, ottotc kol 
T(x> (f)6vov aKOVGLOV BpdaavTL 
avyyivd)OKeL. Tt ovv aSi/cet to 
OKTO) rjp.€pa)v Pp€(f)OS, €L firj 
TT€pLTp,r]dT]a€TaL; dXX rj ttjv 
dva(f)opdv ivl tovs yovels iK- 
XrjTTTeov KoXat^opievovs , ei fXT] 

TT€pLT€flOL€V TO TTaihCoV, Tj yOVV 

vvep^oXiKios KaTa tov ^p€(f)Ovs, 
oaa Tip hoKeiv, rjyavdKT'qaev , 
iva Tols TeXeiois dTrapaiTrjTOS 
yivqTai. 

Wendland, pp. 72-73, from 
Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 98'' 
(Migne, p. 357 a). 



58. (Gen. xvii. 19) Kai Ihov Hdppa rj ywt] GOV Teferai aoi 
vlov. 

H OfioXoyia, (f>'qaiv, rj ip.rj KaTd^aais ioTiv dKpai(f>vrjS, dfnyrjs 
dpvT^aews Kal rj arj ttigtis ovk dp^^ifioXos dXX dvevhoLaoTos , alSovs 
Kal ivTpoTT-fjs fi€T€xovaa. "Odev o 7Tpo€LXr)<f)as yev-qoopLevov hid 

" Tipboipias Catt. Lips., Burney. 
^ KaTaXvovai Cat. Lips. 
" dTTapaiTTjTais iirdyrjTai Tificopias Cat. Burney. 
212 



GENESIS, BOOK III 



Tijv npos €fi€ TTicniv, yevfjuiTai travrcos' tovto yap nrjvvei to 
" vai." 

Wendland, p. 73, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 98^ (Migne, 
p. 358). 



61. (Gen. xvii. 24-25) 

*0 yap Tojv hiKarpcwv dpidfjLOS avvdcrrrjKev ck tcov Trpcorcov 
SvoLV T€T pay covcov, Tov reaaapa kol rov e'vve'a, apriov re /cat TTcpir- 
Tov, TrXevpa? ixovTOiv rov fiev apriov ro vXlkov elbos 8vd8a, rov 
8e TTCpirrov rrjv Spaar-qpiov I84av rpidSa. Ovros ovv 6 dpidfjLOS 17 
fieyLorrj /cat reXeiordrr] rcov ioprwv ydyove rols dp^aioLs"' eVi- 
rijprjais. 

Staehle, p. 59, from Joh. Lydus, 45, 12-18. 



dpxalos Staehle. 



21s 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

8. (Gen. xviii. 6-7) 

(a) MeyloTTj 8e rj ttjs TptctSoy koI kot* atadTjaiv bvvafits. *0 
yap Kar' avrrjv apid^xos rois yevrjTols eViScScuKe y4v€Giv, av^rjoiv, 
rpocfy-qv, /cat ovx olttXcos eiprjrar " rpLxda Be iravra hehaarai." . . . 
Atd fiev TOVTO ol TlvdayopeLOi rpidha p,€v iv dptdfxols, iv 8e 
ax'qpi'O.cn TO opdoyoiviov rpiyoivov yTrori^evTat oroixelov rrjg rwv 
oXcov yeveaecos. "Ev pikv ovv fxerpov iari, Kad^ o avveorrj 6 daoi- 
fjiaros Kal vorjros Koafxos. Aevrepov 8e fjierpov, Ka6' o eTrdyq 6 
alaOrjTOS ovpavos, TTefjLTrrrjv Xaxcov Kal Oeiorepav ovaiav, drpciTTOV 
Kal dfierd^oXov. Tpirov 8e Kad^ o ihripi,Lovpyrj6r) to. vtto aeXrjViqv, 
€K rcbv reaadpwv Swdfiecov, yeveaiv Kal (f>dopdv eTTLSexdfieva. 

Staehle, pp. 25-26, from Joh. Lydus, pp. 25, 12-16 and 
28, 8-16. 

(6) Ov defiLS rd iepd pLvarripLa eVAaAetv dpiv-qrois dxpiS av 
KadapddJaLv"^ reXela KaOdpaei, 6 yap dvopyiaaros Kal evxeprjs, 
dacofiarov Kal vor)Tr)v <f>vaLv a/coueiv •^ /SAeVetv dSwarcov, vtto ttjs 
<f)av€pds oifiecos diraT-qdelg niofx-qaeTaL ra dpiOjpL-qTa. Tots' dp,vrjTois 
e/fAaAetv fivoT-qpia KaraXvovros eVri tovs deapiovs rrjs UpaTLKrjs 
TeXcTTJs. 

Harris, p. 69 (" unidentified," but located by E. Brehier), 
from Dam. Par. 533 (c/. Dam. Par. 782== Cod. Rupef. f. 189, 
and Cod. Reg. 923, f. 25 b, " by the last two expressly 
referred to //. Quaest. in Gen.''''). 

10. (Gen. xviii. 8) Autos Se Trapeio-Tij/cei aurots vtto rd hevhpov. 

AvTOvpydJv Se r-qv VTrrjpealav 6 ttj' Kal Se/ca K€KTr]pt.€vos oIko- 
yeveis Kal ttoXXovs dpyvpiovrjTovs r-qv detav viTOVoiav nepl avrcbv 
BeiKWOLV ov Gvyxcopojv oLKeraLS T-qv UpaTiKrjv deov hiaKOviav, 
avTO? 8e ravTrjv, el Kal TTpea^vrqs, dvahexop-evos . 

Wendland, p. 74, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 100^ {cf. 
'AKaKiov, Cat. Lips. 234). 

" dxpi KaOapacocn Cod. Reg. 

214 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

20. (Gen. xviii. 16) 

MdAi? 8ia^€vyvvTaL hvaaTTOOvaorcos €^0)^, (L? ^ovXeadai /cat 
aTToSrjfielv. "AfMeivov Se tov Tre'/LiTreii' KoivcoviKcoTarov "^dos €n<l>alvov. 
Wendland, p. 74, from Procopius 368 b. 

24. (Gen. xviii. 21) 

'H/Lictj TOLVvv StSacTKet fX7] e7riT/3€;^etv TTLaret kukcov fiexpiKs av> 
neiadcofiev tt? ^ea. 

Wendland, p.' 74, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. lOP (Migne, 
p. 368 c, cf. Cat. Lips. 239 B-P). 



30. (Gen. xix. 1) 

To) fjL€v 'Aj3paa/Lt <f>aivovTat 
rpels, KOL fxecrrjfjL^pLas' tco Se 
Aa>T 8vo, Kal earrepas. Ouat- 
KcoTara 8cd(f>opov elcTjyeiTai 6 
vofios TeXelov Kal npoKonTOV- 
Tos' 6 fi€v ovv reXcLos rptdha 
(j)avTaaiovTai iv aa/cta» ^cdti 
Kox jxecrq^^pivu), fieaTrjv 8t,7jV€Ki] 
Kal TrXrjpeaTaTTjv ovaiav 6 8e 
SuaSa, bialpeaiv Kal TOfX'^v 
Kal K€v6v <exovaav iv eavcpLvco 

OKOTCt. 

Harris, p. 32, from Pitra, 
Anal. Sacr. ii. 23 e Cod. 
Coislin. 276 (?), f. 10 " with 
heading, (f)r)ol yap tovto 6 iv 
Xoyois i^aipcTos OtAojv." 



IIpos' fi€v ^A^padfi ol rpels 
dvBpes Kal fj,€cn)fjL^plas, els 
SoSo/ia Se OL 8vo dyyeXoi koI 
ioTTepas. 

Wendland, p. 74, from 
Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 102i- 
(Migne, p. 370 c = Cat. Lips. 
241-242, 'ASt^Aou). 



33. (Gen. xix. 2) 

(a) Toj jLiev 'A^padfi evxepdJs iTrelad-qaav, tco Se Aojt /iCTO. fiias. 

Wendland, p. 75, from Procopius 370 d. 

(6) 'Lrevoxiop€LTai nds d(f>pwv, dXi^ofievos vtro (f)iXapyvplas Kal 
<f)LXo8o^ias Kal (f>LXr)8ovia9 Kal twv ofiotOTpoTTcov direp ovk id ry]v 
hidvoiav iv €vpvx(opia Siayeiv." 

Harris, p. 32, from Dam. Par. 362, eV tov j3' tcDv iv Pevcatt, 
and Cod. Reg. 923, eV twv 8', " also Cod. Barocc. 143 .. . 
(Mangey ii. 674), and in Cod. Rupef. f. 73 b without a title." 



" bia^aiveiv Cod. Barocc. 



215 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

40. (Gen. xix. 10) 

No/ios eoTO) Kara tcov oefjLva kol dela ov'^ oeyuvibs KoX deoTrpevcos 
opdv d^ioviTCov, KoXaoiv tTTK^epeiv aopaaias. 

Harris, pp. 32-33, from Dam. Par. 341, " where it is 
ascribed to Clem. Alex.," and Cod. Reg. 923, f. 62 b, eV rov 
8' Toiv eV Feveaci ^TjTrjfiaTcov. 



43. (Gen. xix. 14) 

Ot eV rats d(f>96voi.s X'^RVV^^''^ vXovtov Kal Bo^rjs fat rwv 
opLOLorpoTTOiv VTTOLpxovTes, Kal iv vyieia kol evaiadrjcria acofxaTOS 
Kol eve^ia ^corjs Kal rds Sia Traaojv rdv alodrjcecov -qSovds Kapnov- 
jLtevot* vofjiil^ovTes rrjs aKpas evBaifiovlas d(f>Lx6ai,'' pLCTa^oXrjv ov 
TTpoahoKoJaiv, dXXd Kal rovs Xeyovras on rrdvTa irepl to acofxa Kal 
€Kt6s imKaipcos e^^'' yeXwra Kal x^^^V^ ridevrai. 

Harris, p. 33, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 101 e Cod. Vat. 
1553, Ot'Acovos* eV TcSv 8' TcDv ev Feveaei ^tjtt) fidrcDV. 



44. (Gen. xix. 16) 

• • • "^V^ X^^P^S' avTOV' OVK dpa Xoyois fiovov rifids rrapaKaXel 
vpos dfiapTias d7TO(f)vy'qv, dXXd Kal evepyov rrjv iviKOvpLav X^P^~ 
^erat. 

Wendland, p. 75, n. 1, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 102^ = 
Migne, p. 371 b (" wahrscheinlich geht auf Philons Einfiuss 
zuriick "). 



47. (Gen. xix. 18-20) 

*0 ao(f)6s rjpepiiav Kal dTrpayfxoavvrjV Kal axoXrjV fjL€Ta8iu)K€L^ 
iva rots deiois d€(x)pr}p.aaiv ev •qavxio. evTvxjj. 'O (ftavXos ttoXlv t€ 
Kal rov Kara ttoXiv oxXov re Kal (fyvpfiov dvdpioncDV ofiov Kal 
Trpayfidrcov /xeraSiol/cei. OiXonpayfioavvai yap Kal rrXeove^Lai, 
hrjfjLOKOTTLai re Kal hrniapxiai, r(x> roiovrcp ripLai, ro Se rjavxd^eiv 
drificorarov. 

Harris, p. 33, " the first sentence is Dam. Par. 376, also 
Cod. Reg. 923, f. 85, where it is eV rod a' rwv iv Feveoei, and 
Maximus ii. 599 . . . the last part is found in Anton Melissa 
(Migne, Pair. Gr. 136, col. 1193 . . .)." 

" iJLT) Cod. Reg. 

* Harris (p. 110) : Kparovp.€voi codd. 

" Harris : rj(f>ixo6ai codd. : €(f)LK€adai. prop. Harris. 

** Kal oxoXrji; /i€Ta8taj/cei] biwKei Maximus. 

216 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 



^^H (a) Ata Ti, " i^rjXdev 6 
^^K i^Atos' em TTjv yrjv, Kal Acbr 
elaijXOev els ^rjycop "; 

Kai (f>7]Gi.v 'O avros XP^^^^ 
yiveraL Kal tols rrpoKOTTTOvaiv 
els acDTTjpiav, koI tols dviaTcos 
€xovai irpos KoXaoLV. Kat eV 
apxf} 817 Tjixepas evdvs dvarei- 
XavTos Tov rjXlov Tr)v bcK-qv 
eVayei, ^ovXoficvos Sei^at on 
TJXios Kal -qficpa Kal (f>cos Kal 
oaa aAAa" eV Koofioj KaXd koI 
Ti'/xta fiovoLS OLTTOveixeTaL tois 
doTeiOLS, (f)avXcp 8e ovBevl rcov 
ddepa.TT€vrov KaKiav exovTcov. 

Harris, p. 84, from Cat. 
Ined. Cod. Reg. 1825 (Man- 
gey ii. 675), Cat. Burney, 
f. 37 and Cat. Lips. 1, col. 
251. 

(6) 'Ek tov ovpavov, e| ov 
yivovTai ol eTrjoioL x^ificoves Kal 

V€Tol TTpOS aV^-qOLV TcDv (f)VO- 

fievcov, oaa orrapTa Kal hevhpa 
TTpos yeveaiv Kapncov els di'dpco- 

TTCOV Kal TCtJV dXXa)v t,(x)lOV Tpo- 

<f>ds, KaTappayrjvaL (f>7)ai to 

OeloV Kal TO TTVp €7tI (f)dopa TU)V 

KaTa yrjv diravTiov iv* einheL- 
$rjTaL OTL Kal twv Katpcov Kal 
TOiV eT7]ota)v ojpajv aiTios ovd^ 
6 ovpavos ovd^ 6 -qXios ov9^ at 
Toiv dXXojv doTCpwv xopelai, Kal 
TTCpLTToXiqaeiS, dXX' rj tov rra- 
Tepos Suva/Lies'. * AtjAoi he Kal 
rj T€6aviJLaTovpyT)fji€vr] Trpd^is ov 

" dXXa om. Cat. Burney. 

^ €<f>ehp€VOVTOS fJL€V <Ls dpfiaTi 

■fjvioxovvTOS S' auTov CO? /SeArtCTT* 
Lewy. 



Oj5 fjiearjfx^pLas yiverat o tov 
■nvpos veTos, dXX opQpov ot€ 
KaTaipvxei rrcos diqp . . . opa 
8e irdXiv LOTopiKcoTepov, cos 6 
avTOS XP<^^°^ yiVerai Kal tols 
vpoKOTTTOvaiv cls ao}TT]piav Kal 
Tols dviaTOLS els KoXaaiv. 
'HAtou yap dvaTeiXavTos eVa- 
Tepov yeyovev. 

Wendland, p. 75, from 
Procopius 373 a and Cod. 
Aug. f. 104'(Migne, p. 375). 



'E^ ovpavov he to nvp TTpos 
(f)dopdv, odev veTol TTpos t,o}riv, 
COS dv heLxOfj nrj tcov Kapircbv 
aiTLOS VTTapxcov ovpavos Kal 
doTepes d)S ovhe tcov ofi^pcov, 
dAA' o TTep-TTcov TovTOvs deos , 

OS ye Kal TO TTVp dvTl TOVTCJV 

dTreoTeiXe vapd (f>vatv enl to. 
KaTco TTefx^dev. 

Wendland, p. 75, from 
Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 104»" 
(Migne, p. 375). 



TTTrjVip (TVfXTTaVTL Tip KOaflU), 

dv vofilaeiev ex Arm. add. 
217 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

TO KaOeoTos" €7rl rwv aroi- 
Xeioiv €005 dXXd riva SvvafjLLV 
avTOKpaTTJ Kal avre^ovaiov 
fi€Taaroix€iovaav, cos dv irpo- 
4Xr)Tai, TO. avfinavTa. 

Lewy, p. 58, from Catt. 
Len. f. 63^, Barb. f. 14P-142r, 
Mosq. f. 217 r-% OiA. eVia/c. 

(c) Oucxei fjLev yap Kov<f>a 
delov Kol vvp iarlv Kal Bid 
TOVTO dvu) <f)OiTa- TO 8c rijs 
dpds K€Kawovpyr)p,evov rjXXa^e 
vpos TOVvavTLOv rrjv KivrjaLV 
dvcodcv Kdro) ^Lat,6p.evov eVe;^- 
dijvai rd K0V(f)6TaTa cos rd tojv 
ovTcov jiapvraTa. 

Lewy, p. 58, from Catt., 
as in (6) above. 



Oucrct /x€v Kov(f)a delov koI 
TTvp' TO 8e TrfS dpds KCKaivovp- 
yrfpiivov rjAXa^e ttpos TovvavTiov 
TTjV KLvqaiv. 

Harris, p. 34, from Cat. 
Burney, f. 46 b, OiAcovos 
iTTLCKOTTov, and Cat. Lips, 
col. 252, 'AB-qXov. 



52. (Gen. xix. 26) 

Oi 8e dyyeXoL TrapayyeXXovai fir) dnoKXiveLV OTrlaco. "HiSeaav 
ydp OTL ol p,€v tacos €<f>rjad-qaovTai Tals avpa^opals Ihovres — x^^P^^^ 
he. evL Tai? tcDv eTepcov^ dTVX^aLS el Kal SiVaiov, dXX' ovk dvdpo)- 
TTLVOV TO ydp fieXXov dbrjXov — , oi 8e taios ixaXaKiadrjaovrai Kal 
■nXeov Tov pt-eTpiov bvaavaax^TrjaovaL irepiaXyovvres T]TT(x)[xevoi 
<j)iXo}v Kal avvrjOeias. Kal ttoXlv avTT] TpiTT] aiVia* deov ydp, 
^rjoiv, cS" dvdpconoi, KoXd^ovTos fir) KaTavoelTe. 'ATTOXprj ydp 
vfilv TOVTO yvcovai, otl VTrefieLvav Tificoplav ovs exp'qv^- to he ttcos 
virepieivav^ Trepiepydt^eodai TrporreTelas Kal dpdaovs, ovk evXa^elas 
dv etrj. 

Wendland, p. 76, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 104'' 
(Migne, p. 375). The phrase xat/o^tv • • • dvdpu)7Tt,vov is also in 
Harris, p. 34, from Dam. Par. 509, ascribed to Nilus, and 
Cod. Reg. 923, f. 154 b, ascribed to Philo, and Mai, Script. 



" ex Arm. Lewy : KaO* eKaoTov codd. 

* exOpwv Cod. Reg. 

" cos Catt. Lips., Burney. 

aTTOXpr) . . . expr]v] oti fiev ydp TifxcopovvTai exprjv yvwvai 
Catt. Lips., Burney. 

* vnefieivav om. Catt. Lips., Burney. 
218 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

Vet. vii. 102, from Cod. Vat. 1553, eV tov y tcDv cV Fcveaet 
t,f]Ty]\ia.TOiV. The last part, Q^ov yap . . . euAa/Seia? (av eiTy), 
is also in Harris, pp. 34-35, from Cat. Lips. col. 248 and Cat. 
Bnrney, f. 46 b, OiXojvos i-maKorrov. 



54. (Gen. xix. 29) 'E/ivr^a^T/ Se o ^eo? tov *A^pad/u. /cat e^- 
aTreoretAe tov Aojt. 

'OcTTe 8id TOV ^A^paafi htaaeaoiorai {koX avros ti fidpos ela- 

€V€yK(x)v). 

Wendland, p. 76, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 104'. 



56. (Gen. xix. 31-32) 'ETroTtaav 8e tov varepa avrcov olvov ev 
vvktL 

. , . 8t' cov §€ <f)aoL " Kai ovSeis eWtv eVi t^s y^j os etVeAeu- 
(TCTai Trpds' rjuds," beiKvvovaiv cos ov ndBos aKoXaaias rjXaaev 
ainag evl tovto dAAct (f)ei8d> tov yevovs, oOev evavyyvcooToi. . . . 
OuTO)? oiKovopiia Tt? tJv Kai eVt Toiv dxryarepcov tov Acot, eireiBrj 
fir) 8i' aKoXaciav /cat Tralhoiv imdvpLLav to yeyovos. 

Wendland, p. 77, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 104^ 
(Migne, p. 378 a, cf. Theodore, Cat. Lips. 255) and Procopius 
474 a. 



64. (Gen. xx. 4-5) 

Ovx <J^S TO dKovaicos d/LtapTavetv eWiv dSt/cov, ovto) to aKOvaicos 
/cat /caT* dyvotav evdvs 8t/catov, dAAd Td;^a ttov fxedopLOV dp.(f>oiv, 
St/caiou /cat dSt/cou, to vtto tivcvv KaXovfievov d8id<f>opov. 'A/xdp- 
T7;p.a yap ovbkv cpyov SiKaioavvrjs . 

Harris, p. 35, from Dam. Par. 520 and Cod. Reg. 923. See 
also Wendland, p. 78, who prints a brief paraphrase from 
Procopius 380 a, d /xev Si/caioj ovk ev dyvoia dXX emaTrjiir). 



67. (Gen. xx. 10-11)^ 

Ov TTovTa dXridrj Xcktcov diraaiv odev /cat vuv d dorreios' oAov 
OLKOvofiel TO TTpdyfxa fieTadeacL /cat aTraAAayj^ twv ovofiaTcov. 

Harris, p. 35, from Mai, Script. Vfit. vii. 106 = Cod. Vat. 
1553, e'/c TcDv ev Feve'aei ^rjTTffidTcov. 



69. (Gen. XX. 16) 

To 8e " TrdvTa dATy^euaov " d<f)LXoa6<f>ov /cat iStcoTou napdyyeXfia' 

219 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

el fiev yap 6 fxev dvdpcovojv ^ios eucoSet firjSev rrapabexoixevos 
i/j€v8os, eiKos T^v eVi Travrl Trpos Travras dXrjdeveiv 67761817 8e vtto- 
KpLOLS oiS €V Oedrpco'* Swaarevei Kal ro i/reuSo? TTapaTreTaa^ta rijs 
dXrjdelas eari, rexvrjs 86t to) GO<f)w rroXirrpo-TTOV, Kad* ijv axfyeX-qaet, 
fiLlxovfievos Tovs vTTOKpLrds OL dXXa Xeyovres irepa hpatoiv ottcos 
hiaooyaoiOLV ovs Suvavrat. 

Harris, p. 35, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 106 = Cod. Vat. 
1553. 



73. (Gen. xxiii. 2-3)^ 

YVpoTrddiia Koi ov rrddos rod 'Aj3paa/i Bid tovtcov heb'qXojTai. 
Ov yap etpTjTaL otl iKotjiaro dAA' otl ^X6e Koijiaadai. Touro StjAoi 
Kal TO " dvearr) 'AjSpaa/x aTTO rov veKpov," firi rrpoXexOevros tov 
" eKoiparo." 

Wendland, p. 78, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 110' 
(Migne, p. 394, cf. Cat. Lips. 285, Evae^lov). 



74. (Gen. xxiii. 4) 

OvTCDS yap 6 ao(f)ias ipaarrjs ovBevl rcov eiKaiorepoyv, Kal dv 
avpt.TT€(f)VKd}s rvyxdvT), avveariv rj avvSiarpt^n TTOvrjpordra), Si6- 
^evyfidvos rcov ttoXXojv 8id Aoyta/xcDv, 81' ovs ovre avfjiTrXelv ovre 
avpLTToXireveadai ovre avt/qv Xiyerai. 

Harris, p. 69 (" unidentified," but located by Friichtel), 
from Dam. Par. 754 (Cod. Rupef.), eV tov e rwv avrcjv. 



76. (Gen. xxiii. 5-6) 

TcSv /Lt6v d(f>p6viov ^aaiXeiis ovBcls, Kal dv to Trdorrjs yrjs Kal 
daXdaa-qs dvdif/rjTat KpaTOS' fiovos 8e o doretos' koI d€0<f>iX-qs, Kal 
dv Tcov 7TapaaK€vu)v Kal tcov x^PlY^^^ dfxoipfj, 81' c5r noXXol 
KpaTvvovTaL Ttts hwaoTeias. 'Qanep yap to) Kv^epvqTiKTJs rj 
laTpLKTJs rj fxovoiKTJs dTTeipw TTapeXKov TTpdyjxa otaKCS Kal (f>apfj.dKa}v 
avvdecLS Kal auAoi Kal Kiddpai, hioTi pirjhevl tovtojv xpV^^^'' rrpos 
o 7Te<j)VK€, Kv^epvi^Tr) 8e Kal laTpco Kal fiovaiKU) XeyoiTO dv €<j)apix6- 
l,€LV heovTco'S ovTOJS, eTTeiSr] rexvr] Tts ioTi ^aaiXiKr) Kal t^xvcov 
dplaTTj, tov ftev dvevLOT-jixova XPV^^^^S dvdpa)Trcov lhia)Tr]v vopn- 
aT€ov, jSacriAe'a 8e (xovov tov eTTion^/Ltova. 

Harris, p. 36, the first few lines (to d€0(f>iX'^s) from Dam. 
Par. 396 and 776 = Cod. Rupef. f. 115 b, e/c tov a' rcav ev 

" ex Arm. Harris : e/caTep<w codd. 
220 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

Feveaei ^T^TTy/xarcov, and Cod. Reg. 923, f. 97, eV rod a' tcDv eV 
Fevecrei, the rest of the passage from Dam. Par. 776. 



80. (Gen. xxiii. 9, 11) 

To OTT-qXaLOV to 8tvXovv Svcn clalv avrpcodeis vTTCopeiai,' r) fiev 
€kt6s, rj 8c etau)- t] bvco TreptjSoAoi- d fiev 7repiexa>v, d Se rrepi- 
€x6p,€vos. 

Harris, p. 36, from Cat. Lips. col. 288, UpoKOTrlov. 



81. (Gen. xxiii. 11) 

Tov Se 'A^paa/i jxovov ro aTrqXaiov alrovvros 6 'E^pcov opcov 
avTov rrjv ao^iav /cat tov aypov iTnBlScoaiv, oloficvos Seiv d(f)96vovs 
iTTidailiiXeveadaL xapiras. 

Wendland, p. 78, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. llC^Cat. 
Lips. 288, 'ASiyAou. 

86. (Gen. xxiv. 2) 

Acx^etTy 8' av Kal on iirl piVT)areiav koL ya/xov Tre/iTrojv tov 
TToiha 6 'A^pad/x KaTO. tcov yanLKwv opydvcov e^ivpKiae, Kadapdv 
d/xiAiav Kal ydpLov dveTTiX-qiTTOV, alviTTOpievos ovx rjBovrjv to reXos 
dXXd yvrjOLOVs exovra TralBas.'^ 

Wendland, pp. 78-79, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 110^' 
(Migne, p. 365, cf. Theodoret, Quaest. Ixxiv). 

88. (Gen. xxiv. 3) Atari hk /lit) to) vlcp -napayyiXXei jx-q Xa^etv 
Xavavmv, (LoTrep voTepov toj 'la/ccojS ot yovetj, dAAo. to) TraiSi; 

. . . KaiTOL TcXcLov TvyxdvovTOS 'lo-ad/c Kal -qXiKiav exovros 
ydfxov . . . Kal el jxkv rjfjLeXXe TreiOeaOai, etVds" '^v avTW fidXXov 
TTapeyyvdv ei Se dTTei.de.lv, TrepiTTrj tov iraiBos r) StaKovia. To yap 
eiTTelv oTi, XPV^H'^ '''V^ VV^ e^eXdcov, TrepLTreiv els avTrjv ovk tj^lov 
TOV viov, [el Kal evXoyov, ofiojs dirapeoKei tloC] Sid to /xt^S' dv tov 
*Ia/cc6j3, el TovTO fjv dX-qdes, vtto tcov yovecov evravda TTe/x(l)9rjvai. 

Harris, p. 37, from Cat. Lips. col. 292, UpoKOTrlov. 



99. (Gen. xxiv. 16) 

(a) Aiaypd<f>ei. to KdXXos tva fiaXXov ttjv auxfypoavvrjv davfidaco- 
fxev. Ov TO KdXXos yap Travrco? daeAye's, cos ovBe a<jo<f>pov rj 

•* yvT]aio)v valScov yeveaiv scripsisse Philonem ex Ambr. De 
Ahr. i. 83 con. Wendland. 

221 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

afjiop<f>La. Ov aa>fi,a yap rovrcov dAA' 17 TrpoatpeaLS oItlov. AnrXa- 
cria^et Se to " napdevo? ijv," to /car' dfi(f>co aa>(f)pov epL(^aivovaa. 
"Eari yap aaeXyeiais 8L€(f)ddpdaL ifjvx^v, aKepaiov rov acofjuaros 
fMevovTOS. 

Wendland, p. 79, from Procopius 398 b (" zum guten Telle 
philonisch erscheint mir die Stelle "). 

(6) 'AvaiSes ^Xefifxa Kal fjLereojpos avxrjv koI avvexrjs KLvrjais 
o^puwv" Kal ^dSiafia aeoo^rjfievov Kal to eVi (jltj^cvI twv <f>avXo}v 
ipvOpiav crqp,ela. €aTi i/jvxrjs alaxiOTTjs, tovs d(f)av€LS tcDv oIkclwv 
dveiScDv TVTTOVS^ iyypa(j>ovarjs Tip ^avepco ocofxaTi. 

Harris, p. 37, from Dam. Par. 658 and Cod. Reg. 923, 
f. 292, eV Tov e' tcov iv Teveaei, also Cramer, Anec. Oxon. iv. 
254 € Cod. Bodl. Clark, f. 11 b, Maximus ii. 633, Anton 
Melissa {Pair. Gr. 136, col. 1225), referring to Greg. Nazianz., 
and Tischendorf, Philonea^ p. 154 « Cod. Cahirino. 

100. (Gen. xxiv. 16) 

OuCTt/cajTara Taxrra SeSei/craf KaTd^aaiv /iev i/jvxrjs ttjv 8^' 
OLiQaeaJS dvd^aoLV, dvoSov Se Kal ui/ro? ttjv dXa^oveias vrrovoaTTiaLV. 

Harris, p. 102 (" unidentified," but located by Friichtel), 
from Cod. Rupef. f. 264. 



^102. (Gen. xxiv. 17) 

"A^iov aTroBexeaOai to fxr)8ev6s opeyeadai tcov v-nep Svvafiiv 
rrav yap to avp^ieTpiav €xov, erraiveTov . . , dvayKalov ovv tco 
fxev €V(f>v€l irXeiovs etvat rds StSaa/caAta?, eXaTTovs Se to) d(f>v€t 
Sid TTjv iv Tats dvdyKais" dpioTrjv laoTrjTa . . . Kal tovto ye 
eCTTi TO jStcu^eAeoTaTov taov. 

Harris, p. 38, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 106, from Cod. 
Vat. 1553, OlXcovos' eV tcov e'v FeveVei l^rjTrjfxdTcov. 

104. (Gen. xxiv. 18) 
^ Ovx diS BvvoTat, StSda/ceiv 6 StSda/caAo?, ovtco Kal fiav9dv€Lv 
o yvu>pifios, €TT€i8ri 6 fi€v TeXeios, 6 Se aTeA-^s eaTtv, 'O^ev Trpoo- 
r)K€i aTOxa^eaOai ttjs tov TraiSeuo/xeVou Svvdfieios. 

Harris, p. 38, from Dam. Par. 435 and Cod. Reg. 923, f. 



222 



** 6<f)daXfid)v Dam. et Cod. Reg. 
'' TOTTois Dam. et Cod. Reg. 
* dvaXoyiais ex Arm. conieci. 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

116 b, Ot'Acovoj' eV rrjs rj' rcov v6fJi,(x)V Upwv aXXTj-yopias, also 
Mai, Script, Vet. vii. 99, ^iXoivos' ck tov 6' rwv eV Teveaei t,-qTt)- 
fjidraiv. 

110. (Gen. xxiv. 22) 

(a) 'A/foucrai Set Trparrov, elra cpydaaadai- fiavddvoficv yap 
ov TOV p,adetv X^P^^ dXXd tov Trpd^ai. 

Harris, p. 38, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 99. 

(6) Aia^e'pei be fiovds ivos fj 8ia<^epei apx^rvvov cIkovos' Trapd- 
Seiy/ia fiev yap rj fiovds, (jLifjLTjfia 8e ttjs p.ovd8os to ev. 
Staehle, p. 19, from Joh. Lydus ii. 6, p. 23, 6. 

(c) . . . •^ dno TOV 8i,aK€KpiadaL koI fxepLOVcoadai aTTO tov 
XoiTTOv ttXtjOovs twv dptOfxcov KaXciTai p.ovds. 

Staehle, p. 19, from Theon of Smyrna, p. 19, 12 f. (c/. 
Joh. Lydus, p. 21, 20 and Moderatus ap. Stob. Eel. i. i. 8). 

130. (Gen. xxiv. 52-53) 

Aei yap Trdarjs Trpd^ccos Kadapds dpxrjv [etvat] 'ttjv Trpo? deov 
evxo.pi'OTlav Kal TLfJLrjv Sid tovto 6 irals vpooKwel irpoTepov, etra 
Xapil,€TaL ra Biopa. 

Harris, p. 38, from Cod. Vat. 746, f. 53, OiAcdvos, c/. Pitra, 
Analecta Sacra ii. 314. 

131. (Gen. xxiv. 55-56) 

MeTavevoi^Kamv oi irpo puKpov Xeyovres' " 'ISou 'Pc^eKKa ivoj- 

TTLOV GOV Xa^wv aTTOTpCX^-" 

Lewy, p. 59, from Cat. Barb. f. 146^, Oi'A. eV., and Cat. 
Len. f. 93^, OtAcuvo?. 

144. (Gen. xxiv. 66) Aid tL he 6 nals v(f>^ €T€pov Trcp-^^ct? ivi 
T17V Trpea^ciav €T€pa> d-noTTpea^evei; " SirjyijaaTO ydp," <f>7jai, 
" ra> 'laaa/c." 

EuayyeAi^erai tovtio hi ov €TT€n<f>6'Tj. Kat vpoTepco he evervxe 
Kara ttjv ohov. Udvrws he Kal tw 'Aj3paa/i einev, el Kal p.-q 
yeypaTTTai. 

Wendland, p. 79, from Procopius 404 a. 

145. (Gen. xxiv. 67) Aia ti Sc" ovk. €is tov tov TraTpos oIkov 
aAA* eU TOV TTJg p.r)Tp6s eiaepxeaOai XeycTai 'laadK e-nl ydfxio; 

" he om. Cat. Barb. 

223 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

"On o ixev TTaTTjp rrXelovs dyay6fj.€vos yvvaiKas, Suva/Ltet" Kal 
TrAeiou?* eax^v oiKovs. Olkos yap ov fiovov Aeyerat" to oIkoBo- 
fXTjfia dAAa Kal to €K yafjLLKT]s av^vylas^ Kal tckvwv avaTTjfxa. * 
rj^ Se {x^xpt TeXevTTJs eVe/Metve to* Kovpihico, (Ls Sta tovto Kal €va 
oIkov iax^jKevaL hoKelv.^ 

Wendland, p. 80, from Procopius 404 a, and Cat. Barb, 
vi. 8, f. 166', OiAojvo? eTTiGKOTTov ; also, in part, Harris, p. 39, 
from Cat. Lips. col. 305, UpoKoiTLov. 

148. (Gen. xxv. 5-6) 

Aia(f)opav 84 (f)aaiv vnapxovTOJV Kal Boixoltcov. to fiev yap 
ar]jjLaLV€L to. KTrjpLara Kal oaa ^e^aia tcov KeifxrjXLcov, 86fi,aTa Se 
Tci ;^eipdSoTa Kal cSv r) XPV^'-^ e(f)'qfi€pos. 

Wendland, p. 80, from Procopius 405 b. 

152. (Gen. xxv. 8) 

OuSet? K€v6s TrX-qprjs etvai fi€fj,apTvpr]Tai rjp,€pd>v. 
Wendland, p. 80, from Procopius 405 b and Cat. Lips. 

153. (Gen. xxv. 8) 

Ousels' yap vpoaTLOeTat, tols fir) ovaiv, aAAo? 8e TrpocrTideadai, 
(frfjai, Xeyerai Xaco fi-qnco yeyovoTi. 'Apxrj yap avTos Kal TTpo- 
TraTojp Tov yevovs eart. Tov ovv fxeXXovTa St' avrov yeveadai chs 
17877 yeyovora xapi^ofMCvos avTov tco deoTTpeiTel tcov apeTcov iSpvcTai 
S^ Kal Aeyerai* vpoaTideadai. 

Wendland, p. 81, from Procopius 406 c. 

1 65. (Gen. xxv. 27) 

laKco^ 8e avdpcoTTOS " aTrXaoTos oIkcov oi/ctav," tovtcoti firjdev 

" Suva/net om. Cat. Lips. 
^ vXelaTovs Cat. Barb. 

* Aeyerai om. Procopius. 

'^ €K yaixLKTjs av^vyias] e^ dvSpos Kal yvvaiKos Cat. Barb. 
OLKOS . . . avoTTuxa} Aeyerai yap oIkos Kal to €k yvvaiKos 
Kal TCKvajv aucm7/xa Cat. Lips. 
^ o Cat. Barb. 

" o Se . . . SoKeii' om. Cat. Lips. 
^ cos Nicephorus. 

* Wendland : Xdyeadai codd. 
224 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

l;^a>v eniTTXaGTOV rj iveiaaKrov KaKov . . . Kal rr)v alriav tov- 
Tov rod airXdarov -rjdovs StSacTKei Xeycov otl ovk ipefi^CTO €^w. 
"laws 8e Kal avTiSiaoreAAet rco Kvvrjy€T7] 'Haau Kal iv VTraidpw 
SidyovTL. 

Wendland, p. 81, from Procopius 410 a, cf. Cyril ap. Cat. 
Lips. 315 and Theodoret, Quaest. Ixxvi. 



166. (Gen. xxv. 28) 

Ti's 8' av OVK dydaaLTO ro " r^yaTrrjae. rov 'IlCTau* 17 he 
'PepeKKa TjyaTTa rov 'laKui^ "; To fxev yap TrapeX-qXvdc ro 
he Tcdpeariv dei* 17 yukv yap drrohoxT] tov (f)avXov kolv avfi^fj 
TTore, oXiyoxpovios icm Kal e^rjiiepos' rj 8e rod avovhalov ddavari- 

Harris, p. 39, from Cat. Lips. col. 315, lipoKoirLov. 



167. (Gen. xxv. 28) 

Kai ro fxev airovhalov ov 81' erepov ri dyairdraf ro he fir] 
roLOVTOV, eV rcov ;^petci)v riydTrrjae ydp (J)7](jlv on rj drjpa avrov 
PpwoLS avra>. 

Harris, p. 39, from Cat. Lips. col. 315, UpoKOTTLov. 



168. (Gen. xxv. 29) 

Kai ro prjrov rrjs hirjyiqoeois eXeyxov exei aKoXdarov irpos vov- 
Oeaiav rwv deparreveadai hwa/j-evcov o" ydp rov rvxovros eveKa 
rrpoetp-qp.aros'' eKords rd)v rrpea^eicov ra> vewrepo) Kal hovXos 
yaarpos rjhovrjs di'aypa(f)els els oveihos TTpoKeiadcx) rwv fi-^nore 
^rjXov eyKpareias Xa^ovrwv. 

Harris, pp. 39-40, from Cat. Lips. 1, col. 318, OiAa»vos 
(" but the editor remarks laws rov imaKOTTOv ev ydp rols rov 
'E^paiov ovx evpiaKerai "), also Cat. Burney, f. 55^ OtAcovos 
emaKOTTov, and Cod. Palat. 203, f. 110 ap. Pitra, Anal. Sacr. 
ii. SU. 



169. (Gen. xxv. 29) ^ ^ 

'Etti fiev rwv avovhaiwv r) c/cAcii/rt? €tvai Xeyerai TrpoaOeaiS' 
eKXcLTTOvres yap rov dvrjrov ^iov ddavdrw t,wr\ irpoaridevraL- 6 he 

" oi) Arm. 
'' TTpo€tpri(j.€vwv Cat. Burney : rrpoaX-^nfiaros Cod. Palat. 

SUPPL. II I 225 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

(f)avXos CKXeLipLV dvaSex^rai jliovov" Ai^ov dperqg imofievajv aSta- 
ararov fidXXov rj airoiv koX ttotwv. 

Wendland, p. 82, from Frocopius, Cod. Aug. f. 1 15' (Migne, 
p. 410). 



172. (Gen. xxv. 31) 

To /Ltev pTjTOV ota to) SoKetv 
€fi(f)aLV€i TrXeove^lav vewrepov 
(T(f>€TepL^ea9ai * dSeA^ou SiVaia 
TTodovvTOS- *0 Se aTTOvhalos ov 
TrXeoveKTTjs are oAiyoSeta? /cat 
iyKparelas iraipos. Sa0a;? ovv 
6 eTnardixevos otl at d(f)9ovot, 
irepiovaiaL rcov ^avXoiv xopT]yol 
rcbv dixaprrjiidrcov /cat dSt/CT/- 
jjidrcDV avTols elaiv, dvay/catdra- 
rov ■f)y€Lrai Trjv TTpoaavacjjXeyov- 
aav vXrjv, (Ls trvpos, ttjs /ca/cta? 
d(f)aip€lv els jSeATtcoCTtv rjdwv 
07T€p oil jSAd/STjv dAAd fieylaTTjv 
<l)(f>eXeiav Treptrrotet rco ^rjiMiova- 
dat, So/couvTi. 

Harris, p. 40, from Cat. 
Lips. 1, col. 316, and Cat. 
Burney, f. 55, OtAcovos em- 

OKOTTOV. 



Ao/cei 8e to pt^rov TrXeov- 
i^lav ifi,(f>aLV€LV rod 'la/ccujS, oirep 
dXXorpiov arrovhaLOv, etrrep oAt- 
yoSeias' /cat iyKparelas iraipos 
/cat (l}(f)eX7]riK6s iortv iv rols 
fidXtara. HacfxjJs ovv eTTiard- 
fievos on at d(f>dovoL Tvepiovalai 
TTavrX (f)avX(x) x^PVY^'- '''^^ 
dfiaprr] fidr ojv /cat dSiKTrjudrcov 
etCTt'v, dvay/caiOTaTov -qyelrai 
rrjv TTpoaavacfjXeyovoav vXrjv, (Ls 
TTVpos, rrjs KaKtas d^atpetv els 
^eXrlcoatv rjdiov' orrep oi) j8Ad- 
jS-jyv dAAd ixeyianqv w^eXeLav 
TTepLTTOteZ ra> ^rjfXLovadaL 8o- 
Kovvri. 

Wendland, pp. 82-83, 
from Frocopius, Cod. Aug. 
f. 115^ (Migne, p. 412). 



173. (Gen. xxv. 32) 'ISoiJ eyw TTopevopiai reXevrdv. Adyidv 
eari ro elprjpLevov. "Ovrcos yap 6 rov (f)avXov ^ios eirl ddvarov 
arrevSeL. Ov (ftrjal be " iva rt /xoi npcororoKia," fxerd TrpoadrjK-qs 
8e rov " Taura," o eori rd vpos dperrjv dyovra /cat evhaip,oviav. 
"E^OJ ydp, (f)r]OL, e^aipera erepa' ro rjheadai, ro emOvpieZv, ro 
dKoXaaratveiv , ro rrXeoveKreZv /cat daa rovrcov d8eX(f)d. 

Wendland, p. 83, from Frocopius, Cod. Aug. f. 115^' 
(Migne, p. 411). 



174. (Gen. xxv. 34) Kat e(f)avXiaev 'Haau rd TrpcororoKia. 
Ka/ct^€t yap aiairep 6 darelos rd rod <f>avXov, /cat d <f)avXos rd 



* fiovov om. Nicephorus. 
226 



^ +d8t/ccDs Cat. Burney. 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

Tov dareiov Kal ^ovXevfiara koI TTpd^eis koI Xoyovg. * Aavfi(f>covov 
yap dpfiovia Trpos dvapfioarlav. 

Wendland, p. 83, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 115^ 
(Migne, p. 411). 



179. (Gen. xxvi. 3) 

Met^ov dvdpoiTTCp KaKov d<f>poavvr)s ovSdv iari, to thtov tov 
XoyioTLKov yevovs, rov vovv, ^Tjp.t.cod4vTL. 

Harris, p. 69 (" unidentified," but located by E. Brehier), 
from Dam. Par. 363 and Cod. Reg. 923, f. 76, " in both cases 
as from the sixth book of the Questions on Genesis." 



180.^ (Gen. xxvi. 36) 

(a) * A8La(f>opovaLV opKwv Aoyoi d^ov- koL Kara, tlvos dv djfxooev 
6 deos, on fir) eavrov; Xeyerai Be ofxvvvat Sid ttjv rjixerepav 
dadeviiav tcov VTToXafjL^avovrcov to? eV dvOpwirov 8ia<f>€p€iv Xoywv 
opKOvs, ovTcos eVi deov. . . . 

Harris, pp. 40-41, from Cat. Lips. col. 319, UpoKoniov, 

(6) 'ETraivei Be Kal rov vldv cos varpcpas d^iov evepylas. Ov 
yap dv jSejSaidrepov ISpvero rds (xed^ dpKOiv yeyevrjpLevas eVi rov 
TTarpos evXoyias rip vlco, el firj kol tovtco rrjv avr-qv dperriv 
TTpooefiaprvpei,. 

Wendland, p. 84, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. 117^ (Migne, 
p. 414 a). 



184. (Gen. xxvi. 5) 

Ata(f>€p€t, hiKauJonara vop.ip,a)v rd /xev yap ttcos SvvaraL avv- 
iadaaOai (sic) <f>va€i, rd 8e vofiifia deaer npea^vrepa 8e rwv deoei. 
rd (f>vcreL, ware Kal rd SiVaiov vofiov. 

Lewy, p. 59, from Cod. Rupef. 148% rov avrov {sc. (^iXcovos). 

188. (Gen. xxvi. 8) 

'EjSpatot 84 <f>aaiv evaxrjfiovcos elpijaOai ro " Trat^ctv " diTl rov 
auvouCTia^eiv. 

Wendland, p. 84, from Procopius 416 b. 

189. (Gen. xxvi. 12) 

Maprvpel 84 rd rrapdv on ru> airovBaCco Kal rd Kard yewpyiav 

227 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

Koi rdXXa <Ta> nepl fiiov euoSei koI ra emyivofieva TroXXairXdaia 
Twv i^ d.px'fjs yiverai. 

Wendland, p. 84, from Procopius 416 b. 



191. (Gen. xxvi. 15) 

(a) Tois yap d^ovXois edos 

fielov Ti drroXnTelv Tciiv /caAcDv 
els evBo^tav avfj,^aXX6fi€vov, ^ 
on prjyvvfievoL (fydovo) /cat j8a- 
GKavia TTJs re Trepl eVeiVous" 
cimpayias oXiycopovaL koi rrjs 
avTa>v (x)(f)eX€Las dfi,€ivov 'qyov- 
fievoL pXaTTTeadai fxaXXov rj v(f>^ 
(Lv ovK eTL^ deXovaiv cvepye- 
TetaOai. 

Harris, p. 41, from Cat. 
Burney, f. 55 b, and Cat. 
Lips. 1, col. 323, OtAcovos 

iTTlOKOTTOV. 

{b) Tt yap CKCoXvev, clttol rts av, tS TrdvrcDV rjXLOicoraroL, rds 
TT-qyds idaai, as erepos evpev npos r-qv rcov nap' vp.lv ainoZs Seo- 
/jLCvcov xpV^t'V; 'AAA' dTTOKpLveral ris' '* Mrj ^t]T€l rrapd ^aoKdvcov 
diToXoyiav evyvuip.ova," t,r)pLiav vnoXafM^avovrcov rds vtto tcov 
^eXrlarcov irporeLvop.evas xdpiras." 

Lewy, p. 59, from Cat. Len. 124, f. 76^. 



or Se ipLTTadels Kal rd p-vq- 
/xeia Tcbv dyaddJv i^aXei^ovai, 
Kav TvxoiOLV ef avTwv w(f)€- 
XovpLCVoi, TTpoTip.d)vres ^Xd^rjv 

p.dXX0V ^ TTJV €^ COV pLTj OiXoVOlV 

evepyeaiav. 'Q.(f>eXovv yap at 
TTrjyal /cat tcDv OuAtcTTtet/x. tovs 
^ovXofjievovs Kcxprjodai. 

Wendland, p. 84, from Pro- 
copius, Cod. Aug. f. US'" 
(Migne, p. 415). 



193. (Gen. xxvi. 18) Ta e'/Ln^payeWa <f)peara -ndXiv copv^cv.^ 



"On (f>va€L (jtiXdvO poiTTOS d 
doTelos /cat €vp,€vr]s /cat avy- 
yvu)p.cov, ovBevl p.vT]aiKaKd>v ro 
vapaTTav, dXXd viKav tovs 

ixdpOVS d|tcDv €V TO) ttoiclv €V 
p,dXX0V 7] jSAttTTTetV. 

Harris, p. 41, from Cat. 
Lips. 1, col. 323, and Cat. 
Burney, f. 55 b. 

<* e'/cet'vcov Harris. ^ ev Cat. Burney : del. Wendland. 

" evyevij Arm. '^ opvaaei 6 'laaa/c Catt. Lips, et Burney. 
228 



'Iffaa/c d)S TTaoLv cov €vp.€vr)s 
Kal npos Tw /jLTj ixvrjaiKaKelv, iv 
TO) evepyerrjaat anovbd^cov vi- 
Kav TTjV €K€LV(x)V KaKLOV. 

Wendland, p. 85, from 
Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 
118'- (Migne, p. 415). 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

194. (Gen. xxvi. 18) 

Kat TO. avTo. ovofiara rideTai, ri/xcov avrov tov rrarepa /cat fxrj 
ovyxcopojv eloaTTav ra> (f>d6va) viKoiv. 

Wendland, p. 85, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 118'" 
(Migne, p. 415). 

[195, see Appendix B.] 



198. (Gen. xxvii. 3-4) 

Auotv ovTcuv vicbv, TOV fiev 
dyadov, tov Se VTraiTiov, tov 
fiev VTTaLTLOV evXoyqocLv (f>7]oiv' 

OVK €-lT€l8r] TOV OTTOvhaioV TTpO- 
KpiV€l TOVTOV dAA' OTL €K€LVOV 

otSc hC avTov KaTopdovv 8vvd- 
fjievov, TOVTOV 8e tols iSioi? 
TpoTTOis dXicKopLevov, ixr]8€fxiav 
Se exovTa acoTrjptas iXTTiBa, el 

fX-q TOLS €Vxd.S TOV TTaTpos' U)V 

el fjLT] TvxoL, TrdvToyv dv etrj 
KaKoSaifMoveoTaTOS. 

Harris, p. 43, from Cat. 
Ined. Reg. 1825 (Mangey 
ii. 676), and Cat. Lips. 1, col. 
330, OtAajvos, taws einaKOTTOV, 
and Cat. Burney, f. 6Q b, 
^lXojvos i^palov. (Harris also 
gives two Latin fragments, 
one from Cat. Zephyri, p. 83, 
the other from Cat. Lippo- 
mani, f. 288 b). 



'O 8e 'lo-act/c ov TTpoTifia>v 
TOV 'la/ccojS TOV 'Horau aVTOV 
rjdeXrjcjev evXoyelv. Hcos ydp 

WV OTTOvSaloS TTpOTLfJidv dv€ix^TO 

TOV VTTaLTLOV ; dAA' elbcbs cos 

eKCLVOS p.€V €K TCOV oIkCLCOV 

TpoTTcov ex^L Tr]v evixevcLav 
ovTos 8e filav e;^et acoT-qplas 
eATTiSa Tas evxds tov iraTpos- 

Wendland, p. 86, from 
Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 1 1 8^'. 



200. (Gen. xxvii. 8-10) 

(a) 'EvreO^e'v eart pLadfxv to tov aaj/uaro? fidyeOos Kal ttjv eV 
KaTaaK€vrjs (jivaiKriv eve^lav 6 ydp ev yripa hvo ttloolv €pi<j>ois 
K€Xpy)P-^vos vpoetp-qfiaoL, rt? dv VTrrjpx^v iv ttj vcottjtl; Kal Tavra 
WV iyKpaTTjs Kal ovk dirX-qoTos. 

Harris, p. 44, from Cat. Lips. 1, col. 331, YlpoKo-nLov. 

(h) Ov Sta/i.d;^ovTai Be /farct tov? outco vofiiaavTas Ttuv yovewv 
ai yvwfiaL, rrpos ev 8e tcAo? eVetyovrai, ttjs fxev ^ovXofievTjs tov 

229 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

dyadov rvx^^v wv d^ios lyv, rod Se rov OKaiov, ttjv drropCav eV- 
avopdcoaaadai ra> iXco) rio els avrov. 

Wendland, pp. 86-87', from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 118^' = 
Cat. Lips. 331 F, 'AS^Aou (c/. Ambros. De Jacob, ii. 7). 



202. (Gen. xxvii. 12-13) 

"A^lOV Koi Tr)V ljL7]T€pa TTJS 

evvoias davfidaai, ras Karapas 
ofioXoyovaav claSe^aadai'^ rds 
vnep eKetvov. Kal tov vlov rrjs 
els dfM(f)OT€povs Tovs yovels^ 
Tifjirjs. 'AvdeXKerai yap vtto t'^s 
irpos eKarepov evae^eias' tov 
fiev yap irarepa eSeSiet, pji] Bo^rj 
(fjevaKL^eiv Kal v(f)ap7Td^ei.v ere- 
pov yepas, ttjv Se ixrjTepa, firj 
Kal TavTT]S vojjiiodfj TTapaKOvetv 
Xivapibs eyKeLfxevTjS' 66 ev dyav 
euAajStos Kol oaicos <f>r]alv ovx 
" d TTaTTjp fxe KaTapdaerai " 
dAA' " eydi rds Karapas eir' 
ifiavTov a^co."" 

Harris, p. 44, from Cat. 
Inedit. Reg. 1825, and Cat. 
Lips. 1, col. 331, and Cat. 
Burney, f. 56 b. 



Qavfiaaros rijs Trpos dfufyw 
rovs yoveXs evae^eias, rov fiev 
Lva fjLT] KLvrjarj, rijs he fxr) irap- 
aKovajj. KaXws 8e ro " eV 
ifxavTov a^oj." Kav yap rjav- 
xdl^r) (f)t,Xoaropyia rfj rrpos ifie, 
ro avveiBos einfiefjiif/erai ws 
a^ia Karapas epyaadfjievov. 
Qavfiaarrj Be koI rrjs evvoias 
■q firjrTjp. 

Wendland, p. 87, from 
Procopius 418 B. 



204. (Gen. xxvii. 16) 

"Q.aTTep rds dXXas dperds 6 darelos, ovrcos Kal rrjv dv8peiav 
Kadapcos evLrerrjBevKws, edv ttov ravnjv eTnaKidt^rj X°-P''^> '<o.i^P<^v 
olKovofiia xPWai, fievcov fiev ev ofiolco koI rijs e^ ^PXV^ npoOeaecos 
OVK dvaxoipcbv, Sid 8e riov d^ovX-qrajv awrvxlas evaXXdrrcuv utaTrep 
ei> Oedrpcp fjLopcfyrjv erepav virep oi^eXeLas rcov opcovrcov larpos 
yap rdju Kara rov jSi'ov 7Tpayp,drcxiv 6 darelos, 6s evcKa rcov Kaipa)v 
(f)povL[j.(jos evepyel rd d(^poavvqs, Kal aco(f)p6vu}s rds dKoXaaias Kal 
rds SeiAi'a? dvSpeiojs Kal BiKatcos rds dSLKias' Kal ydp epel TTore rd 
ipevbij ov i/reuSd/xevo? Kal v^piaet fxrj wv v^piarrjs. 

Harris, p. 45, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 106 ^ Cod. Vat. 
1553, OiAcovos" e/c rov 8' tojv ev Teveaei ^Tjr-qpLarojv. 



* Harris : eVSe^acr^at Cat. Reg. 
rovs yoveis add. Harris. " e^co Cat. Lips, 



230 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

206. (Gen. xxvii. 18-19) 

(o) IlaAiv aTrareajv etvai So^ei rots fir) ttjv /car' dpeTrjv okottov- 
atv OLKOvo^iav. *H Se OLKOVOfiia Trpos ro firj rols dva^ioig blSoadat, 
rd KaXd. Aeyerco /cat KardoKOTTOs GvXXrj(f)9€LS' ovk clfxl TToXdfMios 
TJ d)S T]vrofjt,6Xr]Ka. 

Wendland, pp. 87-88, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 118^. 

(b) AeyeVcu kol 6 arpar-qyos AeyeVco kol arparriyos rd 

Tj TO, TToXcixovoLovvra elpTjvrjv TroAe/iOTrotouvra elp'qvrjv irpay- 

TTpayfiaTevojxevos ^ rd elpijVTjS /xareud/xevo? rj rd elpiqvaZa 

TToXcfielv biavoov^evos' vtto- TToAe/Lteiv eyvcoKws. OuSev kco- 

hveadoj KOL ^aaiXevs ISlcotov Xvaet, Kal jSaaiAe'a ISlcotov 

axfjii-a €L p.r] hvvairo irepcos to (^XVH-^ Xa^elv rols vtttjkools to 

ovp,(f>€pov Tjj T€ dp-xji Kal TOLS ovpL^epov drjpcoiJievov Kal tov 

virqKoois Xa^ilv Kal 6 heoTTOTqs BeaiTOTrjv oiKeTOv firjSev dyvoelv 

8ovXov, elvcKa tov fjLrjbev dy- ideXovTa tcov Kard tov oIkov 

vorjaai tcuv /card Tr)v olKiav Bpcofievcov. 

hponi4vcx)v. Wendland, p. 88, from 

Harris, p. 45, from Mai, Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 

Script. Vet. vii. 106 e Cod. 118^. 
Vat. 1553, OiAcuvos" eV tov h' 
TcDv €V Veveaei ll,r]Tr)fidTiov. 

207. (Gen. xxvii. 20) 

Ou ydp e(f>daa€ xP'^^^v jrpoarjKOvra KvvTjyeTr). 
Wendland, p. 88, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 119'' 
(Migne, p. 419). 

208. (Gen. xxvii. 20) 

'O Se 6€0(l)LXrjS €7tI deov rrjv aiViav dvdyei Sid rrjs dTTOKpiaews. 
Wendland, p. 88, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 119'" 
(Migne, p. il9). 

210. (Gen. xxvii. 22) 

Ttjv evae^rj (f)covrjv ovk dv Xexd^lcrav vtto tov 'ilaav T17V " o 
7rap48coK€v 6 deos evavriov fxov " imyvovs 'Icrad/c elne rd irpo- 
KCLfxevov, w Kal fxapTvpelv €olk€V tj ypa(f)r) (f>daKovaa irepl pLovcov 
TcDv xeipcov OTL *' T^crav at ;^€t/)e? tov 'laK'cojS cos al ;^etpe? 'Ilaau 
TOV dheX(f>ov avTov SoCTetat," ovkItl hk Kal nepl (fyiovrjg ro ofxoiov 
ov ydp iv tStOTT^Tt 7Tpo(f)opds dAA' eV rots XexdcloLV -^v rj (fxjovrj. 

Wendland, pp. 88-89, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 119'" 
(Migne, p. 419). 

231 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

211. (Gen. xxvii. 23) ^ ^ 

Ta aura Kad-qKOvra'^ ttoXXolkis evefyyovaiv 6 re dcrTctos Kal 6 
(jjavXos, aAA' ovK dno rrjs avTrjs Siavoias dfji(f>6T€pot^- 6 fxev yap 
Kpivoiv on KaXov, 6 Be fjLOxdrjpos" fJivco^xevos tl rwv els TrXeove^iav. 

Harris, p. 70 (" unidentified," but located by E. Brehier), 
from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 100 e Cod. Vat. 1553, Ot'Awvos- 
e'/c r(x>v 8' ev Tev. ^-qr-qfi., and from Cod. Rupef. f. 337 b. 

227. (Gen. xxvii. 34) 

OvK errl toj firj rvx^lv^ rcov evXoyiwv ovrco bvaxepaivei. cos €ttI 
rw Tov d8eX<f)6v avTOv' d^icodrjvaL. BdoKavos yap cov emfjie- 
XeoTepov TxpoKpiveL rrjs ISias (h^eXeias rrji' eKeivov ^7jfj,iau. Tavra 
yap eix(f>alveraL Sta rov fxeya /cat iriKpov dvoifiio^ai ^ Kal eTTiXeyeiv 
** J^vXoy-qoov Brj^ /cat e/xe, Trdrep." 

Harris, p. 46, from Cat. Ined. Regia, 1825 (Mangey ii. 676), 
and Cat. Lips. 1, col. 339, Upokottlov, and Cat. Burney, f. 57 b, 
OiXwvos e^paiov, also in Wendland, pp. 89-90, from Pro- 
copius 421 c. 

228. (Gen. xxvii. 35) 

'AAA' el ye fierd 86Xov eXa- Uu>s ovv eTn<j>epeis' " Kat 

^ev, eiTTOirLS dv,^ OVK eTTaiveros. evXoyrjfxevos earai"; Alvir- 

Tt ovv ^7)01- " Kai evXoyr^- rerai rolvvv cos ov irds 86Xos 

jxevos earaL^ " ; 'AAA' eoiKev VTrairios. Toiaura yap /cat rd 

alvirreadai hid rov XexOevros Xeyofieva arpar-qyrjpiara, /cat 

OTt ov TTas hoXos VTrairios eoriv, errl rcov dOXrjrcov ofjLoicos ot fierd 

€7Tel Kal Xrjards vvKT0(f>vXaKes, SoXov VLKcovres davjjid^ovrai 

'Kal TToXepLLOVs arparT]yoL, ovs are<j>avovpievoi- ols laobwafxet 

dBoXcos auAAajSetv ovk eariv, rd " fierd boXov " rep " puerd 

evehpevovres Karopdovv hoKOvai. rexvT]S." OvSev Se drexvcos 6 

Kat ra Aeyd/xeva arparrjyqfxara OTTOvBalos TTOiel. 

roiovrov Xoyov ex^i /cat ra rcov Wendland, p. 90, from 

ddX-qrcov dycovtapiara' Kal ydp Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 



eiTL rovrcov i] aTrarr) vevopnarai 



12P. 



" KaQrjKovrcos Cod. Rupef. '' dp,(f>6repoi om. Cod. Rupef. 

" ixoxdrjpcbs Cod. Rupef. 

'^ + (f>aai. Procop. * avrcov Procop. 

-'' eK^orjaai Cat. Lips. : ^orjaai Cat. Burney. 

he Procop. 

^ el-noL ris av] locos eiTTot ris Catt. Lips, et Burney. 

* earco Catt. Lips, et Burney. 

232 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 



Tt/xtov, Kal ol 8i' dTrdTTjS Trepi- 
yevofxcpoi'^ rait' dvTtTrdXcov, ^pa- 
^CLcov d^iovvrai Kal OTe<f>dv<x)v. 
'Q-OTG ov SiajSoAi) TO " /xera 
SoAou " oAA' eyKco^iov laoSvva- 
fiovv TO) " fxerd Tcxvrjs." OuSev 
yap arexvcos Trpdrrei 6 airov- 
balos. 

Harris, p. 46, from Cat. 
Ined. Regia, 1825 (Mangey 
ii. 676), and Cat. Lips. 1, col. 
340, 'AdrjXov, and Cat. Bur- 
ney, f. 57 b. 



" 7T€pLyLv6ix€voi Catt. Llps. ct Burney. 



233 



UNIDENTIFIED FRAGMENTS FROM 
QUAESTIONES IN GENESIN« 

1. Twv (f)avXcov ttXovglos ovbels Koi av ra vavraxov /xeVaAAa 
K€KTr]TaL' aXX' elal vavTCS ol a^poves 7T€V7]T€S. 

Harris, p. 69, from Dam. Par. 362 and Cod. Reg. 923, f. 76, 
" in each case with reference to II Quaest. in Gen." 

2. MeXerrj Tpocf>6s^ €7naTrjp,T]S. 

Harris, p. 69, from Dam. Par. 405, and Cod. Reg. 923, 
f. 105, and Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 99 e Cod. Vat. 1553, eV r^v 
ev FevtCTCt l,T)T'r)ixdra)v. 



3. "Qarrep Kioves oi/ctW oXas virepeihovoLV, ovtcd koL at delai 
hvvdfji€is Tov crvfiTTavra KoapLov koX tov dvdpo)TT€LOV to apiarov Kai 

6€0<f>LX€OTaT0V y€VOS. 

Harris, p. 69, from Dam. Par. 749:= Cod. Rupef. f. 29, 
eV TOV a Tcov ev Feveo-ei ^TjTrjpLaTOJv. 



4. 'Eav TLS Kar' oIklov •^ KOipi.'qv rj ttoXlv tj edvos yevrjrai. ^pov-q- 
aeojs ipaaTrjs, dvdyKT) ttjv oIkLov koX ttjv ttoXlv eKcivqv dp.€LVOVL 
jSto) xprjaaodaf 6 yap darelos kolvov dyadov ioTiv aTraoiv, ef 
€ToipLOV TTjv d(f)^ iaiTTOv TrpoTeivcvv cu^eAetav. 

Harris, p. 69, from Dam. Par. 750== Cod. Rupef. f. 33 b, 
" from I Quaest. in Gen." 



5. ^Avdpd)7Tois TO €vp,€Td^Xr)TOV Bid T'171' iv Tois eKTOs ajSe- 

'^ Omitting the six fragments located by Friichtel and 
Brehier, and printed above. The unidentified fragments, 
which are unnumbered in Harris, have been numbered by me. 

" + ioTiv Codd. Reg. et Vat. 

234 



GENESIS, UNIDENTIFIED 

aiOTTjra av^i^aivew dvdyKT}. Ourco yoCv <f>i\ov^ eAo/xevot ttoA- 
ActKi? Kal ^paxvv riva avrois hiar pLijjavres XP^vov, ovBev iyKoXetv 
exovres d7Tearpd(f>7)fi€v cbael ixdpcov- 

Harris, pp. 69-70, from Dam. Par. 776 (Cod. Rupef.), eV 
Tcov €v Teveaei ^rjrovixevcov. 

6. To iTraiaOdveadai Twv ia<f)aXfJi,€v<jov Kal iavrov Karan€fx<f>€adai 
rrpos Si/cat'ou dv8p6s' to Se dverraiaO-qTcos 8iaK€ladai — dpyaXeairepa 
TTOiet rfj ^vxfl TO, heivd — npos KaKOv dvhpos. 

Harris, p'. 70, from Dam. Par. 777 (Cod. Rupef.), eV rwv 
avTa>v {sc. ru)v ev Teveaei ^rjTrjudrcov). 



7, *J^TT€l8r) TTpOS TToXXa TCOV KOrd TOV ^lOV TV(f)X6s 6 TWV flTj 

7re(f)LXoao(f>r]K6Tcov vovs, XPV^'^^'^^'^ "^^^^ /SAcVoucti rds tcov rrpay- 
fidTcov ISeas npos oSrjylav. 

Harris, p. 70, from Dam. Par. (Cod. Reg. 923, f. 315 b), 
" referred to Philo on Genesis," and John Monachus (Mangey 
ii. 667)=: Cod. Rupef. f. 256 b, eV tcov ev Fev. ^t/t. 



8. 'Ev deep fjiovov TO TeXeiov Kal dvevSees, iv Se dvdpcoTro)^ to 
eViSees Kal dreAeV. AtSaKTO? yap 6 dvdpcoiros, Kal dv yap ao(f)co- 
TaTos dXXos ttTr' ctAAou, " dAA' ov dSiSd/crctj? ovSk avTO(f)vcos' Kal 

et €TTLaTTJIX0VlKC0T€p05 €T€pOS eTCpOV, OVK IjX^VTCOS dAAd fjL€p.adr]- 
fl€VCOS. 

Harris, p. 70, from Dam. Par. = Cod. Reg. 923, f. 335, 
" from Quaest. in Gen.," and John Monachus (Mangey ii. 
667) = Cod. Rupef. f. 262 b. 

9. Jilcodaaiv OL dvOpooTTOi €K vXovaicov ycvofievoi 7T€V7]Tes 
i^aL(f)\'r)S ^ e^ ivSo^cov Kal (xcydXcov dSo^ot Kal TancLvol rj e'^ 
dpxovTcov IbicoTaL TJ e^ eXevdepcov SovXoi, Tals Tvxais avp,p,€Ta- 
jSdAAeiv rd (f)povi]p.aTa, <f)daKovT€S ov. Trpovoiladai tcov dvdpcoTrivcov 
TTpayp.dToiv to delov, ov yap dv xP''1<Jo.crdcLL fxeydXais Kal dnpoaSoK-q- 
Tois /xerajSoAats' koI KaKO-npayiaiS' dyvoovvT€^ irpcoTov fxkv oti 
TOVTcov ovSev eoTi KaKOv ovSe yap rdvavria dyadd, oti fx-qv to 

" Xpr]T€ov Cod. Reg. 
^ dvdpa)TTois Cod. Reg. 

oo(f)coTaTos . . . dAAou] ao(f>coT€pos dXXos dAAi^Aot; Cod. 



Reg 



235 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

So/ceiv ovK dX-qdeta- bevrepov 8e on ttoXXo-kls ravra av/ji^aivet, Sia 
vovdealav, eve/ca rd>u d8t,a<f)6p(x)v e^v^pi^ovTcov ov yap Travres 
(f>ep€iv ra dyadd Svvavrar rpirov 8e, cos €<f)r]v, irpos dnoTreipav 
'qdu>v dKpi^eoTdrr] yap ^daavos ol rrpos CKarepa KaipoL 

Harris, p. 70, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 101 e Cod, Vat. 
1553, Ot'Acovos" e/c rod a' roJv iv Tev. ^T^riy/x. 



10, To eTTiopKclv dvoacov koI dXvaLTeXeararov. 

Harris, p, 70, from Dam. Par. 784 (Cod. Rupef.), ck tcov 
iv Teveaei ^rjrrjiJidTcov, " also Dam. Par. 751 (Cod. Rupef,), 
apparently referred to the Questions on Exodus," 



11. 01 iavrwv fiovov eve/ca Travra TTpdrrovres ^lAourtai', " 
fieyicTTOv KaKov, eTnrrjhevovoLv , o Trotet rd dp.iKrov, ro dKoivoiv-qrov , 
TO d(^iXov,^ TO dhiKov, TO da€^€S. Tor yap dvOpojTTOV rj <f>vaLS 
KaT€aK€vaG€v ovx a)S to. fxovcoTtKa drjpia dAA' (Ls dyeXala Kal 
avvvop.a, KOLvcovLKcoTaTou, Lva jxrj fidvcp eavTw ^t^ dXXd Kal Trarpl 
Kol ^TjTpl" Kal d8€X<f>OLS Kal yvvaiKL Kal t4kvols Kal toIs dXXoLS 
avyyeveoL Kal (f>LXoLS, Kal SrjfjLOTais Kal ^uAeVais''* K"ai vaTpiSt Kal 
6p,o<f>vXois Kol Trdoiv dvdpcoTTOLS, €Tt, fjuevTOL Kal TOLS jLte'peat tov 
TTavTos, Kal TO) oXcp Koafxa)^ Kal rroXv vpoTcpov to) Trarpl Kal 
TTOL-qrij' Set yap elvai, etye ovtcos earl XoyiKos, koivcovikov, <f>LX6- 
Koa/JLOV, (f>LX6d€ov tva yevrjrai Kal d€0(f)LXris/ 

Harris, p, 71, from John Monachus (Mangey ii. GS^), and 
Mai, Script. Vet. vii, 108 e Cod, Vat. 1553, eV rod j8' tu)v ev 
Tev. ^TjiTT/jLtarcov, and Cod, Reg, 923, f. 20 b, OiAcovos. " Maxi- 
mus (ii. 686) gives the first sentence . . , Further in Dam. 
Par. 721 the whole passage is ascribed to the Abbot Isaiah." 

12. TpeTTTOi TToXdrpCTTTov Stave pa)VT€S fiiov, Kal ovp.<f)opds Kad- 
Tjixepav e'veiAou/Ltevot, rjKiara rrjs evSaifiovias rj<j}lxOai^ riva rrpo 
reXovs VTroXapu^dvojxev . 

Harris, p. 71, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 102 e Cod. Vat. 
1553, ^iXoivos' €K rd)v ev Fev. ^Tjrrjfx, 

"■ (f)LXavrca ro Cod. Vat. : (f)iXavrias Maximus, 
* TO a^tAov om. Cod. Vat. " Kal purjrpl om. Cod, Vat, 

^ Kal ^I'Aots . . . (f>vX€rais om. Cod. Vat. 
eTt . . . Kocrfxci) om. Cod, Vat. 
. . . d€0(f>iX-qs om. O 
d(f)lxdai con. Harris. 
236 



GENESIS, UNIDENTIFIED 

13. TivyKpvTTTeraL Sia <j>iXLav vodov Trpdyiiaros Koi dBoKifiov" 
TO yv-qaiov kol SoKificorarov. 

Harris, p. 71, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 103, OtAcuvos- eV 
Tov 8' TU)v eV Fev. tprir-qyi,. 

14. Tou? dp^avTas etre rojv dyadwv etre Kal TTOvrjpcov jSouAeu- 
ixdrcov, Kal fidXiora orav e^appLOO-Q rols ^ovXevpiaai rd epya, taovs 
rjYtjreov tols Kal reXeLcoaaaiv avrd- to p.kv yap /at) ^ddoai rrpos to 
TT€pas iXOetv, erepa Kal TroAAci atria- tj 8e yvwpLrj Kal a7TOv8r) rwv 

7TpO€XopL€V(jOV e(f>daK€V SvvdpLCl Kal TTpOS TO 7T€paS. 

Harris, p. 71, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 105 e Cod. Vat. 

1553, OlXcOVOS' €K tov j3' TCJV €V TeV. ^TjTTjp,. 

15. O €vXa^€OT€pos TpoTTOS ovx ovTcjs €ttI Tols iSiois dyaOoLS 
yeyrjdev (Ls ctti tois tov neXag KaKols dviaTat rj (l>o^€.lTai- dviaTai 
fiev ot' dvd^Los ctjv drvx'p, <i>ofieLTaL 8e ot dv irrLTrjSecDS KaKOTradfj. 

Harris, p. 71, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 107, (S>LXwvos- 
€K rod 8' Tcov iv Fev. ^tjtt^/li. 

16. Tt ovv evedvfiridrj ; oti 8ia to €vap€aT€LV rreiroCrjTai 6 
dvdpcoTTOs, ov KaT dvTiaTpo^rjv, 8ioti eTTOirjoev, dXX' (Ls pcrj ipu- 
fielvav TO ■7T0LT]p.a Trj et? evapeoTTjOLV 7TOL-qa€L. Ylpos ovv to TToirjpLa 
6 Aoyos', WGTTcp ao(f>LCTTr]^ SiaAoyetTai, ov 8l6tl 7T€(f)VT€VK€v 6 9e6s 
aAA' OTi TTpoeXdov 8id pa9vp.iav 8LapLapTdv€L ttjs eyx^iprjoecos. 

Harris, p. 71, from Pitra, Anal. Sacr. ii. 307 = Cod. Coislin. 
376, f. 231, €K TOiv €15 Tev. tv^rjpL. 

17. To. yap TOV TToXijxov dpicTcia Si8a;at to) Upel Kal Tas ttj^ 
VLKT]s aTTapxo-S. lepoTTpcTTeoTaTT] 8€ Kal dyLcoTdTT) TTaadJv dnapxcov 
rj Se/cctTT] 8id to Trai'TcAetov elvac tov dpidfiov, d^' ov Kal rois 
Upevat, Kal vewKopois ai 8€K'dTai TTpooTd^ci. vofxov KapTTCJv Kal 
dpe/jLiJidTcov d7ro8t8ovTai, dp^avTos ttjs drrapxrjs 'A^padp,, os Kal 
TOV yevovs dpxTjydTrjs cariv. 

Harris, pp. 71-72, from Cramer, Catena in Heb. p. 580, e 
Cod. Paris 238, "... seems to belong to the Questions on 
Genesis xiv. 18, being found in a codex which quotes the 
Questions on Gen. iv. 4 and seems to have no other Philonea. 
This part of the Questions is lost in the Armenian." 

« 1. dhoKipLOV (?). 

237 



EXODUS, BOOK I 

1. (Ex. xii. 2) 

'Orav ol roiv aTraprGiV KapTrol reXcLiodcjaiv , ol ra>v SevSpcov 
yeveaeois o.px'^v Xafi^dvovaiv Iva hoXtx^voiaiv at rov deov ;(apiTe? 
rov alwva, Trap" aXXoiV aAAat 8taSe;!^d/Ltevat kol avvairrovaaL reXrj 
fiev apxcus, dpxo.s 8e reXeatv, dreXevTTjTOL loaLv. 

Harris, p. 47, from Dam. Par. 789== Cod. Rupef. f. 142 b, 
€K rod a rwv iv 'E^dSo). 

6. (Ex. xii. 4b) 

'T7re/3j3oAat /cat iXXelijieLS dviaoTTjra iyevvrjaav. ' Aviaorrjs Se, 
Iva avros fivdiKOirepov XPV'^^H-^'''* '^^^^ dvd/xaCTiv, ixrjTrjp aSt/cia? 
ioriv, (hs eixrraXiv taorrjs BiKaLoavvqs' virep^oXrjs Se Kal iXXelipecos 
fjueaov TO avrapKes' iv ol to Upov ypafx^ia Trepiex^Tat to " fjurjbev 
dyav.'* 

Harris, p. 47, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 106 « Cod. Vat. 
1553, OiAcovo?" €K rov a rcov iv 'E^dSo) ^-qrrjfidrwv. 

7. (Ex. xii. 5a) 

(a) Aiyerai vvo <f>vaiK<x>v dvSpdJv, ovSev erepov etvac OrjXv ^ 
dreXes dpaev. 

Harris, p. 47, from Dam. Par. 777 = Cod. Rupef. f. 134, 
eV rcov iv 'E^dSco (,r)rr)p.draiv, and Anton Melissa, Migne, 
col. 1088. 

(6) "Eviot npoKoif/avres eV dperrjv VTrevoarrjoav Trplv i^iKiadai 
rov riXovs, rr)V dpri (f>voixivrjv dpioroKpdreiav iv ifjvxjj KadeXovarjs 
TTJs TTaXaids oXiyoKpareias,^ rj vpos oXiyov -qpefxi^aaaa TrdXiv i^ 
VTrapx'fjs fierd vXeiovos Swdfiecos dvreTriOero. " 

Harris, pp. 47-48, from Dam. Par. 343, and Cod. Reg. 913, 

* edd. : xRV^^ofxai Cod. Vat. 

^ TToAaids dXiyoKpareias] oxXoKparias Anton Melissa. 

" ivairidero Dam. 

238 



EXODUS, BOOK I 

f. 84, eV Tov a' TcDv ev 'Efay^ [sc. 'E^aycoy^ = 'E^oSoj] t,r]Trjfid- 
Tcov, and Anton Melissa (Migne, col. 1117). 



19. (Ex. xii. 11) 

At fxev yap ^cDvat oraacv ifjL(f)ai,vovai Kal ativaycoyi^v -qSovajv 
Kai TcDv dXXojv TTaduyv d riots dvexTO kol K^xaXaaro' ovk d-no 8e 
OKOTTOv TTpoaedrjKe rd Seiv ^covvvadai Kara rrjv 6a(f>vv d ydp tottos 
€K€lvog ei? (ftdrvrjv dTTOKeKpirai 7To\vK€<f)dXa) dpep,fxaTL twv iv -qfxZv 

€VLdviJ.lCOV. 

Harris, p. 48, from Pitra, Anal. Sacr. ii. 313 e Cod. Vat. 
1611, f. 181. 



21. (Ex. xii. 17) 

"AvSpe? dyadoL, TpoviKorrepov elnetv, /ciove's" eicrt Biqixcov oAcdv, 
UTTepet'Sovre?, KaOaTrep oiKias fxcydXas, rds ttoXcls Kal rds ttoXi- 
r€ias. 

Harris, p. 48, from John Monachus (Mangey ii. 661) = 
Cod. Rupef. f. 33 b, ck tov Uepl fiedrjs, and Cod. Riipef. f. 
200 b, and Anton Melissa (Migne, col. 1105). 

" KpciTToves Cod. Rupef. 



239 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

1. (Ex. XX. 25b) Tt iari' "to yap eyx^i-pi^i-ov aov'' /cat ra 

Ot rrjv ^vaiv Trapeyx^ipelv roXixwvres Kal ra epya rrjs (f>vo€a}S 
iyX^ipripiaaiv Ihiois /iera/xopt/iowTe? to. apiiavra pnaLVOvai. Te'Aeia 
yap Kal nXi^pr] to. ttjs ^vaews, TrpoadrjKT]? ovSep-ids Seofxeva. 

Harris, p. 49, from Cat. Ined. Regia, 1825 (Mangey ii. 677), 
and Cat. Lips. 1, col. 785, OlXcovos e^paiov. 



2. (Ex. xxii. 21 [Heb. 20]) 

'E(jL(f)av€cyTaTa TraptarTjaLV on TTpoa-qXin-os iariv, ovx 6 nepiTpLT]- 
Oels TTjv aKpo^variav dAA' o ras iJSom? Kal tcls €Tndvp.ia? Kal ra 
aXXa Trdd-q ttjs ^vXV^- '^'^ AlyvTrro) yap to 'EjSpaiov yevos ov 
7repLTeTp,T]T0, KaKiodkv Se Trdoais KaKcoaeai ttjs vrapa rcov €yxcopi-<j^v 
TTipl Tovs ^evovs chfioTTjTOS, iyKpareio. Kal KapTepia ovve^iov 
OVK dvdyKr) fiaXXov tj edeXovaico yvcojjLr) Sid ttjv €ttI tov ocoTrjpa 
deov KaTa^vy-qv, os e^ dTrdpcuv Kal dfxrixdvcov €Tn7T€fnpas ttjv 
evepyeriv Swa/xtv ippvaaro tovs iKeras."' Aid tovto Trpoarid-qaLV 
" 'T/xets yap otSare ttjv i/jvxtjv tov TrpoorjXvTOv." Tt? Se TTpoarj- 
XvTov Stdi'ota iariv; 'AAAorptajats ttjs TToXvdiov bo^rjs, oIk^lcools 
8e Trjs npos tov eva Kal Trarepa twv oXcov TLfxrjs. ^evTepov enr]- 
AuSaj evioi KaXovoL tovs ^evovs. Hevot Se Kal ol Trpos ttjv dX-qdeiav 
avTOfjLoXrjKOTes, tov avTov Tpovov rots e'v AlyvTrnp ^evtreuaacrtv. 
OuToi fx,€V yap ivqXvbes x^P^^> ^KeXvot Se vofxlfxcov Kal edcov eloL,^ 
TO Se ovofia Kotvov e'/care'pojv " eTTTjXvBojv " VTToypd(f>€T ai. 

Harris, pp. 49-50, from Cat. Reg. 1825 (Mangey ii. 677), 
and Cat. Lips. 1, col. 810, OtAcovo? ejSpaiov, and Cat. Burney, 
f. 13 b. The variant reading is in Wendland, p. 95, from 
Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 217^ (Migne, p. 622). 

" otVeVaj Cat. Lips. 

* ovTOL fxkv . . . etat] ov tov avrov Tpoirov, avrol fiev yap 
Xa)pcLS, ol Se TTpos avTovs tovrcs vopaov Kal TroAtreta? Procopius. 

240 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

3. (Ex. xxii. 22 [Heb. 21]) ^ 

(a) OvSeva ix4v, ouSc" tcov dXXcjv, ovre appeva ovre d-qXeLOV, 
a.(j>ir)at,v ahiK^iv 6 vofxos.^ 'Efaiperou 8e Trpovoias /neraSiScuatv 
X^po-^S KoX 6p(f>avol9,'' €7T€lB7] tovs dvayKaiovs ^orjOovs Kal KrjSe- 
pLOvas d(f)r]pr]VTai, XVP^*- /^^^ dvbpas, op^avol 8e yovels.'^ BouAerai 
yap Trj <f>vatKfj kolvcovio. ;(;pcuju,e vows' ra? evSet'as utto tcDv eV irepi- 
ovaia dvaTrXrjpovaOai. * 

Harris, p. 50, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 104 e Cod. Vat. 
1553, Ot'Acuvos* eV tou reXeirraiov tcDv eV 'E^o8a> ^lyTi^^aTcov, 
and Cod. Reg. 923, f. 32 b, and Cod. Rupef. f. 220 b, and 
Cat. Ined. Reg. 1825 (Mangey ii. 678), and Cat. Lips. 1, col. 
805, and Cat. Burney, f. 136. The variant to the first part 
of the second sentence is in Wendland, p. 95, from Pro- 
copius, Cod. Aug. f. 217^ (Migne, p. 622). 

(6) M^'u^ai Se, orav TrpoaKoXXrjdcoaL deep, €k yvvaiKcov yivovrai 
TTapOevoi, rds p.€v yuvaiKcoSei? diro^aXXovaai <f>dopds twv iv 
aladrjaic /cat vadef Trjv 8e dipevorov^ Kal dpLiyrj TrapOevov, dp€- 
OKCiav deov, pLeraSicoKovcn' Kara \6yov ovv at roLavrai tpv^al 
Xrjpevovaiv, dv8pa rov rrjs (f)va€ios opdov vopLOV TTpoaavpi,^LOvaiv 
Kai TTaripa rov avTOV, d XPV 'rrpdrreiv napayyeXXovra Kaddirep 
iyyovoig p.erd rrjs dvajrarcu KrjBepiOVLas. 

Harris, p. 51, from Pitra, Anal. Sacr. ii. 308 e Cod. Coislin. 
276, f. 183. 

4. (Ex. xxii. 23 [Heb. 22]) 

Kai KaKovv d-rtayopevii ov roaovrov rrjv acopLaTLKrjv KaKcoaiv 
oaov rr]v iJjvxi-K'qv. 'Op^avots yap yivdadco pirjbels d(f)poavvrjs rj 
d/foAaai'as' StSdaKaAo?, dAAd raJv ivavrioiv, e'v oaco rds ^vxds 
exovmv dnaXas Trpo? rrjv rcov Oeicov xo-po-KTqpwv vjtoBoxtJv. 

Wendland, p. 95, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 217^ 
(Migne, p. 622). 

6. (Ex. xxii. 28b [Heb. 27b]) , , , 

(a) rTpovociTat rcov iStaJTcDv cos p-rj TTepiTTiTTTOLev dvrjKearoLS 

" ovbdva . . . oi58e] ov 8vvap,€vov 8e Cod. Vat. 

* ouSeVa . . . v6p.os om. Codd. Reg., Rupef., et Catt. Ined. 
Reg., Lips., Burney. 

" i^aiperov . . 6p<l)avois] i^aiperov be Trpovoias 8id rrjv 
€prjp.Lav p.€Ta8t8tt>CTtv 6p(f>avoLS t€ Kal XVP^'-^ Procopius. 
•* eTT€iSr) . . . yovcls om. Catt. Lips., Burney. 

• jSouAcrai . . . dvavXTjpovadaL om. Cod. Vat. 
' ex Arm. Pitra : di/javcTov Cod. Coislin. 

241 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 



TLfitopiaLS' OL yap kukios aKovaavres apxovres rovs enrovras^ ov 
fj-era Siktjs dfjLvvovvraL- Karaxprjoovrai Suvaoretais els iravajXed piav . 
'Ettci, (f>r]mv, ov trepl iravTOS dpxovros eoiKe vopLodereiv aAA' 
cucravet roiJ Aaou rovbe t] edvovs rj-yefMOva aTTOvSalov inTorldeTai,,^ 
8ia TrXeiovcov, KaraxprjarLKcbs Se Svvarovs rj Upets t] 7Tpo(f)i]ra9 rj 
ayiovs dvSpas ws Miovaea. " 'ISou yap, W-qko. ae deov Oapacu," 
iXexOf) Trpos M^oiiJarjv. 

Harris, p. 51, from Cat. Lips. 1, col. 805, OiAtovo? i^pacov, 
and Cat. Burney, f. 136. 

{b) Tcp dyadw dv8pl ^Xaa<f>iq- OuSev ovtcos evdycoyov els 

fiCa fiev dXXorpLov, enaivos he evvoiav d>s 17 tiov evepyeTrjixdrcov 
OLKeiOTaTOV' ovSev yap ovt<ds ev^'qixia. 

evdycjyov els evvoiav cos ev- Harris, p. 51, from Anton 

(fyqfila. Melissa (Migne, col. 1149). 

Lewy, pp. 59-60, from 
Dam. Par. = Cod. Const. Me- 
toch. 274, OtAcovoj. 

9. (Ex. xxiii. la) 

M.drai6v (f)r]aLV ovre aKoais ovre dXXr] tivl tcov alad-r^cecov vpoa- 
ireov eTTaKoXovdovai yap rals drrdraLS at fxeyloTat t,rjixLai. Aio 
KoX Trap' eviois vopLoderaLS drreip-qrai fjLaprvpelv dKorj," ws to fiev 
dXtjOes oxjjei TTtarevofievov,^ ro he ipevSos^ aKofj. 

Harris, pp. 51-52, from Cat. Reg. Ined. 1825, and Cat. 
Lips. 1, col. 807, and Cat. Burney, f. 136 b. The second 
sentence is in Wendland, pp. 95-96, from Procopius, Cod. 
Aug. f. 218» (Migne, p. 623). 

10. (Ex. xxiii. 3) 

Hevia KaG* eavrrjv fiev eXeov xPTlt^'' ^'■^ eTravopdwaiv evSeias, 
els Sc Kpiaiv lovaa ^pa^evrfj xpTJ^at, ra> rijs loor-qros vo/jlo). Gelov 
yap 7) SiKaioavvT] koI dheKaorov oOev /cat ev erepois ev elprjrai 
OTi^ " rj Kpiais rov deov SiKaia^ eariv." 

Harris, p. 52, from Cat. Reg. Ined. 1825, and Cat. Lips. 1, 

" diTovras Cat. Burney. * virepTiOerai Cat. Burney. 

* 810 . . . dKorf] hio Trap' eviots dTteipiqraL vopLoBerais dKorjv 
fiaprvpetv Procopius. 

^ TTiaTovfjLevov Procopius. * i/reySe? Procopius. 

^ odev . . . oTi] 810 /cat etprjTai Procopius. 

" Si/caia om. Procopius, cf. Wendland ad loc, " fehlt in 
fast alien mss. der Cat. Lips." 
242 



I 



EXODUS, BOOK II 



col. 807, and Cat. Burney, f. 136 b. The second sentence 
is in Wendland, p. 96, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 218"^ 
(Migne, p. 623). 



11. (Ex. xxiii. 4) 

'HfiepOTTjTOS VTTep^oXi) TTpos 

TO flTj jSAttTT-TetV TOV ^xOpOV €Tl 

/cat avvco<f)€X€LV veLpdadai.' Scu- 
repov 8e TrapaiTTjais TrAeove^ia?"- 
o yap pirjb* ixdpov ^7]ixlovv vtto- 
fxevcjv riva twv dXXoiv ideXrj- 
aeiev av jSAaTrretv ctt' cbcf)€X€iq. 
i8ta; 

Lewy, p. 60, from Dam. 
Par. = Cod. Const. Metoch. 
274, (^iXcovos. 



'HfiepoTTjTos VTTep^oXrj irpos 
Tco firj ^XaTTTeiv tov ixdpov In 
Koi oj<f)€XiZv TreipdodaL. Ti'va be 
Kal dSiKiqaeiev <av> o firjbe tov 
exOpov ^rjpLLwv; "En Se Kal 
ardaLV Kadaipel /cat Sya/LteVetav 
vpoKarapxcov elp-qvrjs. OtAt/cov 
yap TO epyov Kal rrpos dp.oL^r]v 
€(f)€XK€i. TOV fir] XLav dyvii)fj.ova. 
Aibaxdels Se Tt? /ur/Sc fioaK-q- 
fiaTiov VTTcpopdv TTpos TLVa Ta)V 
dvdpiOTTCov ovK av a.7] (f)iXdv- 
dpwTTos; 

Wendland, p. 96, from 
Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 218'' 
(Migne, p. 623). 



13. (Ex. xxiii. 20-21) 

(a) Ot d<f>vXdKTCos 68oL7TopovvT€S hiapLapTavovoLV TTjs opdrjs Kal 
Xecocfyopov cos TToXXaKis els dvo8ias Kal Bva^aTovs Kal Tpaxeias 
dTpa-novs e/CTpeVea^at. To TTapaTrXrjaiov eoTt OTe Kal at i/jvxal 
Tcov V€(x)v^ TratSeia? dpLOipovaiv ," Kaddnep pevjxa dveTriaxeTov'^ ottt) 
fjLT] XvaiTcXes pcfi^evovTai. 

Harris, p. 52, from Cod. Reg. 923, f. 302 b, " from the 
Quaest. in Exod." 

(6) '0 ireivdjv Kal hiipcov emaTTjprqs Kal tov fiaOelv d fir) olSev, 
Tas aAAaj fiedtefievos <f)povTL8as, eVetyeTat rrpos aKpoaatv, Kal 
vvKToyp Kal fied' -qfiepav dvpcopel to? tcDv ao(f>cov oiVtas. 

Harris, p. 52, from Dam. Par. 613 = Cod. Reg. f. 230. 

" SevTcpov . . . rrXeove^ias ex Arm. con. Lewy. 
* vetov Harris. 



Harris : dfioLpcoaiv Cod. Reg. 
Harris : dverrlaxeTo Cod. Reg 



243 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 



Pdvirrerai Se Sta avfx^oXov 
Kara^poveiv rjBovijs — IvfJir} yap 
rjSvajJLa Tpo(j)rjs, ov Tpoc^T^ — , /cat 
TO firj Seiv v7t6 Kevrjs (f)vacoiJL€- 
vovs ol-qoecos aipeaOai. To 8e 
alfia Tcbv dvoLcov Seiy/Lta ^vxrjs 
ecTTt aTTCvBofjLevTjs deo). Miyvv- 
vai 8e Tct dfiLKTa ov^ oolov. 

Wendland, pp. 96-97, from 
Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 250' 
(Migne, p. 627). 



14. (Ex. xxiii. 18a) 

*AvtI tov ov Set ^vfxojTov 
TTapelvaL eVt rwv dvaial^ofxevcov 
dXXa TTOLvra rd TT/aocrayo/xeva els 
Ovoiav TjTOL 7Tpoo(f>opdv d^vfxa 
Set etvai, atViTTerai 8ta au/i- 
^oXov Svo rd dvayKaLOTara' ev 
fxev TO KaTa(f)pov€LV rjBovrjs, 
Cvfir] ydp rjbvafxa Tpo<f>r]s, ov 
Tpo(f)T]' eTcpov 8e to {xtj Seiv 
eiraipeadaL <j>vaoipL€vovs hid K€- 
vijs'* olijaeajs. 'Avi'epov ydp 
CKaTepov, T^SovTy T€ Koi otrjGLS, 
fjLTjTpos fiids aTTaT-qs eyyova. 
To alp,a TOiv dvaiu>v BeZyfia 
fpvxrjs e'oTi OTTCvSofxevris deco, 
fjiiyvvvai 8e ra dpuKTa ov\ 
oaiov. 

Harris, p. 53, from Cat. 
Reg. Ined. 1825 (Mangey ii. 
678), and Cat. Lips. 1, col. 
816, and Cat. Burney, f. 138. 

15. (Ex. xxiii. 18b) 

(a) KeAeuet rot o-Teara avO-q- 
fiepov dvaXiCTKeodaL yivofieva 
vXt]v tepds (f>Xoy6s. 

Harris, p. 53, from Cat. 
Burney, f. 138, and Cat. Lips. 
1, col. 816, 'AS^Aou. 

(b) ^vxrj TTaaa rjv euoejSeta AiTrai'vet rot? iSiot? opylois, aKoipL-q- 
TO)s cx^L TTpos Tct ^ettt KOL hiavioTaTaL TTpos TT^v deav Tcov deas 
d^Lcov. TouTO ydp to TrdOos ttjs ^vxrjs iv iopTrj jxeyiari} koi 
Kaipos di/j€v8ris €v<f}poavvr)S. 

Harris, p. 101 (" unidentified," but located by Fruchtel), 
from Cod. Rupef. f. 153 b. 

16. (Ex. xxiii. 22) 

OcovT^v Oeov TOV irpo fiiKpov 
Xex^evTa dyyeXov imovorjTeov 



'TX-q Sc TTJs Upas yiviadoi 
(f>Xoy6s. 

Wendland, p. 97, from 
Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 220'" 
(Migne, p. 627). 



Tov 'JTpo(f>'qTrjv cf)aai Tives Kal 
TTJV iv aVTO) TOV XaXovvTos 



Kaivrjs Cat. Lips. 



244 



I 



EXODUS, BOOK II 



fXTqvveadai. Tot; yap Xiyovros 
6 7Tpo<f>rjrris ayycXos Kvpiov 
ioTLV. 'AvdyKT]'^ yap tov aKofj 
aKovovra, Tovreari tov to. 
Xey6fj.€va ^e^aicos Tvapahexo- 
fievov, epyoLS evLTcX^LV to, Ae^- 
devra, Aoyov yap ttlotls epyov 
6 8e Kal TOLS elprjfievoLS Kara- 
TTeidrjS Kal ivepycov to. olko- 
Xovda, avfjifjLaxov Kal virep- 
aamaTrju e^ dvdyK7]S e;^et tov 
BiSdaKaXov, oaa fxkv to) hoK^lv, 
^orjdovvTa to) yvaipLp,cp, to 8e 
dXT]dks TOis avTov Boyfiaai Kal 
TTapayyeXixaoiv, avrep ol ivav- 
TLOL Kal exdpol ^ovXovTai Kad- 
aipeiv. 

Harris, p. 54., from Cat. 
Reg. Ined. 1825 (Mangey ii. 
678), and Cat. Lips. 1, col. 
818, and Cat. Burney, f. 139, 
" glossed by a Christian com- 
mentator." 

17. (Ex. xxiii. 24c) 

TiTTjXaL elcTL TCt Sdy/Liara avfi- 
^oXlkcjs, (XTrep iaTavai Kal 
€pr]p€Lodai hoKel. Toiv 8e 

KaTeaTTjXiTevfievwv Soyjuarcov 
dareia eoTLV, a Kal d4p.is dva- 
Kclodai Kal j8e/3aiav e;^etv tt^v 
Ihpvaiv Ta 8e €7TLXrj7TTa, cbv 
TTjv Kadaipeaiv TTOLelodai Xvai- 
TeXes. To Se " Kadaipojv Kad- 
eAet? " Kal " avvTpL^iov avv- 

TpLtpCLS " TOLOVTOV VTTO^dXXei 

vovv. "Evia Tives Kadaipovatv 
cos dvacT-qaovTes, Kal avvTpi- 
jSouCTiv tils' avdis dpiJLoaofxevoi' 
jSouAerat Se ra KadaipiddvTa 



<f>ojvi^v, ov TTapaKeXeveTai ela- 
a/coueiv. Aoyou 8c ttlgtis epyov. 
'O 8e Kal neiadels Kal rrpd^as 
e^€L TrdvTOis VTrepaoTTtOT-qv tov 
SiSdoKaXov avfifiaxovvTa 8t' 
avTOv TOiS Sdy/iacrtv, aTrep ol 
ivavTLOL ^ovXovTai Kadaipelv. 

Wendland, p. 97, from 
Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 22 1"^ 
(Migne, p. 630). 



Td h6yp.aTa av/x^oXiKcvs, 
dnep ioTdvai Kal epTjpeladat 
8oK€l. Toiv 8e /fareaTT^AtTCu- 
piivoiv^ SoyfidTUiv Ta pikv doTela 
ddjXLS dvaKeladai Kal ^e^alav 
ex^LV TTjv ISpvaiv, to. 8e eTriX-qTTTa 
KadaipeZadai ws fj,r] rrdXiv dva- 
(TT7)a6fi€va ixTjSe dpp.oa6ixeva. 
liOiavTr] yap €fx(f)aai9 tj tov 
" Kadaipojv KadeXcLs" Kal " avv- 
rpi'jScov avvTpitpeis." 

Wendland, pp. 97-98, from 
Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 221' 
(Migne, p. 630). 



" 1. dvayKT). 
^ Wendland : KaTeaT-qXevfievcov Cod. Aug. 



245 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 



rvx^LV dvopOcoaecos dAA* els 
ttTTttv Tj^avtadai ra evavria tols 
dyadoLS Koi KaXols- 

Harris, pp. 54-55, from 
Cat. Reg. Ined. 1825 (Man- 
gey ii. 678), and Cat. Lips. 
1, col. 820, and Cat. Burney, 
f. 139. 



18. (Ex. xxiii. 25b) 

Tpocf)r}v /cat vyUiav alvir- 
rerar Tpo(f>'^v pukv hi dprov Kal 
vhaTos' vyUiav hid rov /xaAa- 
Kiav d7ToaTp€(f)eiv, AevTCpov, 
iyKpareiav elarjyelTai, ttjv tcov 
dvayKaiwv jxeTovaiav, fjiovov 
€TTenT(x)V . . . TTpos he tovtois, 
ixddrjfjia Tjfjids aiaicoTarov dva- 
hihdoKei, hr]Xd>v on ovre dpros 
ovT€ vhiop Kad' iavrd Tp4(f>ov- 
aiv dXX eoTiv ore koX j8Aa- 
TTTOvai fjidXXov T] (h^eXovaiv , idv 
jx-q deios Xoyos Kal tovtois 
XapioTjTai Tds c^^eATyTt/cds" hv- 
vajjieis' 'fjs X°-P^^ aiTias ^"qaiv 
" evXoyrjooi tov dpTov gov koL 
TO vhojp," COS ovx iKavd Kad* 
eauTO. Tp4(f)€LV dvev deias^ Kal 
i7Ti(f>poovvr]s. 

Harris, p. 55, from Cat. 
Lips. 1, col. 820, ^AhrjXov. 



Tpo(f)'rjv Kal vyieiav irrayyeX- 
Acrai, Kal tcov dvayKaiOTaTotv 
fxovojv fjivrjadels ehiha^e ttjv 
iyKpaTciav. Kal fiddrjpia he 
vapehcoKcv alaicoTaTOV, cos ov- 
hev TOVTCov Tpe<f>ei Kad* eavTO, 
jSAttTTTei he fidXXov -q cJocf^eXei, 
fj,T) TOV deov hvvafjiiv dxfjeXiqTiKr^v 
hid TTjs evXoyias rrapexovTos. 

Wendland, p. 98, from 
Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 221'" 
(Migne, p. 630). 



19. (Ex. xxiii. 26a) 

Ayovtav" Kal OTeipcoaiv ev KaTapais tcittcov M.covarjs ov (f>r]aiv 
eaeadai irapd tois Td hiKaia Kal vofiipia hpcooiv ddXov ydp tois to 
lepov ypafxfjia rov vopiov ^vXdrTOvai napex^i tov dpxo-iOTepov 

" Wendland : d^eXiqTiKds Cat. Lips. 
* post Oeias lacunam esse stat. Harris. 
" Harris : dycovLav Cod. Vat. 
246 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

vofJLOV T-qs atfavdrov (hvaecos, os im arropa Koi yeveaet, t€kvojv 
iredri Trpos ttjv rod yevovs Sta/iot^v. 

Harris, p. 55, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 105 e Cod. Vat. 
1553, OiXoivos' €K Tov ^' rojv iv Fevecret [sic] l^rjT-qfjLarwv. 

20. (Ex. xxiii. 26b) 

IldyKaXov Se (f>aaL to y^rjre fiTjal /MTyre iviavrols KarapLOfxeladai, 
rov piov Tcov Ik€tcvv. To) yap ovrt, eKaarov ao(f)Ov rjjjiepa laoTifjiOS 
ecTTiv alcovL. Ey 8e Koi to " dvaTTXr]pa)aw " 8ia rd Kevd (f>povTqa€ws 
Koi dpeTTJs e'v fpvxT] Siaari^/xaTa rov ttpokotttovto'S, ov jSouAerat 
Kaddnep fiovaiKov opyavov hid TrdvTcov -qpyLoadai Trpog fiLav avfi- 
<f>(x)viav ^ovXinfidTcov Kal Xoycov koi Trpd^ecov. 

Wendland, pp. 98-99, from Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 221' 
(Migne, p. 629). 



21. (Ex. xxiii. 27a) 

Kat TOV 0oj3ov dTToareXu) 

■^y0V(JL€v6v GOV. 

To /xev pTjTov €fX(f)av€S' eiV 
KaTdirX-q^iv i)(dpa)v laxvpd hv- 
vafXLS 6 <f)6^os, v<f>* ov fidXXov rj 
rrjs TCOV dvTiTrdXcov €<f>68ov 
pu)fjL7] oAtaKerai. To Se Trpos 
bidvoLav ovTcos' 8volv ouctcDv 



upojTTOi TificoaLV, ayaTTTjs Kai 
<f>6pov, TO fi€v dyarrdv ioTiv 
oifiiyovov TO 8e (fiO^elaOaL avv- 
LaraTai TrpoTcpov, ojore ovk 
drro OKOTTOV XcXexdai to rjyel- 
adai TOV <f>6^ov, ttjs dydTT7)S 
vaT€pov Kal oipk TrpoaycvofMevTjs. 
Harris, p. 56^ from Pitra, 
Anal. Sacr. ii. 31.S e Cod. 
Palat. Vat. 203, f. 261, and 
Cat. Lips. 1, col. 822, and 
Cat. Burney, f. 139 b. 



Kal TOV <f)6^ov fiov dvoaTiXw 
•qyovixevov aov, v(f>* ov fxdXXov 
iq TTJs TCOV dvTnrdXcov pcopuris ol 
TToXep.LOi dXioKOVTai. IIpo- 

T/yeirat 8e tt)S dydirris d (f>6^os, 
Tj ToZs TiXiiois iyyivcTai. Ai* 
dn<f)olv yap Tt/iarat deos. 

Wendland, p. 99, from 
Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 222'" 
(Migne, p. 629). 



24. (Ex. xxiii. 28) 

SJ/MjSoAov be VTToXrjTTTeov elvai 
revs a(f>r]Kag dveXiriaTov bvvd- 
^€(os deia TTopLTrfj cTTaXrjao- 



Ot a(f)rJK€s €$ d(f)avovs ov 
TTpoeibofxevovs TiTpcooKOvai rd 
KatpicoTara, K€<j>aXrjv re koI Ta 

247 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 



Kara Kpdros €7n<f)€povaa°' rds 
TtX-qyas, GvaToxrjoeL Trdai toXs 
^Xrniaoi, KoX hiaOeZaa ovhkv 
avTiTreiaerai^ ro TTapdrrav. 

Harris, p. 56, from Cat. 
Reg. Ined. 1825 (Mangey ii. 
679), and Cat. Lips. 1, col. 
823, and Cat.Burney,f. 139 b. 



eV avrfi . . . crqpLaivoi 8' dv koX 
deiav TTOfjLvqv dveXTriaTov hvvd- 
fj.€(x)S OT€XXop.€V7]s i$ ovpavov. 

Wendland, p. 99, from 
Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 222'" 
(Migne, p. 629). 



Ta yap dr]pia ^euyet rds twv 
TrXeiovwv dvdpcoTTcov olKrjaeis 
cos rjyefjLovcov rfj c^ucrei koX rds 
cp-qpiovs TrXrjpoL. 'AAA' ouSe rds 
TWV elaayofievcov ipvxds (gtlv 
v(f)^ €V aTraAActTTeiv dyvoias Kai 
TrX-qpovv einoTrjpi.T]s. Ov (f>4povoi 
yap ovT€ rrjv eKeivrjs d(f)aip€aiv 
ovT€ Tr)v d(f>dovov TTJs Bi8aa- 
KaXias (f>opdv. 

Wendland, p. 100, from 
Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 222-^ 
(Migne, p. 629). 



25. (Ex. xxiii. 29) 

(a) 'Eav Tov dpri npcoTov 
eloayopidvov Kal fiavOdvovTos 
aiTOvhdarjs, Trdaav ttjv dfiddciav 
iKT€p,a)V, ddpoav eTnaT-qfjLTjv 
elaoLKcaai rovvavriov ov Siavofj 
TTpd^€LS' ovT€ ydp TTjv d^aipeoLV 
evl Kaipo) yivofievqv inropievcl, 

OVT€ TTjV d<f>9oVOV pVjjLTjV Kal 

(jiopav TTJs StSaaAcaAtas ;^£op'j^aei, 
aAAd Kad^ eKarepov to t€ €k- 
Tep.v6pL€vov Kal rrpoaTLdepLevov 
oSvvqOels Kal TrepLaXyrjaas d<f>Tj- 
VLaacL. " To 8e rjovxfj Kal fie- 
Tpicos d(f)aLp€LV fiev tl'^ ttjs 
dTTatSeuCTta?, TTpooTiOevat 8e ttjs 
iratSeias' to dvdXoyov ci^eAetas' 
yevotT dv ofxaXoyovpLevris atrtov. 
Harris, pp. 56-57, from 
John Monachus (Mangey ii. 
663) = Cod. Rupef. f. 137, 
and Pitra, Anal. Sacr. ii. 312 
e Cod. Palat. 203, f. 261, and 
Cod. Vat. 1553, f. 129. " The 
latter ms. seems to be the one 
used by Mai, Script. Vet. 
vii. 100. . . ." 

^ " KaTa^ KpdTOS €7n(f>epovaa ex Arm. conieci : /car' aKpov to 
ovs v7TO(f>€povaa codd. ^ Mangey : drrnreaeiTai codd. 

" direpdaei Cod. Vat. (vid.) ap. Mai. 
^ Ti] KaT* oXiyov Mai. 

248 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

(6) 'O Se dyados larpos ov /xta rjixepa to) vooovvti rravra 
ddpoa TO. vyL€Lvd 7Tpoa<f)€peLv^ av ideXi^aeiev, elScus ^Xd^-qv ipya^o- 
fievos /LidAAov 7]7T€p co^e'Aeiav, ^ dAAct hLayLerprjodfxevos tovs Kaipovs 
iviSiavefxei rd acorijpLa Kal dXXore dXXa TTpoariOels Trpdcos vyUiav 
ifjLTTOiei. 

Harris, pp. 57-58, from Cod. Rupef. f. 137, and Mai, 
Script. Vet. vii. 100 e Cod. Vat. 1553, f. 129 {vid.), and Dam. 
Par. 567, and Cod. Reg. f. 210 b. 



26. (Ex. xxiii. 33b) 

'O.OTT€p ol 7TpoaTTTaiaavT€S , 
dprloLS ^aiveLV ttoctlv dSvva- 
T0vvT€S, fxaKpav Tov Kara Trjv 
dSov TcXovs varepil^ovcn Tipo- 
KapLVOvres'^- ovtco Kal -q ipvxr) 
TTjv irpos euCTC/Setav dyovaav 
686v dvveiv KcoXverai, npoevTvy- 
xdvovoa rals dae^eaiv dvoStai?. 
Avrai ydp elaiv ifXTTohioi /cat 
TTpoaTTTaiapLdTcov aiTiat, 8t' cSv 
KvXXaivcov 6 vovs vaT€plt,€i ttjs 
Kara (f>voiv oSov. *H Se oSos 
eariv r) eVt tov narepa tojv 
oXcov TcXevTcbaa. 

Harris, p. 58, from Dam. 
Par. 774 = Cod. Rupef., e/c 

TOV a TCOV €V 'E^oSoi ^7JT7;/xd- 
TWV. 



TovTO ydp TTaOcbv oSoLTTopos 

7TpOKdpiV€L, TTplv €15 TO TcXoS 

iXdetv Trjs 68ov, Koi ^vxq trpos 
Oeov odeveiv ideXovaa hvaae- 
^€OLV dvohiais Trjs evdeias 

dTT€Lpy€Tat. 

Wendland, p. 101, from 
Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 222^ 
(Migne, p. 631). 



28. (Ex. xxiv. lb) ^ ^ 

Ovx dpas OTi TOV TTvpos 17 Svvapus toIs /xtv d^eoTT^Koai fiepLiTprj- 
fxevov bidoT-qpia Trape'xct 4>cos, KaTaKaUi 8e tovs lyyit,ovTas ; 
'Opa (xri ToiovTov ti nddrjs tjj biavoiq., fii] ae 6 ttoXvs TTodos dSvvd- 
TOV TTpdyfxaTos dvaXwar). 

Harris, p. 58, from Dam. Par. 748 = Cod. Rupef. f. 22 b. 

" €7n(f)€p€Lv Dam. et Cod. Reg. 
'' vyiecav Mai. 

" -npoKdyivovTcs ex Arm. et Procop. conieci : TrpoaKdfMvovTcs 
Cod. Rupef. 

249 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

37. (Ex. xxiv. 10) ^^ 

OvBels avx^joeL rov doparov deov ISelv, et^as dXa^oveia.'^ 
Harris, p. 59, from John Monachus (Mangey ii. 662): 
Cod. Rupef. f. 55. 



38. (Ex. xxiv. 11a) 

To fxkv prjTov 8i-qyT]fjLa <f)avepdv e^et T17V aTTohoaiv cos diravriov 
acocov BiarrjprjdevTcov, ro Se rrpos Sidvoiav to vdvrag nepl rrjv 
evae^eiav av[x<f)c[)vovs^ elvai Koi ev /ni^Sevl rcDr dyadwv biacfxt)- 
vetv. 

Harris, p. 59, from Cat. Reg. Ined. 1825 (Mangey ii. 679), 
and Cat. Lips. 1, col. 829, and Cat. Burney, f. 141. 



40. (Ex. xxiv. 12a) 

'Evt'ots di/jLKopos iyyiverat, Xoyianos, ot npos oXiyov dvaTrrepo- 
^op-ndevTCS avTLKa VTrevoarrjaav, ovk dvaTrravres fidXXov iq vtto- 
avpevres els raprdpov, (f>r]aLV, iaxarlas. EuSaiftove? Se ol jxr^ 
TTaXLvSpojJLovvres. 

Harris, p. 59, from Dam. Par. 784 = Cod. Rupef., ^lXcovos- 

€K rdJV iv 'E^oSo) ^rjTTJjJLdTCOV. 



45. (Ex. xxiv. 16a) 

(a) 'ErapyeaTttTa SvacoTiel 
Tovs iyyvs vtto dac^eias etre 

'^XldlOTrjTOS olofXeVOVS TOTTlKaS 

Kal ixera^arLKas Kt,vi]a€LS etvai 
TT€pl TO deiov. *I8ov yap ifx,- 
<f>avcbs ov Tov ovanohT] deov tov 
/card TO etvat p-ovov cttlvoov- 
fxevov KaTeXrjXvdevat ^Tjaiv, 
dXXd Trjv Sofav avTov. Aittto 
Se 17 TTcpl TTjv 86^av eKhox'Tj' Tf) 
fX€v TTapovaiav f.p,<j)aLvovaa twv 
8vvdp,€cov, eirel Kal fiaaiXecos 
XeyeTai Sd^a -q uTpaTicoTLKr) 
8vvap,i9' rj Se ttj SoK-qaei avTov 
fxovov Kal UTToATyi/ret 86^t)s deiag, 
cos iv€ipydadai Tois tojv irapov- 



dXoyioTLa Mangey. 



250 



'EAe'yxei rovs olofxevovs /xera- 
jSart/cds 8vvdpL€i,s etvai Trepl 
deov. Ov yap tov ovaicoSrj deov 
TOV KaTa TO etvai fiovov em- 
voovfxevov KaTeXrjXvdevaL (f>7jaLV, 
dXXd T-qv 86^av avTov, tj 8vvd- 
fjLecov TTapovolav ip.<f>aLva)v — 
eTrei Kal ^aoiXecos Xeyerat Sofa 

8vvap.LS CTpaTLCOTLK'q — , 1] 86kt)- 

GLV avTO pLOVov Kal 86^r)s Oeias 
VTToXrjipiv, rj Twv vapovTcov cos 
em TOLOVTCp ttjv (f^avTaaiav 
eTVTTCoaev cos tJkovtos deov rrpos 

/Se^aiOTCtTTyV TTLOTLV Tcbv fJLeX- 

XovTcov vopLodeTeladai. 

Wendland, p. 101, from 

* avijL(f>povas Cat. Reg. 



EXODUS, BOOK II 



Toov Siavotaij (f)avTaaiav d(l>i^€<os 
diov, <i)S tJkovtos els ^e^aLOTO.- 

TTyr TTlCmV TCOV fieXXoVTWV 

vofjU}9eT€ladaL. 

Harris, p. 60, from Cat. 
Reg. Ined. 1825 (Mangey 
ii. 679), and Cat. Lips. 1, col. 
382. 



Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 224' 
(Migne, p. 633?). 



(6) "AjSaTo? Kol OLTTpoaTTeXaaTOS ovtojs iarlv 6 delos x^P^^' 
ouSe TTJs KadapcoraT-qs 8t,avoias roaovrov vtpos jrpoaava^ijvaL 
hvvap.ivq'S cos di^ei fj,6vov €TTu/javaai. 

Harris, p. 60, from Dam. Par. 748 = Cod. Rupef. 22 b, 
€K Tov avTov rjroi rod TeXevraiov rcov iv 'E^dSoj ^r]TovfX€vu)v. 



46. (Ex. xxiv. 16b) 

Tov taov apLOfxov OLTreveifie Kal rfj tov Koap-ov yeveaci Kal rfj 
TOV opaTLKOv yevovs eKXoyfj, rrjv e^dha- ^ovX6p,€vos eirihel^ai otl 
avTOS Kal TOV KoapLov €87]p,i,ovpyT}a€ Kal to y4vos etAero. 'H Se 
dvdKXrjais tov 7Tpo(f>-i]TOV bevTcpa yeveais eari ttjs npoTcpas 
dp.eLVOiV. 'K^Sop.r] Se dva/caAetTat rjp,4pa, TavTrj Sta^e'pojv tov 
vpajTOTrXdoTOV otl €K€lvos /x€v €/c yrjs Kal p,€Td acop-aTos avvL- 
ototo- ovtos 8e dv€v aa>p.aTOS' Sio roi p.€v yr)y€V€L dpidp.6s oiKeios 
direvepL^dr] e|as" tovtw Se rj UparrdTT) <f>vais ttjs €^8op,d8os. 

Harris, pp. 60-61, from Cat. Lips 1, col. 832, UpoKomov. 



47. (Ex. xxiv. 17) 

To 8e ethos TTJs ho^tjs Kvpiov 
<f)T]alv ipLcfxpeoTaTov elvai <^Xoyi, 
p.aiXXov 8e ovK elvai dXXd (f)aL- 
veaOai toIs opwoi- tov deov 

beiKVVVTOS OTTCp i^OvXcTO 80K€IV 

etvat, npos Trjv tcov deojpLevojv 
KaTdvXT]^LV , p.r) wv tovto oirep 
i(f>aLV€To. 'ETTK^epei yovv to 
" ivioTTLOV Tu)v vlcov 'lapaTjA," 
ivapyeoTaTa p,T]vvajv otl (f>av- 
Taaia (^Aoyo? ■^v dXX* ov 
<f>X6^ dXr/d-qs. 'Clonep be r] (f>X6^ 



'ESet'/cvue Se nvp Oeos, ovx 
oirep '^v oAA' onep -q^ovXeTo 
SoKclv o 8r]Xwv eTTTjveyKev 

evu)7TLOV TCOV vLwv ^lapaijX." 
To 8e avpL^oXov otl 8a7rav7jTL- 
Kov TO delov XoyiapLcov dae^wv, 
d)S Kal TTJs vX-qs TO TTVp. 

Wendland, p. 102, from 
Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 224'^ 
vid. 



251 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

Trdaav rrjv Trapa^XiqBeiaav vXrjv 
dvaXiOKei, ovtcos, orav €7n<f>oi- 
TTjorj elXiKpivrjS tov deov evvoia 
Trj ijjvxjj, TrdvTas rovs erepo- 
So^ovs do€^€Las Xoyiafioiis 8ta- 
(f)d€ipei, Kadoaiovaa T'qv oXtjv 
hidvoiav. 

Harris, p. 61, from Cat. 
Ined. Reg. 1825, and Cat. 
Lips. 1, col. 832 (Mangey 
ii. 679). 



49. (Ex. xxiv. 18b) 

(a) "Otl efxcXXe KardKpLTos 
ea^adai rj dTTOiKiadelaa yeved 
Koi €vi TeaaapdnovTa erea 
(f>6eLp€a6ar fivpia fiev evepyeTr)- 
deiaa, 8ta fMvpiojv Se imSeL^a- 
fi€V7) TO d^dptarov. 

Harris, p. 61, from Cat. 
Ined. Reg. 1825 (Mangey 
ii. 680), and Cat. Lips. 1, col. 
833. 



Teaaapa/fovra 8e fiivei rds 
-ndoas rjfMepas iv opei Mcovarjs, 
oaa efieXXev errj tcDv ev Tradov- 
Tcov rj dyvco/xcov (f>d€ip€a9ai 
yeved. 

Wendland, p. 102, from 
Procopius (Migne, p. 635 a). 



(6) 'Ywep a>v iv loapldfjLOLS rjpiepais iKcrcve tov irardpa Kal 
fidXiara vapd tolovtov Kaipov, ev (L hihovrai vofxoL Kal <j}opT]r6v 
Upov, rj OKrjvrj. Ttat yap ol vojioi; dpd ye toIs drroXXyfievois ; 
'Yrrep rivcov 8e at Ovaiai; [apa] tcov puKpov varepov <pdaprjao- 
jxevwv; rrpoi^Bei yap cu? 7Tpo(f)'qTr]s rd eaofieva. 

Harris, p. 62, from Cat. Lips. 1, col. 834, UpoKorrtov. (Cf. 
Wendland, p. 102, " Von hier an folgt Pr. dem Philo nicht 
mehr als Quelle "). 



50. (Ex. XXV. 2) 

(a) Trjv Kaphlav dvrl tov rjyefioviKov 7TapeiXr)(f)€v rj ypa(f>t]. 
Harris, p. 62, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 103 e Cod. Vat. 

1553, Ot'Aojvos' eK tov TeXevraiov tcov iv 'E|d8a> ^rjTrjfidTcov. 

(b) Ov yap iv vXais dXX* iv evae^eZ^ Siadiaei tov kojilIovtos rj 
dXrjdrjS aTTapxrj. 'O jirj iK rrpoaipdaecos drrdpxcov deep, Kal dv Ta 



Mangey : evae^eia codd. 



252 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

fieydXa'^ iravra K0^lt,r] fiera tcDv ^aaiXiKCJv drjaavpcov, aTrapxas 

ov <f>€p€t,. 

Harris, p. 62, from John Monachus (Mangey ii. 670), eV 
Tov reXevraiov tcDv ev 'E^oSoj t,T]Trjpidrwv. (I have transposed 
the order of the two sentences to agree with the Armenian. 
This makes it unnecessary to accept Harris' suggestion that 
the last sentence [ov yap . . . d-nrapx"^] is a gloss.) 



55. (Ex. XXV. 10b [Heb. lib]). ^ 

(a) Ot darepes OTpe^ovrat koX elXovvrai kvkXov ol fiev Kara 
rd avrd rip avixnavri ovpavcp, ol hk koI Kivijaeaiv Iblais <as'> 
eXaxov i^aLperoLS. 

Harris, p. 63, from John Monachus (Mangey ii. 670), eV 
TOV j3' cV 'Efd8a> t,r}TrjfjLdTCov. 

(6) *0 rdJv dvd pdiTTOiv ^109, 6p,oiovp,€vos TreAayet, KVfiaTcoaiLS 
Kal aTpo(f>ds TTavroias TrpoaeTTiSex^raL^ Kard re evTTpayias kol 
KaKoirpayias. " '\hpxnai yap ovhkv tcov yrjyevdJv dXX' (LBe Kal 
CKCtae 8ia<f>€p€TaL, ola aKd<f>os daXarrevov utt' evavrtcov TTvevp.d- 

Harris, p. 63, from Anon. Coll. Florilega Cod. Barocc. 143 
(Mangey ii. 674), and Dam. Par. 506, " ascribed to Nilus," 
and Cod. Reg. 923, f. 156 b, " ascribed to the ii. Quaest. in 
Genesim [«icj." 



62. (Ex. XXV. 17a [Heb. 18a]) TiVa tA xepov^ip,; 

Ta x^pou/Si/iA ep/XT^veuerat /xev eiTLyvwais ttoXXt], fj* iv erepots 
ovofxa iviaT-qixr] TrXovaia Kal KexvfMdvq. Su/x^oAa 8e can Suetv 
TOV "OvTos SvvdfjLfcov 7TOir]TLKrjs T€ Kal ^aaiXLKTJs. Tlpeq^vrepa 
be rj TTOL7}TLK-q Trjg ^aaiXiKris Kar^ eTrivoiav. 'Icn^AtKe? yap alye^ 
TTepl TOV deov dnaaat, 8vvdp,et.s, dXXd TTpoemvoelTaL ttcjos t) ttoit^ti/ct) 
T'^S ^aaiXiKris' ^aatXevs ydp tls ovxl rod p.r] ovtos dXXd tov ye- 
yovoTOS' 6vop.a 8e eXaxev ev toIs lepols ypdfj,p.aaLV rj p.ev voltjtlkt] 

" /jLCTaXXa con. Harris. 

* -npoahex^Tai, Dam. : Trpoaevdex^Tai Cod. Reg. 

* Kal KaKOTTpaylas om. Cod. Barocc. 

** TTpayixdTCjv Dam. 

• ■fj ins. Harris. 
^ Harris : o'tc eodd. 

253 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

deos, TO yap iTOirjaai deivai eXeyov ol TraXaior rj 8e ^aai.XiKr] 
Kvpios, iveihrj to Kvpos dvavrcov dvaKeiTai rep PaacXei. 

Harris, pp. 63-64, from Tischendorf, Philonea, p. 144 e 
Cod. Vat. 379, f. 385 (" This and the following passages [to 
§ 99] were first edited by Grossmann in an inaugural dis- 
sertation, Leipsic, 1856 "). 

63. (Ex. XXV. 17b [Heb. 18b]) Aiari xpvoov Topevrd; 

*0 (lev xpvaos qv/jl^oXov ttjs TLfjucoTaTr^s ovaias, rj 8e ropeia rrjs 
ivrexvov koI €TnarT]p,ovLKrjs (f>va€OJS' eSei yap rds npcoTas rod 
"OvTOS 8vvd(JLeis ISeas tScoiv virapxovaa? Kal rrjs Kadapwrdrr^s koI 
dfjLiyovs Kol TL[j.aX(f)€aTdTT]S Kal trpoaeri tt]s iTTLaTTjixoviKiOTdrrjs 
<f>vae(os fJL€TaXax€LV. 

Harris, p. 64, from Tischendorf, Philonea, p. 144. 

64. (Ex. XXV. 17c-18[Heb. 18c-19]) Atari eV dpL<f)OT€pcov rwv 
kXltcov tov IXaaTrjpiov rd x^pov^lp, rjpnoTTe; 

Toils opovs TOV iravTOS ovpavov Kal Koap-ov 8val rals dvcoTarco 
<f>povpais (hxvpioaOai, rfj t€ Kad^ rjv eiroUi rd oXa deos, Kal rij KaO' 
•^v apx^t rcov yeyovoraiv. "E/teAAe ydp cos oiVetorctTOu Kal avy- 
ycveardrov KTTjp.aros TrpoKrjSeaOai, 17 fxev ttoit^tlkt] Iva pLrj XvdeL-q 
rd TTpos avTTJs yev6pt,eva, t] 8e ^aoiXiKT) ottojs p^rjbev pb-qre TrXeoveKTfi 
fiT^re TrXeoveKTTJraL, vopLcp fipa^€v6p,€va ra> rrjs lao-njTos, v(f>' '^s 
TO, vpdyp.aTa StaioiVt^eTat". YlXeove^ia p,ev ydp Kal dvLcroTTjs dpp.r]- 
rrfpia TToAe/iOU, XvriKd rcov dvrwv to 8e evvop^ov /cat to taov 
elpT^vrjs GTTepfiaTa,^ acoTTjpias airta /cat rrjs eladirav 8Lap,ovf]s. 

Harris, p. 64, from Tischendorf, Philonea, " ut supra.'" 

65. (Ex. XXV. 19a [Heb. 20a]) Atari ^t^ctiv " e/cretVet rds 
TTT^pvyas ra x^pouj8t/x tva avaKLd^rj "; 

At p.€v TOV Oeov Trdaai Bvvdp.€LS 7TT€po(f>vovai, ttjs dvoi 77/30? tov 
TTOTepa ohov yAt;^d/Lt€vai re /cat €(f>i€p.€vai,' avaKidt,ovaL he ola 
TTTepv^i ra tov rravros p-epr}- atVtrrerat 8e to? o Koop-os ff/ceVai? 
/cat <f)vXaKTr) plots <f>povp€LTai, hval rat? elprjp^evais hvvdp,€aL rfj re 
TTOiriTLKfj Kal jSaatAt/c^. 

Harris, p. 65, from Tischendorf, Philonea, p. 146. " John 
Monach. (Mangey ii. 656), referring to ii. Quaest. in Gen., 
gives the first sentence, as also Pitra, Anal. Sac. ii. p. xxiii e 
Cod. Coislin. (?), f. 60, with the same reference." 

* 8ia/Liovt^€rai Grossmann. * repptara Grossmann. 

254 



I» 



EXODUS, BOOK II 



66. (Ex. XXV. 19b [Heb. 20b]) Aiart ra Trpoaoi-na els dXXrjXa 
€KV€V€i, Kal dfjL<f)Ci) TTpos TO iXaoTT^piov; 

YlayKaXr) ris eari koX deoTrpcTrrjs 17 tcDv Xexddvrojv eiVcuv ISti 
yap rds Svvdfieis, T-qv re ttoit^ti/c-jjv kol ^aaiXLKrjv, elg dXX-jXa?'^ 
d(f)opdv, rd a(f)u>v KdXXr] Karavoovaas Kal dfxa rrpos ttjv (L(f)€X€tav 
TcDv yeyovoTcov avpLirveovaas' Sevrepov eTretSii) o deos, eis u>v, Kal 
TTOirjT'qs €CTTi Kal ^aaiXevs, et/cortos' at hiaardaai Swafxeis irdXiv 
evojucv eAajSov Kal yap hUarqaav CL»<^eAi/i,a>s Iva rj /xev ttoitj, rj 8c 
dpxj)- Aia<f)€p€i yap iKarepov Kal rjp^oadrjaav erepw Tpoircp Kara 
rrjv TtDv ovofiaTcov dtStov Trpoa^oXrjv onajs Kal rj ttoltjtikt] ttjs 
^aoLXiKTJs Kal rj ^aaiXiKT] ttjs TTOLr^TLKrls exrjrai. 'A/A^orepat yap 
avvvevovaLV els to IXaar-qpiov elKorcos' el fxrj yap ■fjv tols vvv ovolv 
IXeios 6 deos, ovr* dv elpydadrj ti 8td ttjs TTOiiqTLKTJs out' dv 
evvop.rjdrj 8id tt^s ^aoiXiKrjs. 

Harris, p. 65, from Tischendorf, Philonea, p. 147. 



67. (Ex. XXV. 21a [Heb. 22a]) Tt ean- " yvcoad-qaofxal aoi 
eKeldev" ; 

Tvioaiv Kal iinaT'qp.'qv 6 elXiKpivearaTos Kal TTpo(f)r]TiKd)TaTos 
vovs Aa/i,j3av€i Toy ovtos ovk d-n avrov tov ovtos, ov yap ;^ajpi7CT€i 
TO fieyeOos, dAA* dvo tcDv TTpcoTwv avrov Kal 8opv(f>6pa>v Svvdfieojv. 
Kai dyairqrov eKeldev els Trjv ifsvx^v <j>epeodai rds avyds Iva 
8vvT]Tai Bid TOV hevrepov (f>€yyovs to TTpea^VTepov Kal avyoei- 
hecrrepov Bedaaadai. 

Harris, p. 66, from Tischendorf, Philonea, p. 148. 



68. (Ex. XXV. 21b [Heb. 22b]) Ti eart- " XaX^aco avwOev tov 
iXaoTqpiov dvd fieaov rwv x^pov^ip," ; 

'E/x^atVct Sid TOVTO TTpdJTov fjLev oTi Kal rijs IXeco Kal ttjs 770117- 
TLKrjs Kal Trdaris Swdfiews VTrepdvco to delov eoTiv eireiTa he on 
XaXel Kard to pLeaaiTaTov ttjs Te TTOirjTiKrjs Kal ^aaiXtKTJs' tovto 
Se TOiouTov VTToXafiPdvei vovs^' 6 tov deov Xoyos p.eaos iov ouSev 
ev TTj (f>vaei KaTaXeiireL Kevov, rd dXa 7rXr)pd)v Kal fxeoLTevei Kal 
SiaiTtt Tois vap' eKarepa SieffTavai SoKOvai, ^lAiav Kal 6p.6voi.av 
epyat,6pLevos' del ydp KoivcovLas- aiTLOs Kal brjp-Lovpyos elpT]vrjs. 
Td fiev ovv TTepl Tr]v kl^cotov Kard fiepos elpr^Tai- heZ he ovXXT^^hrjV 
dvcodev dvaXa^6vTa tov yvoipiaai X°-P'-^ ti'voiv TauTa eoTi avp.^oXa 
hie^eXdelv ^v he TavTa avfi^oXiKa. Ki/SajTO? Kal rd ev avrrj 
dr]aavpit,6p.eva v6fxip.a Kal errl Tavrrjs to IXaaT-qpLov Kal rd em 

" edd. : dAAi/yoptav codd. * vovv Grossmann. 

255 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

Tov IXaar-qpiov XaASaiwv yXiOTTt] Xeyofxeva x^/oouiSt/Lt, virep 8e 
TOVTcov Kara to fieoov <f>(x)vrj Kal Xoyos koL virepdvo) 6 Xdycov. Et 
§€ TLS aKpi^cJJS SwrjOeiri Karavoijaai ras tovtcov (f)va€is, 8ok€i /jlol 
TTaai TOLS aAAoi? dTTOTa^aadai, oaa ^T^Acora, /caAAeai ^eoeiSearaTOiS' 
TT€pi,Xrj(f>d€LS. S/coTTaj/Ltev 8e CKaarov olov ion. To TrpcjTov 6 /cat 
eVo? /cat /xomSos /cat dpxyj? Trpea^vrepos- "ETT-eira o tou "Ovto? 
Adyo?," 17 aTTepjxariKT] tcov ovtcov ovaia' diro Se rod Oeiov Xoyov, 
KadoLTTep dno TTTjyrjs, axi^ovrai ai^ bvo Suva/i,et?. 'H /xev TTOirjTiKi], 
Kad' ^v ed-TjKe rd Trdvra kol hieKoopLTjaev 6 rexvirrjs, avrr] deos 
ovofjud^erar rj Se ^aaiXiKyj, Kad* rjv dpx^f' fiJ^v yeyovoriov 6 817- 
jXLovpyos, avrt] /caAetrat Kvptos. 'Atto 8e tovtcjov tcov Svelv 8vvd- 
fxecov €KTT€(f)VKaaiv €T€paL' TTapapXaardvet yap rfj /xev Troi-qriKfj rj 
IXeoiS, 'fjs ovop-a evepyeris, rfj Se ^aoiXiKfj 17 vop-oQeriKri, ovofia 
Se evdv^oXov r) KoXaariqpios' vtto Se ravras /cat Trept ravras rj 
Ki^wTOS' eoTt Se KL^cords Koap-ov vorjTOV avpu^oXov. "E;^ei Se -td 
Trdvra I8pvp,€va eV rot? iacoraTOLS dyioLS ovp,^oXi,Ka)S 17 kl^wtos, 
TOV daa)p,aTov Koap-ov, rd v6p,ip,a d K€KXr]Ke pLapTvpta, ttjv vop,o- 
deTiK-qv Kal KoXaaTTjpLOV hvvap.iv, to IXaarrjpLov, rrjv lAeco /cat 
€V€py€TLV, rds VTrepdvco tt^v re TroirjTLKrjv, -rjns iorl ttlotis" rrjs 
IXeo) /cat euepyeVtSo?, /cat ttjv ^aaiXiKriv, tJtls eWt pt'^a tt7S' ko- 
XaoTTjpiov /cat vop,od€TLKrjs. 'Y7T€p.<f>aLV€TaL Se p-eaos iov 6 deXos 
Xoyos, dvoirepoi Se tou Adyou d Ae'yojv eoTt Se Kat d ratv /caTeiAey- 
p-evcov dpidpLOS ejSSo/xaSt avp,TTXr}povp,€vos vot]t6s Koap.os, /cat 
SuvajLtet? Suo oyyyevet? 17 Te KoXaarripLos /cat evepyeris, Kal erepai 
TTpd TOVTCOV hvo Tf T€ TTOirfTiKr] Kal rj ^aaiXiKyj, ovyyeveLav exovaai 
pidXXov TTpos TOV Srjpiiovpyov rj to yeyovos' Kal cktos 6 Xoyos Kal 
e/3So/Ltos d Ae'ycov eav Se dvcoOev ttjv Karapidpi-qaiv ttol-tj, evp-qa^is 
TOV p,kv XdyovTa irpcoTOV, tov Se Adyov SeuVe/oov, TpcT-qv'^ Se ti7v 
TTOLTjTLKTjv bvvapLLV, T€TdpT7)v Se T17V dpx'Tjv, etTtt Se vtto p.€V rfj 

TTOLTjTLKT] 7T€p,1TTr]V TTjV €V€py€Tt,V, VTTO Sc TJ] ^aaiXlKfj €KTr]V TI7V 

/coAaCTT77ptoi', e^SopLov Se tov e'/c tcov ISecov KoapLOV. 

Harris, pp. 66-68, from Tischendorf, Philonea, pp. 148-152. 



85. (Ex. xxvi. Ic) 

To piev yap lyv dAoupyt/cdv, to Se poSoetSe? r] KOKKO^a(f)es, to 
Se vaKLvdo) TTpoaeoLKOs, rj Se ^voaos ttjv XevKrjv €lx€ xpotdv. Kal 
Tavra Se tcov reaodpcov otolx^lcov rjv alvLyp.aTa. 'O /xev ydp 
vdKivdog Tu> dipL rrpoaeoLKe, to Se poSoeiSe? r) KOKKO^a^ks Tip 
TTvpL, TO Se d.AoL'pyt/cdi' pLrjvvei Trjv OdXaTTav — €K€Lvr] ydp Tp€(f)€i 

* Adyou Grossmann. ^ at add. Tischendorf. 

" 7n7y77 ex Arm. conieci. "^ rpiTov Harris. 



'^bQ 



EXODUS, BOOK II 

Tov Kox^ov, e^ ov TO TOLOVTov yiVeTtti XP^H"^ — » V ^^ ^vaaos rrjv 
yrjv €K TavT7]s yap (f)V€adai Aeyerai. 

Wendland, pp. 107-108, from Theodoret, Quaest. in Ex 
odum, Migne, p. 284 d. 



99. (Ex. xxvii. lb) 

OvT€ ttXovtov aa7rdt,erai to deiov ovt€ ireviav d7ToaTp4(f)€Tai. 
Harris, p. 68, from Pitra, Jnal. Sacr. ii. 308 e Cod. Coislin. 
276, f. 208. 



105.^ (Ex. xxvii. 21b) 

OuSev ouTC rjSiov ovre acfivorepov rj deo) SouAeueiv, o kol ttjv 
^eyiaTTjv jSacriAeiav UTrepjSaAAet. Kai fioi BoKOvaiv ol TrpcoToi 
^aaiXels ajxa Kai app^tepet? yeveodai, hrjXovvres epyois on, xPV 
Toiis Tcov dXXcov SeaTrd^ovTa? BovXevetv rots XarpevovaL Qew. 

Harris, p. 68, from Dam. Par. 775 = Cod. Rupef. f.' 113, 
e'/c Tou j8' TcDv iv 'E^dSoj t,rjTr)fidTa}v. 



107. (Ex. xxviii. 2) 

Ad^a, lbs 6 TToXaios Xoyos, i/feuSi^? eari VTToXrjipLS Kai hoKTjats 
dj3e/3ato?. 

Harris, p. 68, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 102 e Cod. Vat. 
1553, €K Tcuv eV 'E^dSo) (,T]Tr]fidTwv. 



117. (Ex. xxviii. 27 [Heb. 31]). 

Aia Toi TOVTO yap tov depos 6 7ToSiqp7]s clxe to xP<^P-o.- 'Ta/civ- 
do? Se -jyv, CO? dv Kai els tovto d(f)opwv fxeTapaios yevrjTai. 

Wendland, p. 108, from Theodoret, Quaest. in Exodum, 
Migne, p. 285 b. 



118. (Ex. xxviii. 28 [Heb. 32]) 

Ot AaAot, Ta 6<f>€iXovTa -qauxd^ieadai prjyvvvTcs, TpOTTOv Tivd 
VTTO yXioaaaXylas rrpox^ovaiv els coTa dKorjs ovk d^ia. 

Harris, p. 68, from Dam. Par. 576, and Cod. Reg. 923, 
f. 231, " in each case headed OiAcuvo?." 



SUPPL. II 



257 



UNIDENTIFIED FRAGMENTS FROM 
QUAESTIONES IN EXODUM« 

1. 'A/i.')7xai'ov dvdp(x)TTLvr] (f)va€c to tov "Ovtos Trpooco-nov 6ed- 
aaadai. To he Trpoacovov ov KvpLoXoyetrai, Trapa^oXrj be ioriv 
els BrjXcooiv ttjs KadapiOTdrr^s koI elXLKpiveaTdrrjs tov "Ovtos 
ISeas, eTTeLSr] /cat dvOpojiros ovSevl yvajpt^erat fxdXXov t] TrpoocoTTio 
Kara ttjv tSiW TTOiOTriTa /cat p.op4>riv. Ov ydp <j>'qoLv 6 deos otl 
" OVK elfxl opuTOS Tr)v ^volv " — tls he fxdXXov opaTOS t] 6 to, aAAa 
TravTa yevvijaas opaTd; — " 7Te<f)VKdjs he tolovtos els to opdoOai 
utt' ovhevos dvdpcoTTCov opuypbal " (f)r)aL. To he aiTiov r) dhwafxlo. 
tov yevqTOv. Kai tva firj TTepnrXeKwv htjkvvco- deov yeveadai hel 
TTpoTepov — OTTep ovhe olov re — Iva deov laxvarj tls KaTaXa^eZv. 
'Edv he dTToddvrj fiev tis tov dvrjTOV ^iov, ^1^07) he dvriXa^wv tov 
dddvaTOV, tocos o ^TjherroTe ethev oijjeTat,. At (f)LXoao(f>iaL Trdaai 
/caret re ttjv 'EAAaSa /cat ^dp^apov dKfxdaaaai, t,rjTOVGai ra 
(f)vaecos, ovhe to ^paxvTaTOV '^hwi^drjoav TTyAauya;? tSeiv. lla(f)T]S 
he TTLOTLS at hi.a(f}0)VLaL, at hiafidxaL /cat eVepoSo^iat twv eKdoT-qs 
alpeaeois avao/ceua^ovrcov /cat avao/ceua^o^evajv iiepr]- /cat irdaiv 
6ppii)TrjpLa TToXefiwv yeyovaaiv at tcov alpeotofidxojv oKtai,^ 
TV(f>XovaaL TOV hwdptevov jSAeVetv dvOpojinvov vovv tols dvrtAoyt/cat? 
epiaiv, dfjLTjxo-vovvTa Tiva Set TTpooeodaL" /cat ri'va hicocraadai. 
Act TOV ^ovXofjLevov (fiavTaanoOrjvai tov tcov oAojv dpiOTOv, oTrjvat 
TO TTpwTov /caret ifjvx'^v, ihpvvdevTa rrayuos yvwfir] yua, Kal ynTj/cert 
77^0? TToAAd TrXdt^eadai, eneiTa he oTTJvai eVt cfivoecos /cat yvcLpL-qs 
^rjpds /cat dyovov TrdvTCov,'^ ocra (f)dapTd' edv ydp TrpoorjaeTai ri 
Twv fiaXaKCOTepcov, a(f>aXriaeTai ttjs TTpodeoecjos. ^ AhvvaT-qaei /cat 
TO o^vcoTTeoTaTov ^XeiTov Ihelv to dyevrjTov, cvs TV(f)Xcjo6fjva(. irpo- 
repov 7] dedoaoOat, Std T17V o^vavyeiav /cat tov eireiapeovTa^ x^^~ 
fxappov rcijv /xap/xapuyaiv. 

Harris, pp. 72-73, from Dam. Par. 748 = Cod. Rupef. f. 
22 b, e/c TOV TeXevTaiov tcov ev 'E^dSo) t,rjTovpLevcov. 

" The sections have been numbered by me. 

^ Harris : ot/ct'ai codd. " Mangey : -npoeaOai codd. 

<* Harris : Travrd? codd. * Mangey : d-neiapeovTa codd. 

258 



%. 



EXODUS, UNIDENTIFIED 



2. *H <f>opa rojv KaKicov dvaKVKa /cat arpo^el rrjv ifjvxrjv, IXLyyov 
avrfj TrepLTt-delaa rov KaXvTTTOvra /cat Ka/xixveiv eK^ia^ofxevov ttjv 
(f)vaeL fiev TTpeirovaav oi/jiv, €TnrT]hevaei Se TV<f>\ovfj.€vr]v . 

Harris, p. 73, from Dam. Par. 751 (Cod. liupef.), e'/c tcDv 



8. At vepl Tcov rov deov dperajv evaycoviot t,T]T-qcr€ig ^eXriovai 
Trjv Stavoiav /cat ddXovoLV ddXovs -qBiaTOvs dfia /cat tu^eAt/Ltcorarous', 
/cat pidXiara orav pufj, cos ol vvv, ttjv ipevScovviMov kXtjolv vttoSvo- 
lx€voi fiexpi- rov So/cetv inreppLaxovcxL tcDv Soyixdrcov, dXXd nddei 
yvrjaLcp fier' iTnaTrjp.T]s IxvrjXaTovoLv dXrjdciav. 

Harris, p. 73, from Dam. Par. 774 (Cod. Rupef.), " re- 
ferred ... to the first . . . book of the Questions on 
Exodus." 



4. To e/i/LteAes /cat evpvdfiov ovk eV (f)wvfj fxaXXov ^ Stavota 
eTTiSeLKWodaL TreLpajfievovs. *0 rov ao(f)ov Xoyos ovk iv p-qfiaai 
dXX' iv Tols 8r)Xovfj.4voLS Trpdyfxaaiv imh^iKWOLV to ndXXos. 

Harris, p. 73, from Dam. Par. (Cod. Rupef.), " referred 
. . . to the second . . . book of the Questions on Exodus." 



5. Tou? ivrvyxdvovTas toIs Upots ypdfjLfxaaLV ov Set avXXa^ofxa- 
X^lv dXXd 7Tp6 TcDi' ovofidrajv /cat prjp,dTcov ttjv Stavotav OKonelv, 
/cat Tovg Kaipovs /cat Tpoirovs, /ca^' ovs e/cacrra Aeyerat. WoXXaKig 
yap al avral Ae^et? irepois /cat erepoig rrpdyp-aaLV i<f)apfi6l,ovaLV, 
/cat Kara to evavriov 8ia(f)€povaai Ae^et? eVt rov avrov Tidijxivai 
TrpdyfiaTOS avvdbovaiv. 

liarris, p. 73, from Dam. Par. 774 (Cod. Rupef.), " re- 
ferred ... to the last book of the Questions on Exodus." 



6. llcpUxii- rd TTavra, vn ovhevos irepLexofievog. 'O? yap d 
Torres TTCpuKTiKOS owfjt.dTwv earl /cat KaTa<f)vyrj, ovtco /cat d ^eto? 
Adyo? TTepLex^L Tci oAa /cat TreTrA^pcu/cev. 

Harris, p. 73, from Dam. Par. 752 (Cod. Rupef.), eV tov 
reXevTaiov rcov ev 'R^dSoj l^rjrrjixdTcov. 



7. 'EvTOy (f>€p€L TOV oXcdpOV 6 TT] KaKLO. CTU^oiv eVft OVVOIKOV 

l;^€t TTjv cTTL^ovXov /Cat TToXepLiov. 'I/cavds ydp irpos Tip-coplav -fj 

259 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

Tov <f>avXov avveiSrjcrLS, oiKodcv ws eV TrXriyrjs SeiAiav rrporeivovaa 
rfj tPvxfj. 

Harris, p. 73, from Dam. Par. 782 (Cod. Rupef.), eV toDv 
ev 'E^oSo; ^rjTovjjLevoiV. 



8. Tov <f)avXov 6 ^los €ttl\vttos Koi TTepiherjs, koX oaa Kara ras 
aladria€LS ivepyel (fyo^ois Kal oSvvais avaK€Kparai. 

Harris, p. 73, from Dam. Par. 782 (Cod. Rupef.), " re; 
ferred to Quaest. in Exod." 



9. At TOV Oeov xoipi-T^S ov pLOVov dvayKata Trapexovrai dAAa Kal 
npos 7repLTTr)v Kal Sai/jiXeardpav oiTToXavaiv. 

Harris, p. 73, from Dam. Par. 789 = Cod. Rupef. f. 277, 
" from ii. Quaest. in Exod." m 

10. Mupia ye, ov Xeyco t<ov dvayKaicov dAAa /cat tcDv ^paxvTa.- 
rcov elvaL Bokovvtwv, iK(f>€vy€L tov dvdpwTTivov vovv. 

Harris, p. 73, from John Monachus (Mangey ii. 662), eV 
TOV a' TcDv ev 'E^dSo) tj^T. 



11. Mia dvaTTavais i/jvxV^ eVriv rj KpaTiaTT) els to lepov tov 
ovTos TTodov, rjyepLOVL XPI^^O-'' ^^d> Kal ^ovXevpLaTcov Kal Xoywv 
Kal TTpd^eoiv. . . . H4pas evbaipLovlas to d/cAtvcD? /cat dppeTTois 
iv p.6v(p Oecp aTTjvai. 

Harris, pp. 73-74, from John Monachus (Mangey ii. 669) 
= Cod. Rupef. f. 178 b, e/c tov TeXevTatov tcDv ev 'E^dSoj I^T^rrjpL. 

12, IToAAd dowpLcvois Kol dBrjfiovovaiv edos earl tpevSeadai, 
Twv TTadwv ovK €TnTp07T€v6vTcov dXtjOeveiv et TO ipevBos ot/ceidv 
e'artv. 

Harris, p. 74, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 96 e Cod. Vat. 
1553, e'/c TOV a' tG>v iv 'E^dSo; ^7]Tr]pt,dT(jDV. 



i 



13. To Tcov <j>avXcov d/cpiTov /cat dvLhpvTov ev yvcop-ais Sia- 
avviaTT]aiv pLaxop,€vovs /xev Xoyovs dAAT^Aoi?, pLaxopLevas Se npa^iis - 
Kttt /LtT^SeVore avp.<j)wvovaas iatrrals. I 

Harris, p. 74, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 100 e Cod. Vat. j 
1553, €K TOV a' tG)v e'v 'E^dSo) l-qrqpL. 

260 



[ODUS, UNIDENTIFIED 

14. Td ^ovX-fjiiara rdv ayaQdv Sei ^e^aiovadai reXetrrqaavTcov 
ouSer rjTTOv rj ^covtcov. 

Harris, p. 74, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 101 « Cod. Vat. 
1553, eV Tov a rajv eV 'E^oSa> t,r)Tr)fi. 



15. To jxev " TTpoiToroKov " TTpos TO fir]Tpu)ov yevos, tlkt€i yap 
yvvTf TO re " TrpcoToyeves " Trpos to Trarpwov, yevva yap dppcv 
TO Se " Siavolyov Trdaav p.r}Tpav " iva /xt) yevofxevrjs npajTOTOKOv 
dvyarpos, eW varepov €Tnyevop.4vov viov, tov vlov iv TrpcoTOTOKOis 
KaTapLOfx-qacL tLs, cos ttjs dppevos dpxovTa yeveds' 6 yap vofios 
(fjrjaiv, ov Stotyvwot ttjv p.if)Tpav 6 toiovtos ttjv evdvs eV Trapdevias. 

Harris, p. 74, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 105 « Cod. Vat. 
1553, eV Tou 8' Tcov iv 'E^dSoj Cvt^' " The passage evidently 
belongs to Exod. xiii. 2." 



16. Td /xeVpa TrXcovd^ovTa tov opov vrrep^atvet d)S yiveadai ttjv 
fiev dfi€Tpov (f)p6v7]aiv, Travovpylav ttjv 8k aa}(f>poavvTjv, ^etScoAiav 
TTjv Se dvbpiav, dpaavTrjTa. 

Harris, p. 74, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 106 e Cod. Vat. 

1553, €K TCOV €V 'E^oSoJ ^T^TT^/X. 



17. *H €V(f)vta TrAeovd^ouCTtt ttj pvjxrj rrjs (f>opds npos TToXXd Srj 
TCOV dXvaiTeXiov etcode x^P^^^' ^^ ^^ '''"'S' StSacx/caAtaiS' ovk eActTTO) 
Td OVK dvayKala tcov dvayKaicov eoTi'- 8io TTpoarjKiL tov e(f>opov 
Kal ijj^XV^ v(f>7]yr]Ti]v , atairep yecopyov dyadov, Ta virep^aXXovTa 

TTeplKOTTTeiV. 

Harris, p. 74, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 108 e Cod. Vat. 
1553, €K TOV a' TCOV iv 'EfdSoj ^r]T'qndTa)v. 



18. 'O CTO^iCTTt/fd?, yvcofXT]? cov iTepas, XoyoLS ov crwdSovai 
XpyJTai' Sie^etoi fxev yap aTTvevaTt tovs dpeTrjs iKaaTTjs iTraivovs, 
ola Xoytp TToXvs eVt Or^pa tcov Akovovtcov 6 Se jStos ioTiv avTcov 
TrdvTCOV dvanXeos dixapTrj^aTcov Kal (xot So/cei tcov eVt OK-qvats 
VTTOKpiTcov hia<j>epeLv ovhiv, 61 iroXXaKi'S rjfJieXrj^ivoi Kal d(f)pov€s, 
dvdpcoTTOL 8L€(f>dapfiivoi TLV€S 8e Kal OepaTTCvovTfS, cls -qpcoas 
dcyKovvTar fxLKpov Se voTCpov aTTodifievoi ttjv aK€V-qv, Ta ttjs ISias 
dSo^ias dva(f)aivovoi OTjixeia. 

Harris, p. 74, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 106 e Cod. Vat. 
1553, eV Tou a' TCOV iv 'E^dSoj ^TjTiy/idTcav. 

261 



APPENDIX A, GREEK FRAGMENTS 

19. "Opaais TTapa Tag dXXas alad-qacLS Kal Tavrr] hia<f>€pei on 
at pikv aXXai tols aladrjTols eyKarapLiyvvvTai, olov -q yevois dva- 
KipvdraL TOLS x^^-^^^ '^'^' ""7 oa<f)pr)aLS tols eVavaSiSo/xevoi? aTfiols 
Kal ai aKoal rats (f}CovaLS eKhvopLevais els to. oiTa' ovt€ yap avTrj 
Sta Tov pdOovs TU)v ooifxdTCjov x^P^^> ipaveL 8e tcov i7TL(f>av€Liov 
jxovov Kara ttjv Trpoa^oXrjv, ovt€ to, acojiaTa els ttjv oipLV eiaSuerat. 

Harris, p. 74, from Mai, Script. Vet. vii. 109 e Cod. Vat. 
1553, eK TOV a' TCOV ev 'EfdSoj l,rjT7]fjLdT(x)v. 

20. Ou TTavTcov KOLVCJvrjTeov TrdoLV ovTe Xoycov ovTe TrpayfidTcov 
Kal fxdXiOTa lepdJv TroAAa yap rrpovTrdp^aL Set rot? e<f)Lep,evoLS ttjs 
fieTOVolas TOVTcov TrpdJTOV fiev, to" fxeyLOTOV /cat avay/caiOTaTOV, 
TTpos TOV eva Kal ovtcos^ ovTa deov evae^eiav Kal ooLOTrjTa, ttjv 
enl Tols dydX/jLaot, Kal ^odvois Kal ovvoXws d<j>Lhpvp.aai, TeXeTals 
T€ aTeAeaTOtj Kal /xvaTrj plots dvopyLdoTOis, dvqvvTov TrXdvrjv 
dTTCoaafievoLS' BevTepov 8e KaOapdrjvai Tas dyvevTLKas" KaddpaeLS 
K-aTtt T€ acofia Kal i/^vxriv Sia voficov TraTplcov Kal rjdd)V TpiTov 
d^LOTTioTOV TOV avvaafievLoixov Trapaoxelv eve^vpov Iva jxt) TpaTTet,r]s^ 
fieTaXa^6vT€S lepds, dacjTOiv jxeLpaKlcov Tporrov, vtto Kopov Kal 
TrXrjafiovijs evaXXoLCodcoGLV efnrapoivovvTes , ots ov deputs. 

Harris, p. 75, from Pitra, Anal. Sacr. ii. 308 e Cod. Coislin. 
276, f. 205, eK TOV TrpcoTov TCOV ev 'E^oSco l^rjTrjpLaTcov, and Dam. 
Par. 782 (Cod. Riipef.). 

21. Q>6apT6v KaXd) TOV fiTj e(f>Lefi€vov d<f}9apaLas dAA' ooTpeov 
TpOTTOV ev€LXovfxevov ooTpaKohepitw, oirep eaTvv 6 aiOfxaTLKOs oyKOS 

Kal 6 TOJV dvTJTCJV jStOS'. 

Harris, p. 75, from Pitra, Anal. Sacr. ii. 308 e Cod. Coislin. 
276, f. 245, €K TOV reXevTalov tcDv ev 'E^dSo; t,7]T7]ij,dTcov, and 
Cod. Rupef. f. 240. 

22. MaTaiov ovSev ovTe aKoals ovTe dXXr) tlvI twv alad-qaecov 
TTpoaiTeov eTTaKoXovdovai yap rals dirdTais fidXioTa tcov tjjvxcov 
at t,T]p,LaL. 

Harris, p. 75, from Cod. Rupef. f. 45, eV tcDv ev 'E^dSo; 
ty-qTOvp-evoiv . 

23. Yipos TovTOLS, etnoL tls 'E^e'Aet 8e fJLTjSe x^pt? dyo)- 
dv, ovK e^ovXeTo avTovs KaTa- vwv ttjv KTrjaiv avTols eyyeve- 



"■ Kal Dam. ^ ovtws om. Dam. 

dyvevovaas Dam. ** Tpo(f>rjs Dam. 



262 



EXODUS, UNIDENTIFIED 



reaelv els to pddv}xov Koi Trjs 
eVayyeAtas KaTaKXrjpovofjLrjaat 
TTjv yrjv dycovcov ;fa)pts"' ra yap 
TTovcp KTiqdevTa Trapd rots exovai 
rijxia- TO. diTOVOJS KTrjdevra 
KaTa<f)pov€LTaL paSlcos' odev jSou- 
Ad/xei'o? avTOVS vq(f)€LV Kai iypr}- 
yopevai Kal cvs ^xovTas ixdpovs 
TTpos T€ Tov deov €7naTpe(f)€LV 
Kal TTJs Trap' avTov eTTiKOVplas 
hdodai, rovTo TTOielv enayydX- 
Xerai,^ ofxov Kal yv/xvi^ajv'' 
avTovs TTpos avTiaTaaiv exdpcov. 
TouTo Se Kal vorjTcbs opajficv 
yivofievov i/f^x^ V^P ^'■^ "^V^ 
deias ovvepyeias aTToXXayeloa 
vadiov, el irpos to paOvfiov 
oXiadi^aeL, cos ixrjKeTL TraOelv 
VTTOTTTevovoa, VTTO Tcjv dopaTwv 
Kal 7TOV7]pa>v TTVCvfidrajv Trepi- 
OTOixi-t,€TaL 8lk7)v kvvcov'^ avrfj 
eTTldpOiOKOVTCOV Kal o(j)ohp6T€pov 
TToXcpLOVvrojv odev Kal Xoytov 
rjp.ds StSacT/cei fxr) Trcareuetv 
€xdpa>. " 

Harris, pp. 103-104, from 
Pitra, ^lnal.Sacr.u.Sl2{vid.) 
€ Cod. Pal. 203, f. 261, Cod. 
Vat. 1553, f. 129, Cat. Lips. 
1, col. 823, Cat. Burney, f. 
140. " The previous passage 
is found attached to an ex- 
tract from ii. Quaest. in 
Exod. XXV." 



adai TTJg yfjs. Ta yap ttovco 
KTTjddvTa Trapd rot? exovai 
Ti/iia, Kal irpos Oeov eTnarpe^et 
TTas ivaycjovLos eV rcav ixOpcvv 
aoidrjvai Scofievos. Kai ^vxrj 
he dKovLxl yivofxevrj iradwv 
eXevOepa Trpos padv/xlav opuq.^ 
Kal TOLS dopdrcos noXefiovai. 
TTeptaTOLXi^eTaL." 

Wendland, p. 100, from 
Procopius, Cod. Aug. f. 222'" 
(Migne, p. 629) vid. 



" Xojpis TLvojv Cat. Burney. 
^ TTOpieZv errayyeiXeTat Cat. Burney. 
« yu/xvd^ojv Cat. Burney. 
^ Kvvwv e Cat. Barb. iv. 5Q add. Wendland. 
« cf. Ecclesiasticum xii. 10. post exdp<i> add. Cat. Burney : 
CTTTa ydp 7Tov7]pLai elalv ev aura) (cf. Prov. xxvi. 25, Luc. xi. 26). 
f opa August, (vid.). 

" cf. Wendland, " Es folgt eine Beziehung auf Luc. 11, 26." 

263 



APPENDIX B 



APPENDIX B 

ADDITIONS IN THE OLD LATIN VERSION 

Selected Bibliography : 

Cohn, Leopold in L. Cohn and P. Wendland, Philonis 
Alexandrini Opera, etc. (Berlin, 1896), pp. 1-lii, " De antiqua 
versione latina." 

Conybeare, Fred. C, Philo About the Contemplative Life 
(Oxford, 1895), pp. 139-145, " The Old Latin Version." 

Pitra, J. B., Analecta Sacra Spicilegio Solesmensi Parata 
(Florence, 1884), Tom. ii, pp. 319-320, " De vetere Philonis 
interprete Latino." 

Wendland, Paul, Neu entdeckte Fragmente Philos (Berlin, 
1891), p. 85, n. 2. 

In the year 1520 there appeared in Paris a volume entitled 
Philonis ludaei centum et duae quaestiones et totidem respon- 
siones morales super Genesin. Beside the Old Latin version 
of the Quaestiones in Genesin iv. 154-245, the volume con- 
tained the Old Latin version of the De Vita Contemplativa 
(by the same translator, according to Conybeare), Jerome's 
Latin translation of the De Nominibus Hebraicis, Budaeus' 
translation of the De Mundo, and the Liber Antiquitatum of 
Pseudo-Philo. A second and improved edition of this work 
was published in Basel in 1527 and was reprinted there in 
1538, 1550 and 1599. It is from the edition of 1538 that 
Aucher took the text of the version of QG iv. 154-245, which 
is printed at the bottom of pp. 362-443 of his edition of the 
Armenian version of the Quaestiones. 

The date and character of this Old Latin version have been 
carefully studied by the scholars mentioned above. They 
agree that it was made in the fourth century a.d. and that 
in spite of its uncouthness and freedom it is a useful check 

267 



APPENDIX B 

on the ancient Armenian version, which is more faithful and 
more intelligible throughout. 

This Old Latin version is of further interest because it 
contains several Quaestiones missing in the Armenian, 
namely eleven sections on Gen. xxvi. 19-35, which appear at 
the end of QG iv. 195, and three fragments added to the 
translation of QG iv. 203, 210 and 232 (beside a few glosses 
to other sections, which are not included here). That this 
group of eleven sections contains genuine material from 
Philo's Quaestiones is clear from their contents and from the 
fact that three of these sections (vii, viii and ix) have parallels 
in the Greek fragments from Procopius and the Catenae, 
where they are ascribed to Philo. Wendland, in particular, 
calls attention to the " echt philonisch " character of sections 
iv, vi, vii and xi ; he identifies the discussion of the number 
four in section ii as an interpolation from Philo's lost work 
Ilept dpidfjLcov. 

The additional sections are reproduced below from Aucher's 
reprinting of the 1538 edition. Considerably more work 
should be done on the text of the Old Latin version through- 
out, but here, as in the footnotes to the translation, I have 
corrected only a few of the more obvious misprints or scribal 
errors. 

Additions to QG iv. 195 (Aucher, pp. 395-398) 

i. (Gen. xxvi. 19-22) Quare in primo dimicantur, secundo 
judicantur, in tertio cessant. Et primum vocatur injuria, 
secundum inimicitia, tertium spaciositas ? " 

Haec pignora sunt industriae utpote aliquo in studiosam 
inducto disciplinam. Est enim dimicatio, dum amatores doc- 
trinae ad institutores conferunt opponentes magistros torpori 
animae. Cum autem fuerit obstinatissima perseyerantia, 
et studiosa exercitatio, jam non litigium, sed judicium 
est, cessante laesura congrue rationis est altius examen re- 
quirere. Provecto nanque amatore disciplinarum, infir- 
mantur alienigenae moris eruditionis abdicato litigio atque 
judicio, ac per hoc merito prima momenta pro injuriis ac- 
cepta sunt. Patimur enim injuriam desiderantes, amor obti- 
net firmitatem. In secundo autem inimicos sentimus eos, non 

I. speciositas. 
268 



OLD LATIN ADDITIONS 

praevalentibus nocere alienigenarum moribus, inanem ex- 
aggerantibus inimicitiam. Tertia igitur speciositas et quia 
perfecta melioratio confusionem affert inimicis, inanis enim 
revelata est et pravitas injuriarum, et inimicitiarum insolentia. 

ii. (Gen. xxvi. 23) Quid est : Ascendit inde ad puteum, 
sed suspensum ? 

Qui enim adhuc docetur, licet promoverit et creverit, nihilo- 
minus religionis moras" sortitur. Cur autem perfectis 
approximaverit, altiores facit commemorationes. Ait enim. 
Puteus quaterni numeri, et in ipso numero fallit.* Puteus 
enim juramenti filia septima est, quod Hebraice legitur Ber- 
sabace" Berfilia Sabeae septima. Jam pervide quanta est 
unitas in Mathematico tractatu, et hie in prioribus trans- 
latis libris ex aperto dicente Philone quarta in omnibus 
corporibus et incorporalibus preciosa est pro numero qui- 
dem qui accensus est decem : in figuris autem quod secun- 
dum eam soliditatis natura constat, post signum et elogium, 
secundum Musicos vero omnes armonias continet, quadra- 
litatem pertinacitate, in dimidialitatem et per omnes in 
duplicitate et bis per omnes in quadruplicatione haec inquit 
in incorporalibus. Corporalibus vero elementa mundi 
quatuor totidem anni momenta, debuit prius corporalia 
pandere, postmodum incorporalia. Hie enim ipse pro incor- 
poralibus prosequendo coitum viri et mulieris quatuor habere 
vices, quod turpissimum est interpretare, ne forte quidam 
servi dei amatores esse eorum existiment.** Videtur mihi 
Philo ritum Judeorum sectavisse, linguam imprauisse. Si 
enim septimum composuisset, viginti et octo metas pacis 
invenisset. Denique post momenta lamentationis titulum 
pacis enixa est Bersabee. Quapropter inquit Moses, laudando 
quartum numerum sanctum et gloriosum protestatur. Ut 
quid autem juramentum dicitur, in opere ipso declarabo post 
modicum in familiari capitulo, totus liber translatus nihil 
tale continuit, sed coetus* effugere conatur. 

iii. (Gen. xxvi. 24) Ut quid in nocte dominus visitatur, 
et ait : Ego sum deus patris tui, ne timeas, tecum enim sum ? 

" I. mores {?). 

^ marg. verba sunt interpretis, quisquis hie tandem fuerit. 

" I. Bersabaee veLsim. 

^ I. existimentur {?). ' marg. coactus. 

269 



APPENDIX B 

Familiarissimum tempus animae speculatoriae, nox va^is 
erroribus meridianis, et vanis aspectibus liberata, ac per hoc 
nee metus pulsat, nee vacillat cogitatus absente timore, caret 
autem timore pacatissima mens, cum divinitati pervigilat 
perseveranter. Habet tamen lectio necessarium modum, ne 
quis procerum praesumat facile occasionibus, sed prioris 
acquirit meritis, digne enim dicendo : Ego sum deus patris 
tui, generis censuram declaravit. Tecum autem sum pro 
tua et ipsi vigilantia, cujus causa non indignatur univer- 
sorum pater indignum visitare eum invisibilis animarum 
medicus. 



iv. (Gen. xxvi. 24) Quare Dominus** visitatus ostendit 
semetipsum deum ? 

Dominus quidem regni et dominatoris nomen est. Dens' 
autem appellatur pro beneficiis, quibus certius manifestatur, 
quoniam sapientiam non inter subjectos ut rex, sed inter 
amicos benefaciendo dinumerat. Poterat Philo pluribus 
invehere, nisi computo uteretur Mathematico. 

V. (Gen. xxvi. 24) Quare dicendo benedixi te, adjecit, et 
multiplicabo semen tuum propter patrem tuum ? 

Spontaneae disciplinae titulus perfectus, ob nullam aliam 
causam divinam promeretur gratiam, nisi pro se ac pro sua 
suavitate. Juvenior autem moribus et adhuc erudiens non 
propter se, sed pro meritis provecta doctrinae, cujus sapientia 
pro principali exemplo discentibus praeponitur, ad nanci- 
scendam spem meliorem. Possunt enim hac aemulatione 
parentibus similare. 

vi. (Gen. xxvi. 25) Quare aedificando illic altarium, non 
obtulit sacrificium, sed invocato nomine domini fixit taber- 
naculum suum ? 

Sacrificia prae omnibus bonis sine sanguine, et victima 
animalium pronorum participatio sapientiae alienarum esse 
credunt, qui puro pectore placere deo desiderant, cujus gratia 
sufficere credit invocationis autoris virtutem, qua princeps 
atque dominator est universitatis, nullius egens. Ita illic 
figere dicitur tabernaculum suum, suam nempe virtutem, in 

" marg. Dominus Deus. 
270 



OLD LATIN ADDITIONS 



qua puritas ilia animae inhabita commoratur, " firmiter sciens, 
doniinum universorum principem sine ulla esse penuria. O 
pura credulitas, quae factas pridem frugum centesimas ex- 
cellit. 



vii. (Gen. xxvi. 26) 

Quare post quartam putei 
fossuram a pueris factam, 
exiit Abimelech ad eum, et 
Acho ^ thalami praepositus, 
et Phicho princeps militiae ? 

Videntur mihi explora- 
tores potius, quam pro foe- 
dere amicitiarum advenisse, 
in utroque parati ad prae- 
lium, si infirmum viderint : 
ad pacem, si potentiorem. 
Sensu tamen subtil iori in- 
telligitur quartus, ut tamen 
in numeris insignis est, in 
quo constitutus studiosus per 
omnem felicitatem provehi- 
tur. Sequitur tamen etiam 
valde perfect© contraria vir- 
tus praestolanti et observanti 
ad incurrendum, Et est 
hujns fortitudo tres animae 
partes : mentis acumen ratio- 

nabile, et animositas, et desiderium. Pro acumine quidem<^ 
rex, animositate princeps militiae, concupiscentia Phichol, 
qui libidinis videtur esse provisor. Ocholach quidem regna 
parccntur'' ex utraque manu stipatus, hinc atque hinc suo 
protectu prohibundus, obtinente enim iracundia ut princeps 
militiae operatur, eo amplius pandimus dictum ex nominum 
translatione, est Abimelech Alido, * Phichol iracundia. 

viii. (Gen. xxvi. 29-.S0) Quare dicentibus et nunc bene- 
dictus a domino facit coenam ; et manducaverunt et 
biberunt ? 



E/CTTopeyerai 8e irpos avrov 
^A^ifieXex Kal ol /xer' avTov, 
KaraoKOTTOi, /ndAAov ■^ IvctttovSoi 
yevrjao/xevoi. Kal Trpos eKarepov 
7Tap€OK€vaaiJ.evoi, ttoAc/xov fxcv, 
et doOcvovvTa Karlhoiev, elp-qvrjv 
8e, ei hvvaTOjnpov eaurcDv. 

Wendland, pp. 85-86, from 
Procopius, f. 1 IS"^ (Migne, p. 
415) ; also, except for beg. 
{iK7Top€V€Tai . . . avTov), in 
Harris, p. 42, from Cat. Ined. 
Reg. 1825 (Mangey ii. 675), 
and Cat. Burney, f. 56, OiAcu- 
vos ippaiov, and Cat. Lips. 1, 
col. 325 " with the remark 
that this and the three fol- 
lowing passages are not 
among the edita of Philo and 
do not seem to belong to 
him." 



" marg. . 
^ marg. Acoza. 
marg. parenter. 



'. inhabitare commemoratur. 

za. " VKira. ergo. 

er. * marg. Ocholach. 



APPENDIX B 



Non pro laude sua hospitio 
rogat, nee novit blandire 
strenuus, aut procacem me- 
delam sapiens affectatur, sed 
propositis iracundiis quibus 
exagitati praesidere terrens 
sortiti sunt, nunc confitetur 
unum universitatis deum, 
benedictum eum confitentur, 
sed continuatione sermonis 
etiam praeteritum aevum 
declarant, quoniam et nunc 
et a principio ipse est sine 
immutatione, vel diminu- 
tione benedictionis, quern 
nos ipsi suspectum habuimus, 
nunc vero absit omnis in- 
vidia. Suscepta igitur eorum 
poenitentia, mensura par- 
ticipantur dulcedines pro 
existimatione, pro veritatis 
autem allegoriae, pro hos- 
pitio quid ipse facit convo- 
cando esse trans vos," qui non 



OiAo^povetrat 8e rats' ei)cu- 
X^ais avrovs^ ov 6id rov erraL- 
vov ov yap KoXaKeiav rj ttjv 
dfxovoov depaTTelav 6 oo(f)6s 
doTrd^eraL dvoSe^dfxevos Se av- 
Tcbv TTjv fxerdvoLav dXcjv koL 
Tpa7Tel,7)S ixerabiScoGL. ^ 

Wendland, p. 86, from 
Procopius, f. US'" (Migne, p. 
415) ; also in Harris, p. 42 
(with omissions and variants 
indicated in footnotes), from 
Cat. Reg. 1825 (Mangey ii. 
675), and Cat. Lips. coll. 
326-327, and Cat. Burney, 
f. 56. 

Harris adds a Latin frag, 
from Cat. Zephyri, p. 82 ( = 
beg. of section) : 

Non quod laudaretur ab 
illis ; nullo enim obsequio 
vel adulatione sapiens com- 
movetur, sed illorum poeni- 
tentiam amplexatus. 



perdurant in delictis, ut pote 
propitialis et clementissimae naturae, hoc modo eos sus- 
cipiendo pro cibis et potis disciplinae, atque sapientiae 
spectaculis saginant, quarum esuriem et sitim confessi, jam 
nunc fruniscuntur, ut qui destinati perrexerunt, cum salute 
venerunt. Quidam adversarii mores ad animam nocendam, 
sed ex contagio virtutis sine dispendio etiam profecerunt, 
unde cum salute liberatos, a plurimis vitiorum nexibus in- 
sinuat curatos, praecipue et uno medicamentorum remedio 
pietatis. 

ix. (Gen. xxvi. 32) Quare pergentibus pueris Isaac, veni- 
entes qui quartum puteum foderunt, dixerunt non invenisse 
aquam ? 

* marg. strenuos. 

^ (f}iXo(^pov€ZraL . . . avrovs om. Catt. 

" dAcov . . . fjL€TaSi8oiOL om. Catt. : v rba acarripiav ttjv (xtto 
TcDv opKcov {dvdpcoTTOjv BuT.) exovT€? add. Catt. TAps. et Burney. 

272 



OLD LATIN ADDITIONS 

Quod et juramentum vocat, et civitatem, puteum juramenti, 
fallit. Post juramenta autoris, quicquid agit Justus, hoc 
foedere firmari sperat secundum quadrinitatis virtutem. 
Unde etiam valde ait severissimam vocamus virtutem, 
spectatissimam ad capessendum intellectum : obscure autem 
sensualia occupantem pro incertis eorum momentis, cunc- 
tantur enim, et immutationem capiunt variis conditionum 
iiutibus. Nuntiat itaque divinus sermo post nativitatem 
quarti filii, stabilitatem non sterilitatem in creatione maxime 
incorporalis et intelligibilis substantiae : haec etenim ad 
quartum usque tenditur. Sensualis vero quinione incipit, 
quam non sine mercede nominavit. Naturaliter itaque 
quoniam finis incorporalium usque in quarto est, totius autem 
rei, et totius disciplinae terminus hominum incertus est, deo 
autem manifestus, ideo in quarto puteo non inveniunt aquam. 
Sicut enim puteum fodientes aquam requirunt, ita enim 
disciplinam sectantes finem » * / , ^ , , » 

explorant, quod est impossi- . Ati.r}xavov^v7ro ^cf>voeco, av- 
bile hominibus revelari, Et ^P^'^^*^? /^? omaouv em- 
quidem superbi metientes, Z'^T"^' ^° /^^°^" ^f'" Y^f, 
Solent affirmare se summos ^fp<^^^^ ^^^^ ocBev aXX 
esse Musicos, summos gram- ^^^^ ^?"°^ "-^'rr ^° ^' ^^^^ 
maticos, transisse vero et V^i yvojoecvs am/ceirac /xovo. 
Philosophiae grumos, et sapi- ^^V . .or m • 

entiae et totius disciplinae et ^ ^^^7^^' P' ^.3' f;;?'" ,^J^"' 
virtutismetas. Astutus vero, f/?^ V-^^'iT"- ^^l ' S^^' 
et non sui cultor vel sui lau- ^^^: ^^f ' *^^^^^'"^" '" ^^" '" 
dator, confitetur ex aperto Teveae. ^Tyr^^arcuv. 
quantum deest a fine, et juratus tali foedere conscientiam com- 
mendat, quod nihil perfecte homo nosse potest. Hie aliena 
loquitur qui tot capitulis se existimat tantum scire, finis enim 
scientiae deo tantum recondita est. Quem etiam testem 
animae vocat, quoniam pura conscientia confitetur suam 
ignorantiam. Sola enim novit anima, quoniam nihil novit 
firmiter. Juramentum igitur nihil est aliud : testimonium 
dei fidele, atque solidissimum. Si fidele est, certuni est, nee 
placet illi incerta credulitas. 



X. (Gen. xxvi. 34) Quare Esau quadragenarius accepit 
uxorem Judith filiam Beher Cetthei, et Barhatnath filiam 
Elom Heuaei ? 

Nulla quaestio requiritur ex dicto, relatio autem intelligi- 

273 



APPENDIX B 

bills <* naturallter contlnet. Prlmo quod aequlparatus annorum 
numerus nuptlis aptus est, et in hoc festinat pervenire. Quis 
enim non optabit usque ad verbum vel ad quantum videtur 
imitare potiora. Ut ita similitudinem rerum attlngat, ita in 
hoc pravus et commentis eruditus subornatur Insignium 
rerum tltulis, cum sit denotationis non extraneus. Primus 
gradus ambitur per fallaciam deferendo, et utpote ignorando 
insipiens lucem et tenebras, nigrum et splendidum, bonum 
et malum, et alia hujuscemodi aequa ipse per numerum, 
possibilitate vero non solum disparia, verum etiam contraria. 
Et haec quidem digna zelo* tartareo. Inde putans prima 
sua commenta dirigi, et altera superducit consilia, quorum 
reatum verborum suiFragio caelat. Accepit ergo duas 
uxores, quas Chaldaei vocant Judith et Basemath. Quarum 
una interpretatur laudatrix, secunda nominata. Vides qua 
festinat viri similitudo ? Se laudari atque nominari. Ego 
non negabo Hebraica lingua, et Syrorum loquela Basemath, 
suavitatem interpretari. Nominata autem Sema dicitur, non 
Basemath. Hoc ergo pravus ambitur, non veritate, sed fictis 
alatus argumentis. Nigrae enim generationis est Cetheus 
qui excessus interpretatur, cujus merita sectando, nomine 
scilicet tantum et vanae gloriae, digno domicilio habetur 
bestiarum. Hevet enim serpens interpretantur, excelsus 
atque mentis Cetheus et bestiarum merita figurae sunt 
ferarum, quibus cari sunt famuli iracundiae et concupi- 
scentiae, adeo aptissimae interpretantur imas atque inferiores 
sortitus concupiscentiae regiones. Alterius autem uxoris 
nominatae pater Elom arietis est impetus, pro auspitio furiae. 

xi. (Gen. xxvi. 35) Quare has ipsas dixit contendere Isaac 
et Rebeccae ? 

Non utique ex consensu, nee enim consonat pondus figurae 
et concupiscentiae autori mentis. Veruntamen consistere 
conantur litigia adversus bonorum perseverantiam, quae est 
Rebecca, et turbelas et contentiones opponant, scientes 
illorum regimen suam esse dissipationem. 

Addition to QG iv. 203 on Gen. xxvii. 15 (Aucher, pp. 
406-407). 

Quos solet philosophia summos vocare secundum malitiam 
et virtutem. Videtur ergo de industria dixisse, et ex aperto : 

** Z. intelligibilia. ^ marg. caelo illo. 

274 



OLD LATIN ADDITIONS 

riirali vero stolam aptam non esse, ideo apud iiiatrem fuit, 
necdiim illi donata, sed justo reservata. Tu si imam habere 
speciem laudabilem quasi spcctabilem aut pretextam, vel 
urbanam censuram caeteris omnibus vituperabilis constitutus. 
Fautrix vero mater animae perseverantia, decernens ne- 
quando imbrui depereat, simul et unifaria contingat ruina, 
apud se reservando et custodiendo stolam asseverantur, qua 
accepta ornat palaestricum quem sollicite applicat ut patri. 
Et sicut est familiarissima res musicae cithara, gubernatori 
temonum retinaculum et medico collyrium non tempeloxii 
])lenum,* qui cupiunt etiam naves aureas habere, et medica- 
nientorum horrea plena, ita certa censura est, et elegans 
pulchritudo, quasi non quidem proprium praedium alterius, 
sed proprium artificis digne et prospere utentes. ^ 

Addition to QG iv. 210 on Gen. xxvii. 22 (Aucher, pp. 
U 2-4 13). 

Manus autem possunt esse indocti ad effecturam, multa 
enim inoflficiose tentant agere, non ex integritate cordis, 
aliquoties enim et religata sibi pravi resistunt, et senectuti 
deferunt, et amicitiae jura conservant. Sed haec pro sua 
avaritia gerunt, ut captata opportunitate quosdam amplius 
decipiant. Ita falluntur minus sobrii modico testimonio 
seducti, et frivola mirantes. Cautus autem et gerendorum 
causas, et consilia rerum requirit, vituperabilia reprehendo, 
doctus et responsis divinae scripturae quae permittit justi- 
tiaruni titulos juste sectari quam injuste. 

Addition to QG iv. 232 on Gen. xxvii. 38 (Aucher, p. 430). " 
Ego me confiteor legisse in Hebraeo compunctionem et 
taciturnitatem eiisdem literis declaratam : et aliud incredibile 
in psalmoza Ixiiii. Non habet tibi dicit hymnus, sed tibi silet 
hymnus deus in Sion. Et aliud mirum non est dictum soli 
stare, sed tacere ejisdem aspicibus quibus etiam hymnus 
tacet. Vide quantam allegoriam compunctio requirit. 

** marg. in utroque exemplari ita legehatur ; forte non 
tantopere locupletum erat legendum. 
^ I. utentis. 
" Aucher : " Addit Interp. ex *p." 



275 



INDEX 



1^ 



References are to Book and Section 

ABBREVIATIONS 

E = Quaestiones in Exodum 

fig. = figurative 

G = Quaestiones in Oenesin 

gen. = general 

lit. = literal 

misc. = miscellaneous 

n. = note 

sym.= symbolizes, is symbolized 



Aaron, sym. joy, G^ iv. 16 ; 
sym. word, E ii. 27, 44 ; 
is possessed by pro- 
phetic spirit, E ii. 105 

Abel, name = " brought and 
offered up," G i. 78 ; 
sym. good man, G i. 59- 
68 

Abihu, name = " truth from 
God," E ii. 27; sym. 
help from God, E ii. 27 

Abimelech, name = " father- 
king," G iv. 176 ; sym. 
foolishman,G^iv. 61-70; 
sym. progressive man, 
G iv. 188 

Abraham, name = " elect 
father of sound," G iii. 
48 ; sym. wise and vir- 
tuous man, G iii-iv pas- 



sim ; sym. knowledge 
acquired through teach- 
ing, G iv. 144 ; founder 
of race of Israel, G iii. 
3, iv. 2, 60; friend of 
God, G iv. 33 

Abram, name = " uplifted 
father," G iii. 43 

Academics, G iii. 3 

Active and Passive, G iii. 3, 
18, iv. 160, 177, E i. 8, 
ii. 33 (see also Number- 
symbolism, Woman) 

Ada, G i. 77 

Adam, see Man 

Aelian, E ii. 28 n. 

Aetiology, G iv. 22 

Age, see Life 

Agriculture. G ii. 66^ 67, iv. 
90, 189, ^ i. 6 

277 



INDEX 



Air, <7 L <$4^ sL 64y 6U ir. 5, 
EiuM,S», H», m, 90« 
1171^ («ee aho Wkr 

AJieoatiioa lirofn God« Tiitue, 

44, 170, ^14, ^42, 245, 

AJlc^wy, scie SjrmboliHii 
AllifiKm, W.G^OVw.l^n, 
Altar, gm^ ^ L 10, 12 $ at 
SiiMi,^iL90;ofTaber' 

eepflMe tiiingx, i? & 09- 
102 
ArnuMMi, names^^lirom tiie 



«eiiio-pef«ptioa, </ ir, 

5^ 
AjMwdif and AuHlMQrity, </ 

ir.21i,2»l 
AsM^dbi, «fiii« two dikf 

ppircfs of God, ((7 iii- 

tw vattimi 

wmA Hi God^ Q fw, I 

it 100? I ' 
^iL115 

^L 19,29^74^00, 
04, M. 0, 27, 519, 00, W, 
42, 1«5, 100, i^ i. 10, it 
^f 51 $ kindiMaw to, B 
a, 11, 12 

Ajstd^QfM^ piermllltftid ISvr fi(ii9^ 
E 'iL 101 

A|wflxr, <G^ ir, 15, 217, 299 

!27« 



Appearancie and Bealitr, <r' 
hr, 213, 220, 2!^, 24% 
jB^L23 

Aquarim, E'tLl^ 

AralM, pradiJie dmiineiskm, 
<^nL40 

Arbok iJSm. Kimth Arfoa), 
Haines** of four,** <? ir, 
72 

ArdietT, a prop to llie e^fr- 
ardty, <Q^ hr. 107 

AMfictype^, <^ L 54, ijL 42, 
fr, 1,10,110,1150., 198, 
i^ J. 10, IL 51, 52,58, 18^, 
00 C«ee alvi Tr*ir'ir/r- 
pi9r«(U]l7) 

Afk»,J^iL7« 

Arlitotle, Arj«totdiaii«, (^ L 
100 n^ lit. 10, i? L 7 o. 
(Z«^ <G?^, >l#, 775 a), it 
73 n,, 124 o, 

AritiiiiKtk, i^ It 103 

Ark ct nmhp aMMtmetkm 
and parf»,</tf. 2-34$ m 
tmakmsMit «d hnmao 
hodjr, <; it 7, 10, 25, 27, 
30,40 

Ark of Tabemade^ mm* in- 
fdlk^ir4(pHd,J^it41, 
53^$ nKref'fcat fd 
ark nym, ll>«fielkimt 
p9ir«r0rG«9d,Jl^it<$O' 
00 J pi9le» <!»f ark Jiyn). 
maer^inatm^f i^ It 57, 
50$ rki)|» <»r ark, il? it 
50$ toitfinofiic* (lair») 
ffiark,J^it50$ wmilli^d 



>^ it 55 (««e a]«<» CI 

ruhim) 
ArkftfTtmtt^,On.4 
Arrmaia^ *iu 12 



I 



INDEX 



Arts and (rafts, (,' iv. .>,>S, 

i;is, /•; ii. :i, 7s, no 

Ashes, syni. soul, (/ iv. .iS 
Ass, sym. body, /v ii. I'i 
Assyria, lauf^uago, If i. 18 
Astrolojry, Astronomy, O iii. 

I, ki, iv. SS, /vi. l,ii. 81 

(soo also C'iiaUlat'ans) 
yVthtMsm, <i i. <>}), iv. k'l 
AthU'tif Contests and 'IVain- 

injr, lit. and fi^jf., (.' iii. 

'-'(>, iv. >\), I J!), IK), ,>.>S, 

-'lo. /•; i. 1 

Atonenu-nt, Day of, (/ iv. 

llOn. 
Auolur, J. B., notes passim 
Ant Minn, soo K(]uinox, Tinu- 

l>altylonians, inhabit Moso- 

potaniia, (f iv. 2VA 
Wnr hotwoon pillars of 'Tabor- 

naolo, s>in. 1 ,o^os, I'J ii. 

S!) 
Harlov. svin. charaotor, (i iv. 

rS!),*/';i. I n. 
Harroiuioss, lit. and i\^., (»' 

iii. .>1, iv. -'()!>, /; ii. IJ) 
Hasos of lainpstand in 'I'abor- 

nat^Io, soo I .anipstand 
Moarinjjf-poh's of ark, soo ArU 
Boliof, soo I'ailh, Opinion 

iVIl, soo \\\frU IViost 

iW'ily, (,' i. T7, /•; ii. 100, I IS 
holhnol, naino " «lau^:htor 

of hor (iod," ^' iv. 17, 

lk\ ', syni. wisdom, (.' 

iv. 17, iw 
L lU'zalool, inspired bv luul, 

a i. m) 
Hh'th, second birlh of Moses, 

I'J ii. !(> 



i>irth ri;'lit, sc- riimoi-rni- 
tnre 

Bitter Herbs of Passover, 
sym. psvohie change, I'J 
i. lo 

Bitumen on Noah's ark, (r ii. 
•t 

Hlack, sym. air, f\ ii. S.'>, 1 17, 
l.'.S 

Blessing, (.' iv. I ';;. is ., i!)(;, 
3l\i, Jit, ilo, ,Mt>, -,','(>, 
3M, E ii. 83 (see also 
liod) 

Blindness, lit. and fig., if iv. 
Jl, K). n, 1->I, 11.7. l()S. 
10 J, !{)(), i.Sl, '.>!.:), /'; ii. 
M : sym. by wSodom, 
(/ iv. *:i, M (.see also Kve, 
Sight) 

Bio(.d, (,' i. ()7, ii. 50. /•; i. I,», 
ii. I I, ;{;i ; syn\. kinship 
of sold, /•; ii.' 'Mi, S(> 

Body, structure and func- 
tion. (.' i. .>8. IS. .)(). a.S, 
ii. J-7, 1 0. iO. K). .v.. .50, 
iii. 5. IS. 00. '^00. /•; ii. 
88,71.; body contrasted 
with soul, (i ii. (JO. iii. 
10. iv. 1. II. 8(J. i.-i. 71.. 
7.'.. 77, 7S. SO, SS. 01. 

i.v.'. I.'.;?, i;;.. i7s, is(i. 

ISS. .>81.. /v'i. 10. K). 51, 
.">.">. IJO (see also Blood. 
Brain, l'',yo. I'ao*', 1 load, 
I loarl. Nose, Tongui) 

Boiling, see l'\)od 

!>ond of the universe, (f ii. "i, 
/-; ii. 71, SO, 00. I IS (sec 
als») 1 ,ogos. \ ihn « \ 

Bow, (! ii. ()1. 

Bow Is of lampslantl in labor- 
naolo. see Lampstand 



279 



INDEX 



Bracelet, sym. decad, O iv. 

118; sym. memory, G 

iv. 109 
Brain, as seat of mind, G ii. 

3, E ii. 124 
Branches of lampstand in 

Tabernacle, see Lamp- 
stand 
Bread, sym. frugality, G iv. 

205 ; sym. health, E ii. 

18; sym. necessary food, 

E ii. 72 
Breast, as seat of heart, E ii. 

115 
Breastplate of judgment (Lo- 

geion), see High Priest 
Brehier, E., G iv. 211 n., 

Appendix A passim 
Bronze vessels of altar, see 

Altar 
Buffalo, permitted for food, 

E ii. 101 
Building, G i. 26 
Bulls, for sacrifice, E ii. 99 
Bury, R. G., G iv. 164 n. 

Cain, sym. wickedness, G i. 
58-81, iv. 4 

Calf, as sacrifice, E ii. 32 

Camel, sym. memory, G iv. 
92,94,106,109,136,141 

Canaan, name = " being out 
of their minds," G iv. 88; 
name = " merchant " or 
" mediator," G ii. 65^ 
77 ; name = " their ap- 
pearance," G iv. 72 

Cancer (constellation), E ii. 
76 

Capricorn, E ii. 76 

Caution, ^ ii. 13 

Cave, sym. mind, G iv. 80 



Censers of table in Taber- 
nacle, see Table 

Centre of universe, G^^ i. 10 

Chaldaea, sym. astrology, 
G iii. 1, iv. 88 

Chaldaean Language {i.e. 
Hebrew), G iii. 38, 43, 
49,iv. 1, 17,97,147,239, 
E ii. 68 

Chaldaeans, inhabit Meso- 
potamia, G iv. 243 

Chance, G i. 78, iii. 3, iv. 43, 
76, E ii. 55 

Change, see Rest and Move- 
ment 

Chariot-driving, G iv. 218 

Cherubim in Paradise, G i. 
57 

Cherubim on ark of Taber- 
nacle, name = " great 
recognition " or " know- 
ledge poured out in 
abundance," E ii. 62 ; 
sym. two chief powers of 
God, E ii. 62-68 

Chosen Race, see Israel 

Cicero, G ii. 7 n. 

Circumcision, lit. and fig., G 
iii. 46-52, E ii. 2 

City, sym. soul, G iv. 192 

City-life and Civilization, G 
iv. 47, ^ i. 1, ii. 25 

Clans, E i.S 

Clean and Unclean, G ii. 12, 
52, iii. 48, ^i. 18 

Clothing, lit. and fig., G iv. 
203, 213 

Cloud at Sinai, see Sinai 

Colson, F. H., G iii. 48 n.» 
56 n., iv. 8 n., 159 n., 
E ii. 4 n., 13 n., 20 n., 
93 n. 



280 



INDEX 



I 



Column, see Pillar 

Commandments, gen., (r, E 
passim ; contrasted with 
precepts, rights, laws, 
G iv. 184 ; written on 
tablets of stone, E ii. 41 

Communion, E ii. 39, 69, 118 

Community, E ii. 35, 36, 78 

Conception of children, G i. 
25, ii. 7, 14, iii. 47, 5Q, 
iv. 27, 154 (see also Pro- 
creation) 

Concord, see Community 

Congregation, E \. \0 

Conscience, G iv. 202, E ii. 
13 

Consecration, £" ii. 51, 71 

Consent, sym. by Lot's 
daughter, G iv. 55-58 

Consolation, G iv. 146 

Consonants, G iii. 43, iv. 117 
(see also Vowels) 

Constancy, sym. by Rebekah, 
G iv. 92-205, 239-241 

Contemplative Life, G iv. 31, 
47, 138-140, 146, 187, 
193, E ii. 40 

Contemplative Race, see Is- 
rael 

Continence, sym. by Jacob's 
wife, G iv. 243 (see also 
Virtue) 

Convention, contrasted with 
nature, G iv. 184 

Conviction, see Conscience 

Cosmopolitanism, G iii. 39 

Counsel, sym. by Lot's 
daughter, G iv. 55-58, 
121 ; sym. by Rebekah, 
G iv. 239 

Courage, see Virtue 

Covenant between God and 



man, G ii. 10, iii. 40, 42, 

60, E ii. 34, 106 
Covering, see Veils 
Creation of world, G i. 1-3, 

19, ii. 13, 16, 31, iii. 39, 

49, iv. 51, 110, 164, ^M. 

1, 23, ii. 42, 46, 52, 70, 

73 ; took place in spring, 

^ i. 1 (see also God) 
Cube, see Number-symbolism 
Cubit, En. Ill and n. 
Cups of table in Tabernacle, 

see Table 
Curse, G iv. 219, E ii. 5, 6 
Curtains of Tabernacle, sym. 

four elements, E ii. 84- 

88, 92 
Cush,name = " sparse earth," 

G ii. 81 ; son of Ham 

and father of Nimrod, 

G\\. 81, 82 

Death, lit. and fig., G i. 16, 
45, 51, 5Q, 70, 74-76, ii. 
7, 9, 12, 23, 45, 57, iii. 
52, iv. 45, 46, 73, 77, 
78, 95, 152, 173, 235, 
238, 240, E i. 3, 38 
Deception, E ii. 54 ; is some- 
times justified, G iv. 206, 
228 
Dedication, see Consecration 
Deer, permitted for food, E 

ii. 101 
Desert, see Wilderness 
Desire, see Sensual Pleasure 
Dew, sym. Logos, G iv. 215 
Didrachm (Heb. shekel), G 

iv. 110 
Dio Chrysostom, £^ ii. 81 n. 
Dipixr, used for " north," 
/■; ii. MM 



28] 



INDEX 



Discipline, see Education, 
Training 

Disease, see Health, Medi- 
cine 

Divination, G iv. 90 

Divinization, of soul, E ii. 40 

Division, in nature, G i. 64, 
iii. 5, 6, 15, 23 

Door, sym. mind's escape 
from sense, E i. 22 

Door-posts, sym, reason, E 
i. 12 

Doubt, see Faith 

Dove, sym. reason and virtue, 
G ii. 38-44, iii. 3, 7 

Drink, see Food 

Drinking-trough, sym. learn- 
ing, G iv. 234 

Drunkenness, lit. and fig., G 
ii. 68, 69, 73, iv. 218, 
225, £^ii. 15, 118 

Dryness and Moisture, E \. % 

Duality, see Number-sym- 
bolism 

Dyad, see Number-symbo- 
lism 

Ear, G i. 77, ii. 3, 13, iii. 32, 
iv. 110, 118, 239, E ii. 
34 (see also Hearing) 

Ear-ring, sym. learning, G 
iv. 109 ; sym. monad, 
GiY. 118 

Earth, gen., G i. 64, ii. 18, 
iii. 3-6, 49, iv. 87, 215, 
Ell. 5Q, 85, 88, 90, 117- 
120 ; divided into sixty 
parts by astrologers, 
E ii. 81 ; sym. body, G 
ii. m, iv. 193 ; sym. 
desire, G^ iv. 191 ; sym. 
good and evil, G ii. 81 ; 



sym. soul, G iv. 28 (see 
also Elements) 

East, G I. 7, iv. 149, E ii. 101 

Ecstasy, see Inspiration, 
Sleep 

Eden, name = " delicacies," 
G i. 7, 5Q 

Edom, name = " flame- 
coloured " or " earthy," 
G'iv. 171 ; sym. wicked- 
ness, (9 iv. 171 

Education, gen., G iii. 26, 27, 
30, 35, 50, iv. 16, 39, 45, 
95, 98, 100-110, 114, 
118, 123, 137, 144, 154, 
156, 175, 191, 195, 208, 
210, 217, 242-245, E i. 
4, ii. 3, 4, 13, 16, 19, 25, 
34, 36 ; encyclical or 
school studies, G iii. 19- 
24, 31, 35, 59, 60, iv. 
203, E I. 5, ii. 103; 
threefold method of edu- 
cation through instruc- 
tion (sym. by Abraham), 
self-teaching (sym. by 
Isaac) and practice (sym. 
by Jacob), G iii. 50, 51, 
59, 88, iv. 91, 93, 122, 
123, 127-129, 144, 175, 
238, E i. 5 

Egypt, name = " oppres- 
sing," G iv. 177 ; sym. 
external goods and 
senses, G iii. 16, 19, iv. 
177 ; Israel's exodus 
from Egypt, E i. passim 

Egyptians, G iii. 47, 48, E i. 
1,8, 10, 18, ii. 2 

Einarson, B., G iv. 159 n. 

Elders, seventy, E ii. 27, 31, 
44 



282 



INDEX 



Election of Israel, see Israel 

Elements, four elements (fire, 
air, water, earth) gen., 
(J i. 64, 71, iii. 3, 6, 15, 
49, iv. 8, 51, E i. 4, ii. 
56, 78, 81, 86, 117-120; 
sym. by curtains of 
Tabernacle, E ii. 84-88 ; 
sym. by garment of high 
priest, E ii. 107-124; 
sym. by veil of Holy of 
Holies, E ii. 92-94 ; fifth 
element (quintessence), 
(r'iii. 6, iv. 8,£^ii.73,85; 
sublunary elements (air, 
water, earth), G iii. 3, 
15, iv. 8, ^ii. 33, 78, 81, 
90, 91, 109 

Elijah, ascends to heaven, 
G\. 86 

Emerald Stones, see High 
Priest 

Encyclical Studies, see Edu- 
cation 

Enemies, see Foreigners 

Ennead, see Number-sym- 
|< holism 

I Enoch, G i. 82-86 

Enosh, name = " man," G i. 
79 

i Envy, G iv. 101, 103, 107, 
142, 191-194, 226, 227, 
239 

Ephod, see High Priest 

Ephron, name = "dust," G 
iv. 79 ; sym. corporeal 
natures, G iv. 79 

Epicharmus, quoted on sin, 
G iv. 203 

Equality and Inequality, C 
ii. 5, I?, iii. ID, iv. ;},), 
157, il()', /; i. 10, 15, ii. 



10,33,64,81 ; as mother 
of justice, E \. Q\ pro- 
portioned equality, G iv. 
102, 125, ^ i. 6 n. (see 
also Justice, Number- 
symbolism) 

Equinox and Solstice, G ii. 
17, 31, 33, 45, 47, iii. 3, 
E ii. 5Q, 75, 113 n. ; 
vernal and autumnal 
equinoxes contrasted, E 
i. 1 

Esau, name = " thing made," 
G iv. 161 ; name = 
" oak," G iv. 161, 206, 
207 ; sym. ignorance 
and evil, G iv. 161-238 
passim 

Eternity, E ii. 20, 114 (see 
also Immortality) 

Ether, see Heaven 

Ethiopians, practise circum- 
cision, G iii. 48 

Euphrates, sym. growth, jus- 
tice, spirituality, G i. 12, 
13 ; sym. pleasantness, 
G iv. 243 

Euripides, quoted on good 
and evil, G iv. 203 ; re- 
ferred to (r) as ■• tragic 
poet," (/ iv. 21 I 

Evening, as time for sacrifice, 
E i. 1 1 

Evil, see Good 

Exodus from Egypt, E i. 
passim ; speed of, E i. 
14 

External Goods, G ii. o5^ 71, 

76, 80, iii. i:;. iv. .S3, 43, 

77, SO, Si. HIS, \ >\, 134, 
I 1.7-1 I!), I^(i. I!».\ -M.'., 

.'17, /■; ii. I, mm; 



283 



INDEX 



Eye, of body or soul, O i. 39, 
113, iv. 2, 5, 8, 21, 22, 
32, 40, 129, 138, 141, 

196, 239, E ii. 3, 24, 39, 
52, 80, 82 (see also 
Sight) 

Face, G i. 5, iii. 29, 40, 55, iv. 
32,99,j5;ii. 13,24 

Faith and Doubt, G iii. 58, 
iv. 17,91, 184, ^i. 12 

Family, law, life, morality of, 
G ii. 26, 60, iii. 20, 21, 
23, 48, 52, 6 l,iv. 56, 61, 
QQ, 86, 88, 132, 145, 154, 
165, 200, 202, 218, 243, 
245, E i. 10, ii. 3, 8, 35, 
36 

Fate, G i. 100, iii. 13 (see also 
Chance, Necessity) 

Fatherhood, see Family 

Fatness, sym. external goods, 
G iv. 215 ; sym. piety, 
^ii. 15 

Fear, G i. 72, 76, ii. 5G, iii. 9, 
10, iv. 15, 16, 19, 51, 

197, 230, E i. 15, 22, ii. 
21,22, 51 ; fear of God, 
E ii. 21 

Fertility, see Growth, Pro- 
creation 

Festivals, gen., £" i. 1, 5, 9 
(see also Passover) 

Field, lit. and fig., G iv. 214 

Finger (measure), £" ii. 1 1 1 n. 

Fig-tree, sym. pleasure, G i. 
41 

Fire, G iii. 49, iv. 51-53, E i. 
18, ii. 28, 47, 85, 90, 98, 
118 (see also Elements) 

Firmament, as sense - per - 
ceptible heaven, E ii. 37 



First-fruits and First-offer- 
ings, G iv. 110, 118, E 
i. 1, ii. 7, 31, 51, 101, 
102 

Flesh, see Body, Sacrifice, 
Sensual Pleasure 

Flight, lit. and fig., E i. 23, 
ii. 40 

Flood, Noah's, G ii. 13-64 

Flour, as offering to God, 
E ii. 102 

Flowers, see High Priest 

Food and Drink, lit. and fig., 
(^ ii. 58, 67, iv. 1,6,9,35, 
82, 109, 124, 140, 168, 
170, 175, 191, 192, 198, 
205, 213, 222, 239, E i. 
14, ii. 8, 12, 14, 18, 39, 
69, 71, 72, 118; animals 
permitted for food listed, 
E ii. 101 

Foot, sym. soul, E i. \^ 

Force, sym. piety, £^ i. 21 

Foreigners, proper treatment 
of, G iii. 62, iv. 2, 8-10, 
20,61,67, 124,^i. 5, ii. 
2, 3, 11, 12,22 

Forgiveness, G iv. 70, 110 

Forms, see Incorporeality 

Fortune, see Chance 

Fountain, lit. and fig., G i. 3, 
ii. 29, 64, 67, iii. 27, iv. 
59, 94, 100, 138, 191- 
195, 231,i^ii. Ill 

Freedom and Slavery, lit. 
and fig., G iii. 10, 22, 39, 
50, iv. 15, 76, 103, 114, 
120, 185, 206, 216, 229, 
236, 237, E i. 4, 10, 15 ; 
freedom of speech E ii. 
13 

Fruchtel, L., G iii. 38 n., 



284 



INDEX 



48n., iv. 74n., 100 n., ^ 

ii. 15 n. 
Frugality, see Virtue 
Furnace, sym. passion, G iv. 

53 

Games, sym. joy, G iv. 188 

Garments, see Clothing 

Gazelle, permitted for food, 
E ii. 101 

Gentiles, sym. wicked, G iii. 
17 ; time of, G iii. 60 

Geometry, Geometricians, E 
ii. 61, 93, 103 

Gerar (Gerara), name = 
"hedge,"(?iv. 176, 185; 
name = " region of God- 
loving thoughts," G iv. 
59 ; name = " sojourn," 
G iv. 195 ; sym. external 
goods, G iv. 185 

Giants, G i. 92, ii. 82 

Gifts, made to God, G i. 62, 
iv. 148, E ii. 7, 72 ; given 
by God, see God 

Gihon, sym. moderation, G 
i. 12, 13 

Ginzberg, Louis, G ii. 6Q n. 

Girdle, sym. drawing to- 
gether of passions, E i. 
19 

Glory, £^ii. 45 ; distinguished 
from honour, E ii. 107 

Goat, as sacrifice, ^ ii. 101 ; 
sym. repentance, i? i. 8 ; 
sym. water, G iii. 3, 7 

God : (a) attributes and 
functions : 
above all things, G iv. 2, 3, 

140, 214, ii;ii. 40,68 
accommodates human na- 
ture, G iv. 24 



active, E ii. 33 

all-knowing, G i. 69, iv. 22, 
24, 130 

all-powerful, G ii. 47, iii. 1, 
56, iv. 1, 17, ^i. 7 

almighty, G i. 100, iv. 130 

artificer, artist, G i. 28, ii. 
7, iv. 80, 196, E ii. 68 

benefactor, beneficent, 
benevolent, G i. 55, 91, 
96, ii. 10, 13, 17, 25, 50, 
51,53, 60, 75, iii. 41,42, 
45, iv. 8, 19, 25, 26, 53, 
101, 127, 179, E i. 1, 3, 
4, 7, 22, 23, ii. 2, 13, 32, 
51, 61, m 

best, E i. 20 

blessed and happy, G ii. 
54, iv. 19, 130, 180, 188, 
214 

blesses man, G ii. 212, 214 

cause (of all), G \. 78, 100, 
iii. 34, iv. 8, 25, 87, 160, 
E ii. 51 

certain, E ii. 5 

champion, ^ i. 8 

charioteer, G ii. 34, iv. 51 

creator, G i. 28, 55, 58, 64, 
ii. 5,7, 13, 15,32,34,47, 
75, iii. 1, 5, 39, 48, 49, 
iv. 1,2,8,42,80,87,89, 
114, 130, 138, 188,2;; i. 1, 
19, 20, ii. 33, QQ, 83, 85 

elder than monad, E ii. 68 

eternal, G ii. 10, 12, E ii. 
122 

existent (6 ojv, o ovrws c5v), 
G i. 54, 55, 100, ii. 53, 
54,62 n., iii. 41, iv. 1,2, 
4, 8, 22, 138, E i. 20, ii. 
5,47,61,63,67,68, 122 

father of graces, E ii. 61 



285 



INDEX 



father of universe or man- 
kind, G i. 54, 58, 60, 99, 
ii. 13,25, 34, 41, 52, 62, 
iii. 40, 42, 45, 48, 49, iv. 
1, 12, 20, 29, 30, 42, 51, 
54, 68, 70, 87-89, 99, 
102, 111, 114, 130, 152, 
153, 188, 200 (?), E\. 1, 
ii. 2, 3, 26, 28, 30-32, 37, 
39,46,49,51,64,69,71, 
83, 101, 107 

father of wisdom, G iv. 140 

fills the soul with light, 
virtue, etc., G iv. 4, 18, 
102, 107, 115, 130, 152, 
E ii. 51 

first cause, E ii. 7, 20, 40, 
47 

foreknowing, G iv. 212 (?) 

good, G ii. 13, 43, 54, 60, 
iv. 1 

gracious, bestowing grace, 
G ii. 10, 13, 15, 16, 43, 
50, 54, 63, iii. 3, 4, 56, 
iv. 19,47,65,70,96, 102, 
121, 180, 189, 231, E i. 
1, 12, 23, ii. 51, 61, 71, 
72 

holy, G iv. 130 

host, G iv. 8 

housemaster of wisdom, G 
iv. 59 

husband (of soul), E ii. 3 

immutable and stable, G i. 
42, 93, ii. 54, iii. 41, 55, 
iv. 1, 53, 127, E ii. 37, 
40, 45, 46 

impartial to rich and poor, 
E ii. 99 

incomprehensible (in es- 
sence), G iii. 42, iv. 1, 2, 
8, E ii. 37, 45, 47, 67 



invisible, G iii. 48, iv. 140, 

E ii. 37 
judge, G i. 89, 94, ii. 11, 

14-16, 54, 60, iii. 10, 42, 

iv. 23, 25, 49, 52, 53, 

180, ^i. 10,22,23, ii. 10 

(see also power) 
just, i^ i. 3 
kind, see gracious 
king and ruler, G ii. 16, 51, 

75, iii. 2, 34, 39, 43, iv. 1, 

3, 24, 25, 53, 87, 184, E 

i. 23, ii. 62, Q6 (see also 

power) 
lawgiver, G iii. 47, iv. 24, 

E ii. 42, QQ 
liberator, £" i. 10 
lord. Gin. 43, iv. 118,214, 

E i. 20 (see also {d) be- 
low) 
lover of mankind, G ii. 54, 

60, 75, E\. 7, ii. 18 
lover of virtue, G ii. 13, 

iii. 8 
measure of all things, G iv. 

8 (see Logos) 
mediator, G iv. 23 (see 

Logos) 
merciful, G i. 76, 84, 89, 

iv. 180, 233 
most high, G ii. 62, iii. 34 
near to virtuous souls, G 

iv. 18, 20, 26, 140, E ii. 

28, 29, 39, 96 
not (direct) cause of evil, 

G i. 68, 78, 89, 100, E i. 

23 
not of human form, E ii. 42 
one (simple and unique), 

G ii. 54, 62, iii. 55, iv. 

2, 8, E ii. 2, 33, 37, 6Q, 

68 



286 



INDEX 



overseer, G ii. 27, 60, iv. 

42, 65 
philanthropic, see lover of 

mankind 
physician, G ii. 29 
pilot, G ii. 34 
preserver and sustainer, G 

ii. 34, iv. 23 
protector, G ii. 67, iv. 42, 

51, 76, E i. 8, ii. 24, 69, 

71, 72 
providence, G iii. 3, 18, 43, 

iv. 25, 29, 42, 65, 87, 88 
quiet, G iv. 140 
reformer, G iv. 12, 65 
saviour, G ii. 13, 25, 60, 

iii. 10, 15, iv. 54, 90, 131, 

233, E i. 10, 23, ii. 2, 51 
sower of spiritual seed, G 

iv. 17,68,99, 189, ^ii. 3 
speaker, G iv. 140, E ii. 

68 
splendid, £" ii. 67 
standing, E ii. 37 
teacher, G ii. 16, 49, iii. 43, 

iv. 21, 24, 45, 101, 118, 

121, 140, 184, 208, 209, 

E ii. 13, 52 
triune in appearance, G iv. 

2, 4, 8, 30 
truth, God of, G iv. 130 
unbegotten and uncreated, 

G i. 54, ii. 12, 16, iv. 1, 

E ii. 32 
unbribable, G iv. 23, 76, 

E ii. 32 
unknown, see incompre- 
hensible 
unmixed, E ii. 33 
visible to virtuous souls, G 

iv. 1, 2, 4, E i. 20, ii. 32, 

39, 45, 47, 51, 61, 67 



without envy, G i. 55, iv. 
101 

without malice, G^ ii. 13 

without need, G iv. 188, E 
i. 22 

without passion, G i. 95 

(6) glory of God, E ii. 45, 
47 

(c) Logos of God, see 
Logos 

{d) names of God {i.e. God 
and Lord), (7 i. 57, ii. 16, 
51, 53, 75, iii. 1, iv. 21, 
53, 87, E ii. 62, 68 (see 
also(/)) 

{e) nature and God, see 
Nature 

(/) power of God, esp. two 
chief powers or attri- 
butes, creative and royal 
(expressed by names 
" God " and " Lord," 
and sym. by cherubim 
on ark), G i. 54, 57, 89, 
ii. 16, 51, 53, 75, iii. 39, 
42, 48, iv. 2, 4, 8, 9, 10, 
12, 20, 25, 26, 30, 33, 53, 
87, E i. 23 n., ii. 37, 47, 
51, 61-68, 83; creative 
power older than royal 
power, E ii. 62 ; two 
chief powers subdivided 
into four powers, E ii. 68 

{g) voice of God, E ii. 16, 
48 

(/i) Word of God, see 
Logos 
Gods of Gentiles, G i. 36. iv. 
2, E i. 8, 20, ii. .-). h^ n. 
(see also Poh'iluiMii ) 
Gold, lit. .-md Cio-.. /; ii. .-.I, 
6;i. (i!», <;; ; .s\ m. iiifoi- 



28^ 



INDEX 



poreal things, E ii. 102, 
113 

Gomorrah, name = " meas- 
ure," G iv. 23 ; sym. 
barrenness, G ii. 43 ; 
sym. Logos, G iv. 23 

Good and Evil, G i. 36, 44, 
66, 70, 78, 81, ii. 12, 54, 
68, 71,81,82, iii. 10, 11, 

18, 22, 26, 40, 43, iv. 4, 
23,26,39,41,51,61,66, 
77, 126, 149, 155,^ i. 23, 
ii. 17, 21, 22 ; sym. by 
Jacob and Esau, G iv. 
157-245 ; good, evil and 
the morally indiiferent, 
Gi. 88, ii. 71, 79, iv. 31, 

64, 147, 148 
Grace, see God 

Grain, as offering to God, 

Eli. 11, 102 
Gratitude, see Thanksgiving 
Great Sea {i.e. Atlantic), G 

ii. 28 
Greed, ^ii. 11, 12 
Grief, G i. 72, 76, ii. 56, 57, 

iii. 10, iv. 15-19, 52, 230, 

En. 51 
Growth, lit. and fig., G ii. 15, 

24, iii. 12, iv. 189, £^ i. 1, 

8, ii. 76, 120 

Habit, ^ii. 112 

Hagar, name = "sojourning," 

G iii. 19, iv. 147 ; sym. 

encyclical studies, G iii. 

19, 21-25 

Hairiness, sym, savagery, G 

iv. 160, 201,204,206 
Ham, name = " heat," G ii. 

65, 77 ; sym. evil, G i. 
88, ii. 65,70,74,79,81 



Hand, sym. labour, G' iv. 210 

Hanging, see Veils 

Happiness, see Joy 

Haran, name = " openings," 
G iv. 239 ; sym. sense- 
perception, G iv. 239 

Harmony, in music, see Mu- 
sic ; in nature, see Na- 
ture ; of soul, see Soul 

Harris, J. R., G iii. 48 n., 
52 n., iv. 43 n., 51 n., 
74 n., 88 n., 100 n., 
145 n., 211 n., E ii. 
15 n., 50 n.. Appendix A 
passim 

Harvest, in spring, E \. I 

Haste, G iv. 124, 129, E i. 14, 
15, 18, 19 

Havilah, sym. prudence, G 
i. 13 

Head, lit. and fig., G i. 3, 10, 
u.5,E\. 1, 17, 24, ii. 33, 
53, 124; as seat of 
brain, E ii. 124 ; as 
temple of the mind, E 
ii. 100 

Healing, see Medicine 

Health and Sickness, lit. and 
fig., G iv. 26, 45, 200, 
E i. 23, ii. 18, 25 

Hearing, G i. 77, ii. 3, 21, iii. 
5, 32, 51, iv. 1, 11, 110, 
i^ii. 16,34, 112 (see also 
Ear) 

Hearsay, E ii, 9 

Heart, G ii. 13, iii. 48, E i. 12, 
ii. 50, 100 ; as seat of 
anger, E li. 115 

Heaven, gen. (incl. ether, 
planets, stars), G i. 57, 
64, ii. 8, 18, iii. 3, 6, 15, 
45, iv. 1, 8, 46, 51, 87, 



288 



INDEX 



97, 110, HI, 164, 188, 
215, Ei. 1,23, ii. 33, 37, 
40, 46, 56, 64, 73-81, 
104, 109, 113, 114, 117 ; 
immutable, ^ ii. 83, 91 ; 
one and unique, £" ii. 81 ; 
proper place of soul, G 
iv. 74, 178; revolves 
without change of place, 
E ii. 55 ; source of wis- 
dom, G iv. 101 ; spheri- 
cal, E n. SI ; unsharing 
in evil, G iv. 157 

Hebdomad, see Number- 
symbolism 

Hebrew Language, G i. 13, 
ii. 45, iv. 97, 102, 122, 
147, 163, 191, 245 (see 
also Chaldaean) 

Hebrew Nation, E ii. 6, 22 
(see also Israel) 

Hebron, name = "joined with 
women," G iv. 72, 83; 
name = " union," G iv. 
83 

Heifer, see Ox 

Heir, of God, G iii. 60 

Heracleitus, on ages of man, 
G ii. 5 ; on nature, G iii. 
5, iv. 1 ; on life and 
death, G iv. 152 ; on 
the soul, G iv. 52 n. ; 
plagiarizes Moses, G iv. 
152 

Heracles, ( =Haik), G i. 92 

Heralds, festival of,^ ii. 76 (?) 

Heterodox Persons, G iv. 217, 
E ii. 22, 47 

High Priest, gen., E i. 10, ii. 
107-124; sym. joy, G 
iv. 16 ; sym. wise man, 
E ii. 107 ; laziness of 



post-Aaronic high priest, 
E ii. 105 

Clothing and ornaments of 
high priest : 

bells, sym. harmony of 
elements, £^ ii. 120 

emerald stones of shoulder- 
pieces, sym. two hemi- 
spheres, E ii. 109, 117 

ephod, JE" ii. 117 n., 118 n. 

flowers, sym. earth, E ii. 
120 

hyacinth robe, see under- 
garment 

leaf of gold on forehead, 
sym. purity, E ii. 121, 
123, 124 

linen garment, E ii. 107 

Logeion (breastplate), sym. 
logos (thought and 
speech), E ii. 110-116 

pomegranate-shaped tas- 
sels, sym. water, E ii. 
119, 120 

Revelation and Truth 
(Urim and Thummim), 
E ii. 116 

shoulder-pieces, sym. la- 
bour and heaven, E ii. 
108, 120 

stole of ankle-length, sym. 
true opinion, E ii. 107 

twelve stones of Logeion, 
sym. seasons and virtue, 
ii/ii. 112-114, 117 

undergarment, sym. air, 
^ii. 117, 119, 120 
Hippocrates, G iv. 35 n. 
Hittites, name = " being be- 
side oneself," G iv. 79, 
241 ; sym. folly, G iv. 
79, 241 ' 



SUPPL. IT 



289 



INDEX 



Holiness and Pollution, G iv. 

2,51,63-66,80,95, 111, 

118, 158, 186, 221, 242, 

E i. 7, 10, 12, ii. 31, 33, 

45,47,51,76,83,91,98, 

115 
Holy of Holies in Tabernacle, 

E ii. 68, 91, 95 ; sym. 

intelligible world, E ii. 

94,96,104,106,107,115 
Holy Place in Tabernacle, 

sym. sense - perceptible 

world, ^ii. 91, 95, 103 
Homer, quoted by name or 

as " the poet," G i. 76 

{Od. xii. 118), iii. 3 (Od. 

xii. 39-45), 16 {Od. xiv. 

258), iv. 2 {Od. xvii. 485- 

488), 8 (//. XV. 189), 20 

{Od. XV. 74), 183 (//. iii. 

179), 238 {'passim), E ii. 

102 {II. 'passim) 
Homonyms, G iv. 243 
Honour, distinguished from 

glory, E ii. 67 
Hope, G i. 79, 80, iii. 55 
Horns, (a) on sacrificial 

animals, sym. battle for 

truth, E ii. 101 
(6) of altar, see Altar 
Hospitality, see Foreigners 
House, sym. desire, £" i. 12 
Household Management, G 

iv. 218, 236 
Humaneness, see Love of 

Mankind 
Humility, see Pride 
Hunger, lit. and fig., G iv. 

169, 170 
Hunter, sym. uncleanness, 

G iv. 165 
Hur, name = " light," E ii. 44 



Husbandman, see Agricul- 
ture 

Hyacinth (colour), sym. air, 
^ii. 85, 117 

Hypocrisy, G iv. 165 

Ideas, see Incorporeality 
Identity and Difference, E ii. 

33 
Idols, E i. 20 

Ignorance, see Knowledge 
Imitation of God or heaven 

by man, soul, etc., G iv. 

29, 53, 115, 147, 151, 

164, 181, 188, 196, 200(?), 

215, E i. 23, ii. 42, 46, 

51, 85, 104, 124 
Immoderateness, see Sensual 

Pleasure 
Immortality, G i. 45, 51, 55, 

70, 76, 85, 86, iii. 27, 53, 

57, iv. 46, QQ, 103, 152, 

153, 164, 169, 244, E i. 

15,23, ii. 38, 39, 56, 114, 

118 
Impiety, see Piety 
Impressions, (r iv. 1, 20, 24, 

30,94, 117, £^ii. 13, 82, 

109, 122, 124 (see also 
Seals) 

Impulse, G iii. 3, 28, 52, iv. 
66, 73, 78, 129, 206, 241, 
Ei.lQ 

Incense in Tabernacle, E ii. 
71 

Incorporeality, of angels, G 
i. 92, iii. 11, ^ii. 13; of 
forms, principles, etc., G 
ii. 4, 66, iii. 3, 22, 40, 42, 
43, 49, 53, iv. 1, 8, 22, 
32, 35, 73, 80, 88, 99, 

110, 115, 138, 146, 160, 



9S0 



INDEX 



168, 170, 188, ^i. 8,22, 
ii. 33, 37, 52-58, 63, 68, 
69, 82, 83, 90, 93-97, 
106, 114, 121-123; of 
souls, G i. 70, 76, 90, ii. 
46, 69, iii. 3, 10, 11, 40, 
52, 53, iv. 37, 95, 111, 
122, 130, 138, 152, 153, 
^i. 11 

Indifferent, morally, see 
Good 

Initiation, E n. o\ 

Injustice, see Justice 

Inspiration, G iii. 9, iv. 29, 
76, 90, 95, 140, 143, 196, 
E ii. 3, 29, 33, 40, 43, 49, 
105 (see also Prophecy) 

Intelligible World, see In- 
corporeality 

Intention, 6' iv. 211, 221, 238 

Intermediaries between God 
and world, G i. 55, 58 
(see also God, Logos) 

Involuntary Acts, see Volun- 
tary Acts 

Iron, E ii. 102 

Isaac, sym. joy or laughter, 
(/ iii. 38, 53, iv. 17, 122, 
138, 147, 148; sym. 
self-taught or natural 
virtue, G iii. 59, 88, iv. 
91, 122, 123, 127, 129, 
144 ; birth was unique, 
G iii. 60 ; founder of 
nation, G iv. 200; 
motherless, G iv. 153 ; 
prophet, G iv. 196 

Isaiah, quoted as " disciple 
of Moses," G ii. 43 

Ishmael, name = " hearing " 
or " hearing God," G iii. 
32, 59, iv. 147, 245; 



sym. sense, G iii. 32, iv. 
245 ; sym. sophist, G iii. 
33 ; sym. one taught, 
G iii. 59 
Israel, name = " one who 
sees " or " seeing God," 
G iii. 49, iv. 233, E ii. 
22 n., 38 n., 47 ; is 
chosen nation, G iii. 49, 
^ii. 38, 42, 43, 46, 76; as 
nation of priests, £" i. 10 

Jacob, name =: " supplanter," 
G iv. 163 ; sym. asceti- 
cism, practice, training, 
G iv. 162-244 passim ; 
sym. orderliness, G iv. 
199 

Japheth, name=:" breadth," 
G ii. 80 ; sym. the in- 
different, G i. 88, ii. 79 

Jews, practise circumcision, 
G iii. 48 

Johansson, N., G iii. 44 n. 

John Lydus, Appendix A 
passim 

John Monachus, Appendix 
A passim, 

John of Damascus, Appendix 
A passim 

Josephus, E ii. 73 n. 

Joshua, name = " salvation," 
E ii. 43 ; sym. inspired 
soul, E ii. 43 

Joy, G i. 79, ii. 25, 27, iv. 8, 
16, 18, 19, 92, 101, 116, 
140, 147, 175, 188, 243, 
j&i.3, 15,23, ii. 15; sym. 
by Isaac, see Isaac 

Jubilee Year, G iii. 39, iv. 27 

Judah, tribe of, G iv. 123 

Jupiter (planet), E ii. 75 



291 



INDEX 



Justice and Injustice, G i. 12, 
49, 97, 98, 100, ii. 11,36, 
45, 48, 60, 67, 71, iii. 49, 
iv. 23, 26, 27, 64, 66, 68, 
114,115, 194, 235, ^i. 3, 
6, 12, ii. 4, 10, 19, 51, 
112 (see also Equality) ; 
justice of God, see God 

Kadesh, name = " holy " or 
" sacred," G iii. 36, iv. 
59 

Keturah, name = " incense- 
burning," G iv. 147 ; 
sym. smell, G iv. 147 

Kid, as sacrifice, E ii. 32 ; 
sym. character-traits, 6^' 
iv. 200, E i. S 

Kingship, G iv. 76, 140, 182, 
206, E ii. 6, 72, 105 

Kinship, among men, E i. 2, 
ii. 35, 36 ; with God, E 
ii. 29 

Knops, see Lampstand 

Knowledge and Ignorance, 
G ii. 49, 69, iii. 2, 3, 27, 
31-33, iv. 5, 14, 19, 22, 
24, 46, 64, 68, 103, 138, 
161, 168, 175, 226, 227, 
232, 243, 244, EL 16, 
ii. 7, 19, 25, 36, 51, 96 ; 
knowledge contrasted 
with thing known and 
act of knowing, ^ ii. 112 
(see also Education, 
Wisdom) 

Kor (measure), G iii. 39 

Laban, name=:" whiteness," 
Oiv. 117, 239, 243; sym. 
sense-perception, G iv. 
117,239 



Labour, two forms of (piety 
and humaneness), E ii, 
108 (see also Training) 
Ladder, Jacob's, sym. ascent 

of soul, G iv. 29 
Ladles, see Table 
Lamb, sym. purity, J5/ ii. 121 ; 
paschal, E ii. 32 (see also 
Paschal Sheep) 
Lamech, G i. 77 
Lamps, see Lampstand 
Lampstand in Tabernacle, 
sym. sense-perceptible 
heaven, E ii. 73-81, 83, 
95, 103-106 ; its bases, 
E ii. 80 ; its branches, 
E ii. 74-77 ; its knops, 
E ii. 74 ; its lamps sym. 
planets or stars, E ii. 78, 
104 ; its lilies sym. stars, 
E ii. 74, 76 ; its oil sym. 
wisdom, E ii. 103 ; its 
uplifters sym. stars, E 
ii. 80 ; weight of, E ii. 
81 
Laughter, see Isaac, Joy 
Laws of Gentiles, E ii. 22 
Laws of Moses, gen., G^ E 
passim ; extend through- 
out nature, E ii. 59 ; in- 
corruptible, E ii. 53 ; 
preservation and dis- 
solution of, E ii. 41 ; 
world-wide purpose of, 
E ii. 42 ; written at 
God's command, E ii. 
42, 43 
Laws of Nature, see Nature 
Leaf, see High Priest 
Learning, see Education 
Leaven, sym. pride, E \. 15, 
ii. 14 



292 



INDEX 



Lechery, see Sensual Pleasure 

Left Side, Q iv. 126 

Leisegang, H., G iv. 138 n., 
E ii. 22 n. 

Leo, ^ ii. 76 

Levites, E \. \0 

Lewy, H., G ii. 68 n., 82 n., 
iv. 33 n., 51 n.. Appendix 
A passim 

Libation, lit. and fig., E ii. 71 

Libation-bowls, see Table 

Libra, E ii. 76 

Life, gen., G i. 52, 57, iii. 15, 
57, iv. 1, 165, i^; i. 8, ii. 
18, 20, 55 ; two forms 
of (contemplative and 
practical), ^ ii. 31 ; three 
forms of (contemplative, 
active, pleasurable), G 
iv. 47 ; age and youth, 
G iii. 11, 16, iv. 14, 84, 
108, 120, 146, 152, 188, 
19^, 232, 236, E i. 4, 
ii. 31, 32 

Light, lit. and fig., G ii. 42, 
44, 72, 82, iii. 43, iv. 1,4, 
14, 18, 22, 30, 93, 94, 
147, 149, 157, 193, 243, 
E i. 13, 22, E ii. 7, 32, 
44, 80, 103, 106 

Lightness, see Weight 

Lilies, see Lampstand 

Linen, sym. earth, E ii. 85, 
107 

Lintel, sym. heart, £^ i. 12 

Logeion, see High Priest 

I ^ogos of Crod : 
administrator of world, G 

iv. 110, 111 
all-powerful. En. 13 
angel, G iv. 90, 91, E ii. 
13, 16 



artificer, E ii. 53, 81, 122 
blesses food, E'li. 18 
bond of world, E ii. 89 (?), 

118 
curator of God's power, 

E ii. 83 (?) 
cutter of world, G iii. 23 
disciplines wicked, G iii. 

28, 30, iv. 62, E ii. 101 
eternal, ^ii. 117 (?) 
form of forms, E ii. 124 
foundation of world, E ii. 

90 
guardian of God's power, 

E ii. 83 (?) 
harmonizer of world, G iv. 

110, 196, ii/ii. 68, 81,90, 

120 
head of all things, E ii. 

117 (?) 
immaterial, E ii. 122 
instrument in creation, G 

ii. 62, E ii. 42, 94 
intercessor, G iv. 114 (?) 
invisible, E ii. 81 
judge of world, G iii. 27, 

E ii. 13 
measurer of world, G i. 4, 

iv. 23 
mediator, E ii. 13, 68, 94, 

118 
minister of God, G iii. 34, 

iv. 114 (?) 
model of human mind, G 

ii. 62 
overseer of God's power, 

E ii. 83 (?) 
physician, G ii. 29 n., iii. 

28, 51 
place of God, i;/ ii. 39 
profits the mind, G iv. 215 
prophet of God, En. 16 



293 



INDEX 



seminal substance, E ii. 68 

source of two chief powers 
of God, ^ii. 68 

steward of God, E ii. 39 

teacher, (7 iv. 91 

tetrad, E ii. 94 

unity of, G iv. 60 

wise, jE" ii. 13 

word of God, G iii. 15, iv. 

49,51,59, 108, 196,223, 

E i. 14, 15, ii. 13, 68 (?), 

Ill 

Lord, see God 

Lot, sym. progressive man, 

G iv. 31-55 passim 
Lot's Daughters, sym. con- 
sent or counsel, G iv. 55 
Lot's Wife, sym. sense-per- 
ception, G iv. 52 
Love, erotic, ii/ ii. 13 ; of 
fellow-man, G \. 17, iv. 
2, 29, 52, 142, 193, 200, 
219, ^i. 5, ii. 11, 12,69, 
108 ; of God, G iii. 21, 
iv. 20, 139, E ii. 12 
(as implied in adjective 
" God-loving " passim) ; 
maternal, £" ii. 8 ; of 
self, (7 i. 62, iv. 194,^ii. 
3 ; of virtue, see Virtue ; 
of wisdom, see Wisdom 
Lynceus, G ii. 72 

Macedonian Empire, G iv. 43 
Mahalath, name = " from the 

beginning," G iv. 245 ; 

sym. sensual pleasure, 

G iv. 245 
Male and Female, see Active, 

Number -symbolism. 

Woman 
Mambre (Bibl. Mamre), 



name = " from sight," G 
iv. 1 ; sym. mind, G iv. 1 

Man, contrasted with ani- 
mals, see Animals ; con- 
trasted with God, G ii. 
54, 62, E ii. 33, 76 ; con- 
trasted with woman, see 
Woman ; earthly man, 
moulded by God, G i. 
4, 8, 28, 51,87, ii.l7, 56, 
66, iv, 164, E ii. 46 ; 
heavenly man, made in 
God's image, G i. 4, 8, 
93, ii. 56, iv. 164, E ii. 
47 ; mixture of oppo- 
sites, G iv. 203, 206, 220 ; 
sym. mind, see Mind ; 
" rational, mortal ani- 
mal," G iii. 43 ; " tame 
animal by nature," E i. 
16 

Manna, sym. spiritual food, 
G iv. 102 

Marriage, see Family, Num- 
ber-symbolism 

Mars (planet), E ii. 75 

Matter, gen., G, E passim ; 
" mother of created 
things," G iv. 160 ; of 
sublunary elements is 
one, E ii. 88 

Measure and Measuring, G 
iv. 8, 102, E ii. 33, 52, 
82 ; sym. by Logos, see I 
Logos I 

Medicine and Medical Care, 
G ii. 41, 79, iii. 25, 48, 
iv. 35, 45, 47, 76, 147, 
200, 201, 204, 218, ^ ii. 
25 

Megalopolis, i.e. the world, 
E i. 1, ii. 42 



294 



INDEX 



Memory, G iv. 45 ; sym. by 
camel, see Camel 

Menander, quoted, G iv. 120 

Mercury (planet), E ii. 75 

Mercy of God, see God 

Mercy-seat, see Ark of Taber- 
nacle 

Mesopotamia, sym. external 
causes, G iv. 93 ; bound- 
ary between virtue and 
vice, G iv. 243 

Methuselah, G i. 82 

Middle Way, G \\. 177, 239, 
E i. 6, 15 

Migration of the soul, see 
Soul 

Mind, usu. presented as 
sovereign part of soul, 
contrasted with sense- 
perception and passion, 
G i. 11, 21, 25, 46, 50, 
79, 94, ii. 18, 27, 34, 49, 
54, 5Q, 59, Q6, iii. 3, 42, 
43, 46, 52, 57, iv. 1, 8, 
14, 15,22,26,29,32,44, 
45, 52, 53, 56-58, 73, 74, 
82, 85, 90, 92, 94, 96, 98, 
112, 117, 121, 129, 140, 
157, 163, 179, 183, 189, 
191, 198, 215, 216, 218, 
234, 242, 244, E i. 3, 8, 
12, 22, ii. 3, 27, 50, 55, 
96, 100, 111, 115, 124; 
sym. by Moses, E ii. 27- 
49 passim ; unites in- 
telligibles, E \\. Ill 

Mishnah, E ii. 105 n. 

Mixing-bowls of Tabernacle, 
sym. mixed natures, E 
ii. 33, 76 

M ixture of elements, etc., E ii. 
14,33,37,63,76,88,121 



Moab, name = "from my 

father," G iv. 57 ; sym. 

products of mind, G iv. 

57, 58 
Moderation, see Sensual 

Pleasure, Virtue 
Monad, archetype of one, G 

iv. 110; as one, see 

Number-symbolism 
Moon, G ii. 33, iv. 27, 151, 

E\. 1, 9, ii. 75 
Morning, sym. light, E i. 

22 
Moses, sym. God - loving 

mind, E ii. 27-49 passim'^ 

ascends Mt. Sinai, G i. 

86, iv. 29, E ii. 27-49 ; 

mediates between God 

and Israel, E ii. 49 
Attributes : 
all-wise, E ii. 74 
chief messenger, G iv. 8 
divine, E ii. 54 
holy, E ii. 54 
holy father, G iv. 132 (?) 
interpreter, G iii. 10 
legislator, G ii. 64, iii. 48, 

iv. 90, 172, 244 
prophet, G i. 86 (" proto- 

prophet "), iii. 10, iv. 8 

(" chief prophet "), 29, 

90, 123, 245, E i. 12, 43, 

44, 46, 52, 67, 90 
teacher, G iii. 8, iv. 167 (of 

Greek philosophers), 218 

(of humaneness) 
theologian, G ii. 33, 59, 64, 

81, iii. 5,20,38, iv. 137, 

E ii. 37, 74, 87, 88, 108, 

117 
Motherhood, see Family 
Mount Sinai, see Sinai 



295 



INDEX 



Mountains, sym. senses, G 

ii. 21 ; sym. wisdom, 

O iv. 46, 49 
Mourning, G iv. 73, E \. S 
Mouth, organ of food and 

speech (g.v.), £^ ii. 118 
Muses, G\.6 
Music and Musical Harmony, 

G iii. 3, 38, 48, iv. 27, 29, 

76,95,^ii.37,38,93(?), 

103, 120 
Mysteries, G iv. 8, 35 (?), 1 10, 

E i. 13 n., ii. 52 

Nadab, name = " voluntary," 
E ii. 27 ; sym. voluntary 
vision, E ii. 27 

Nahor, name = " rest of 
light," G iv. 93 ; sym. 
wisdom, G iv. 93 

Nakedness, lit. and fig., G 
i. 30, 40, ii. 69, 70, 72, 
iv. 22 

Names, gen., G i. 20-22, iii. 
43, 67, iv. 194, 243, E 
ii. 66 

Nature, beauty of, G iv. 245 ; 
conceals itself, G \v. 1, 
21, 22 ; contemplation 
of, jE' ii. 31 ; convention 
and nature, G iv. 184 ; 
female and passive, G 
iii. 3 ; God and nature, 
G iii. 41, iv. 21, 42, 51, 
87, 88, E ii. 51, 68 ; 
harmony and order in 
nature, G ii. 55, iii. 5, 15, 
38, iv. 23, 29, 46, 110, 
114, E ii. 58, 59, 68, 74, 
76, 78, 118, 120; healer, 
G ii. 41 ; law of nature, 
G iv. 90, 152, 184, 205, 



E ii. 19, 59 (?) ; mother 
and provider, G ii. 60, 
80, En. 12 ; perfection 
of, ^ ii. 1 ; self-produ- 
cing, G iii. 39 ; teacher, 
G iii. 27, 54, 59 ; two 
species of (corporeal and 
incorporeal), E ii. 54 

Navigation, G iv. 76, 90, 218, 
236, E ii. 44, 55 

Necessity, O i. 21, 68, ii. 45, 
50, iv. 29, 34, 74, 133, 
162, 222, E ii. 58, 89 (?) 

Night, as time for sacrifice, 
EL 11, 13, 18 

Nilsson, m.V.,E ii. 76 n. 

Nimrod, name = " Ethio- 
pian," G ii. 82 ; sym. 
evil, G ii. 82 

Noah, name = " rest," G i. 
87 ; name = " right- 
eous," G ii. 45 ; birth- 
day of, G i. 87, ii. 33 ; 
drunkenness of, G ii. 69- 
73 ; as husbandman, G 
ii. QQ (see also Ark of 
Noah) 

Nocturnal Emission, E ii. 
15(?) 

Nose, G i. 77, ii. 3, iii. 5, 32, 
239 (see also Smell) 

Number-symbolism, angular 
and oblong, (? i. 83, 91, 
ii. 5, 45, iii. 49, 5Q, E ii. 
93, 1 1 1 ; digits, G i. 83 ; 
equal and unequal, G i. 
91, ii. 5, 14, iii. 49 ; odd 
and even (or male and 
female), G i. 83, 91, ii. 
14, iii. 38, 49, 5<6, 61, E 
ii. 33, 46 ; ratio, G iv. 
27 ; salutary, G iv. 27 



296 



INDEX 



Symbolism of individual 
numbers : 

one, G i. 15, 91, ii. 5, 45, 

iii. 43, 5Q, iv. 110, 118, 

144, Eli. 29, 68, 81, 93 
two, G i. 15, ii. 12, iv. 30, 

110, ^Mi. 29, 93, 100 
three, G ii. 5, iii. 3, 61, iv. 

8, 30, 93, J^ ii. 100 
four, G i. 12, 83, iii. 12, 49, 

56, iv. 195, E ii. 27, 87, 

93, 97, 99 
five, G iv. 110, 151, E ii. 

97, 99 
six, G i. 91, ii. 17, 42, 45, 

46, iii. 38, 49, iv. 164, E 

ii. 46, 87 
seven, G i. 77, ii. 12, 41, 47, 

56, 78, iii. 39,49, iv. 71, 

151, E ii. 27, 46, 68, 78, 

87 
eight, (? i. 91, ii. 5, iii. 49, 

52 
nine, O iv. 110 
ten, G i. 77, 87, ii. 32, 40, 

iii. 12, 17, 39, 5Q, iv. 

27, 93, 110, 118, 189, 

E ii. 27, 84 
twelve, G iii. 59 
thirteen, G iii. 61 
fifteen, (/ 1, 91, ii. 21 
twenty, G iv. 27, 71 
twenty-four, G ii. 5 
twenty-five, G w. 151 
twenty-eight, E ii. 87 
thirty, (? i. 91, ii. 5, iv. 27 
thirty-six, G iii. 49, 56 
forty, G i. 25, ii. 14, iv. 154, 

E ii. 49, 87 
forty-five, G iv. 27 
fifty, G ii. 5, 78, iv. 27, E ii. 

93 



fifty-six, (? i. 91 

sixty, G^ii. 17, iv. 164,£^ii. 

81 
sixty-four, G i. 91, iii. 49, 

seventy, G i. 77, iv. 151, 

E ii. 27 
seventy-five, E ii. 100 
eighty, G ii. 14, iii. 38 
ninety, G iii. 56 
ninety-nine, G iii. 39, 61 
one hundred, G i. 83, iii. 
39,56,61, iv.71, 151,189 
one hundred and twenty, 

G i. 91 
two hundred and eighty, 

E ii. 87 
three hundred, G ii. 5 
three hundred and sixty- 
five, G i. 84 
six hundred, G ii. 17 
ten thousand, G iii. 56 
Nut, sym. zodiac, E ii. 76 

Oak, sym. health, G^ iv. 1 ; 
sym. pride, G iv. 161, 
206, 207 
Oath, G iv. 86, 88, 180 
Obedience, E ii. 13, 16 
Oil, olive-oil sym. virtue, G 
ii. 42, iv. 1 ; olive-oil 
alone suitable for temple- 
service, E ii. 33, 103 
Olympians, G iv. 6 
Opinion, as opposed to know- 
ledge and truth, G i. 39, 
iii. 31, 33, 47, iv. 24, 25, 
32, 100, 121, 131, 139, 
155, 185, 213, E i. 20, 
ii. 5, 14, 17, 36, 96, 107, 
Oracles, of pagans, E i. 20 
Orators, G iii. 43, iv. 104, 152 



297 



INDEX 



Order, in age, nature, num- 
ber, rank, time, G i. 64, 
ii. 45, 47, 74, iii. 49, iv. 
12, 84, 122, 157, 199, 
215, 218, 230, E i. 1, ii. 
27, 46, 58 

Orphans, E ii. 3, 4 

Oryx, permitted for food, 
E ii. 101 

Ox, as sacrifice, E ii. 101 ; 
sym. earth, G iii. 3, 7 

Pain, see Pleasure 

Painting, G iv. 243 

Palm (measure), £' ii. Ill n. 

Papyrus, E ii. 41 

Paradise, G i. 6-15, 34, 6Q ; 
sym. immortal virtues, 
G iv. 51 

Pascha, name = " pass over," 
£/i. 4 

Paschal Lamb or Sheep, E i. 
3, 7-18 ; sym. spiritual 
change, E i. 4< 

Pascher, J., G iv. 110 n. 

Passion, see Fear, Grief, Sen- 
sual Pleasure 

Passover, E i. 1-23 ; of the 
soul, E i. 4< 

Patriarchs (phylarchs), sym. 
by stones of Logeion, E 
ii. 14 ; sym. constella- 
tions, ^ ii. 14 

Patterns, see Archetypes, In- 
corporeality 

Peace and War, lit. and fig., 
G iii. 8, iv. 90, 197, 206, 
218, 228, 229, 235, E ii. 
11, 21, 44, 64, 68, 102 

Pederasty, G iv. 37 

Pentad, see Number-sym- 
bolism 



Pentecostal Year, see Jubilee 
Year 

Perfection, G i. 97, iii. 10, 12, 
20, 32, iv. 30, 34, 47, 60, 
66, 133, 164, 175, 177, 
191, 205, 213, E i. 1, 8, 
ii. 60, 69, 76 ; sym. by 
Abraham in contrast to 
Lot, the progressive man, 
G iv. passim (see also 
Progress) 

Peripatetics, G iii. 16 (see 
also Aristotle) 

Perseverance, see Constancy 

Persians, empire of, G iv. 43 

Pharan (Bibl. Bered), name 
= " hail " or " dots," G 
iii. 36 

Philistines, name = " for- 
eigners " (c/. Lxx allo- 
phyloi), G iy. 177, 191 

Philosophy (Gr. phUosophia), 
G i. 57, ii. 41, iii. 5, 33, 
43, iv. 1, 21, 22, 42, 76, 
87, 89, 93, 97, 104, 167, 
191, 192, 241, E ii. 13, 
20, 103, 117, 118, 124 n. 
(see also Wisdom) 

Phylarchs (patriarchs), E ii. 
14 

Piety and Impiety, G i. 10, 
55,66,76, 100, ii. 13, 18, 
23,43,48,61, 70, 82, iii. 
1,28, 43, iv. 1,2, 10, 12, 
19,29,42,44,49,51,53, 
60, 67, 84, 133, 200, E 
i. 1, 7, 10, 12, 21, ii. 15, 
26,27,31,45,47,83,99, 
101, 105, 115; piety as 
queen of virtues, E ii. 
38 

Pillar, sym. opinion, E ii. 17 ; 



298 



^^■^ pillars 



INDEX 



pillars of Tabernacle, E 

ii. 88, 98, 97 
Pillars of Heracles, G ii. 28 
Pisces, E ii. 76 
Pishon, name = " frugality," 

G* i. 12 ; sym. prudence, 

G\. 13 
Pity, G iv. 233 
Place, gen., G iv. 187, E ii. 

39,40 
Planets, see Earth, Heaven, 

Moon, Sun 
Plato, quoted or para- 
phrased, (t i. 6 {Tim. 92 

c), iii. 3 {Phaedr. 246 e), 

iv. 51 n. {Phaedr. 246 e), 

90 n. {Ion 534 b), 159 

n. {Phaedo 60 b), 104 n. 

{Tim. 55 c), ^ i. 7 n. 

{Tim. 90 A ff.), 12 n. 

{passim), ii. 81 n. {Tim. 

33), ii. 118 (Tim. 75 n-E), 

124 n. 
Pleasure and Pain, G i. 41, 

56, 77, ii. 46, iii. 51, iv. 

81, 101, 225, 238, E ii. 

71, 105 
Plinth, E ii. 37 
Polytheism, G iv. 2, E ii. 2, 

36 
Pomegranates, see High 

Priest 
Possession (of property), G 

iii. 37, iv. 121, 134, 148, 

172, 230 (in sense of 

possession loy spirit, see 

Inspiration) 
Post, L. A., (;iv. 120n., 151 

n., 152 n., E ii. 81 n., 

83 n. 
Poverty and Riches, lit. and 

fig., G iv. 230, ^ ii. 10 



Powers of God, see God 

Practiser, see Jacob 

Praechter, K., Appendix A 
passim. 

Praise, ^ ii. 6, 107 

Prayer, G i. 70, iv. 19, 25, 26, 
28, 53, 70, 73, 185, 198, 
218, 233, E ii. 2, 49 

Preaux, C, E ii. 80 n. 

Prediction, see Prophecy 

Pride and Humility, G ii. 24, 
iii. 25, 30, 47, 48, 56, 
iv. 15, 19, 28, 48, 100, 
133, 142, 149, 156, 161, 
224, 237, E i. 6, 13, 15, 
ii. 14, 25, 37, 54 

Priests, E i. 10, ii. 100, 105 ; 
Israel as nation of priests, 
EL 10 

Primogeniture, G i. 81, iii. 
49, iv. 153, 160, 168, 
172, 206 n., 224, 229 

Princes, sym. sensual men, 
G iv. 217 

Procopius, Appendix A pas- 
sim 

Procreation, lit. and fig., G 
ii. 49, 56, iii. 18, 21, 47, 

48, 56, 61, iv. 56, 86, 
154, 210(?), 214, ^ii. 8, 
19 (see also Conception) 

Progress, Progressive Man, 
G iii. 18, 27, 31, 48, iv. 
12, 30, 31, 34, 46, 47, 

49, 51-55, 66, 101, 108, 
137, 175, 188, 190, 191, 
198, 200, 215, 229, 243, 
J5;i. 3, 7-18, ii. 20; sym. 
by Abimelech, G iv. 1 88 ; 
sym. by Jacob, G iv. 
passim ; sym. by Lot, 
(t iv. 31-55 passim ; sym. 

299 



INDEX 



by paschal lamb or 
sheep, ^i. 3, 7-18 
Progression (in music), see 

Music 
Promise of God, G iii. 55-58 
Prophecy, Prophets, G iv. 90, 
125, 138, 196, 212, E ii. 
27, 29, 43, 49, 67 ; pro- 
phetic souls, E \. 4> (see 
also Inspiration, Logos) 
Prostration before God, G iv. 
3, 78, 113, 130, E ii. 83 
Providence, see God 
Prudence, see Virtue 
Ptolemy, Claudius, £^ ii. 81 n. 
Punishment for Sin, G i. 35, 
77, ii. 14, 43, 54, 77, iii. 
52, 66, iv. 4, 8, 25, 26, 
50-52, 70, ^ i. 4 
Puppet-show, G iii. 48 
Purity, see Holiness, Mixture 
Purple, sym. M^ater, E ii. 85 
Pythagoras, Pythagoreans, 
G\. 17, 99, iii. 16, 49, iv. 
8, 27 n., E i. 23 n., ii. 
33 n. (see also Number- 
symbolism) 

Quality and Quantity, G iv. 

181 
Quintessence, see Elements 

Rainbow, (r ii. 64 

Ram, as sacrifice, E \\. \0\ \ 

sym. air or reason, G iii. 

3,7 
Ram (constellation), head of 

zodiac, E \, \ 
Raven, sym. wickedness, G 

ii. 36-39 
Raw Meat, sym. savagery, 

^i. 16 



Reason, see Mind 

Rebekah, name = " con- 
stancy," G iv. 97, 188, 
199 ; sym. constancy or 
perseverance, G iv. 92- 
188 passim 

Red, sym. shameful passion, 
G iv. 170 

Reformation of Character, 
G\Y. 12,233,245,^1.8, 
13, 15, 16, ii. 107 

Refuge, Cities of, G iii. 52 

Reitzenstein, R., E ii. 38 n., 
39 n. 

Relaxation, see Tension 

Repentance, G i. 82, 91, ii. 
42, 43, 54, iv. 180, 233, 
E\. 13, 15, 16 

Rest and Movement (incl. 
Change), G i. 87, iii. 39, 
62, iv. 1,93, ^ii. 55, 70, 
83, 91, 106 

Reuben (tribe), G iv. 123 

Revelation and Truth (Urim 
and Thummim), see 
High Priest 

Revenge, E \\. 11. 

Reverence, see Piety, Pro- 
stration 

Righteousness, see Justice 

Rivers of Paradise, G i. 
12 

Road to Virtue, G iii. 27, 
iv. 108, 125, 131, 226, 
242, E i. 19, ii. 13, 26 

Roasting, see Food 

Robbins, F. E., G ii. 5 n., E 
ii. 81 n. 

Royal Highway, see Road 
to Virtue 

Ruddiness, sym. savagery 
(in Esau), Q iv, 160 



300 






INDEX 



Sabbath, ^ i. 9 

wSabbatical Year, G iii. 39 

Sacrifice, lit. and fig., G 1. 62, 
ii. 52, iii. 3, 48, 102, E 1. 
3,7,10, 12,17, 18, ii. 14, 
31, 32, 35, 50, 99, 101 ; 
sym, communion, E ii. 
69 ; sym. soul, G iv. 28, 
^i. 11,98, 100; equality 
of, E ii. 99 (see also 
Altar, Paschal Lamb) 

Sagittarius, E ii. 76 

Salt, sym. communion, E ii. 
69 ; sym. unfruitfulness, 
G iv. 52 

Salutary Offerings (Bibl. 
" peace-offerings "), see 
Sacrifice 

Salvation, O i. 71, ii. 11, 22, 

25, 27, iii. 52, 57, iv. 7, 
26,27,44,45,49-51,54, 
130, 198, 233, E ii. 43, 
64 

Sanctuary, see Holy of Holies 
Sapphire, as colour of heaven, 

E ii. 37 
Sarah, name = " ruler," G 

iii. 52, iv. 122 ; sym. 

virtue and wisdom, G ii. 

26, iii-iv passim 
Saturn (planet), E ii. 75 
Scarlet, sym. fire, E ii. 85 
Schmidt, Helmut, E ii. 124 n. 
School-studies, see Educa- 
tion 

Science, see Knowledge 

Scorpio, E ii. 76 

Scriptures, gen., G, E pas- 
sim ; beauty of, G iv. 
196, 223; truth of, G 
iv. 168 

Scylla, G i. 76 



Seals, lit. and fig., E ii. 114, 
122, 124 (see also Im- 
pressions) 

Seasons, see Time 

Sediment in Temple-oil, sym. 
impurity, E ii. 103 

Seeing, see Sight 

Seminal Principle or Sub- 
stance, G ii. 16, 42, E ii. 
68 (see also God, Logos) 

Sense-perception, G i. 25, 35, 
37, 38, 47-49, 52, 77, 94, 
ii. 3, 21, 29, 34, iii. 3, 5, 
22, 32, 41, 51, iv. 1, 3, 
11,52, 88, 110, 117-121, 
189, 203, 215, 239, 240, 
243, E i. 4, 8, 22, ii. 3, 
13, 16, 52-59, 69, 82, 93- 
100, 106,112,121; good 
senses v. bad senses, G 
iv. 147 ; sense as servant 
of mind, (? iv. 215-216 ; 
(see also Hearing, Sight, 
Smell, Taste, Touch) 

Sensual Pleasure (Gr. hedone, 
vel sim.), (x i. 31, 41, 44, 
46, 51, 99, ii. 7, 8, 12, 
18, 22, 29, 37, 46, 49, 
56, 57, 59, 61, 68, 69, 
iii. 10,21,27,48,51,52, 
61, iv. 15, 16, 33-42, 53, 
66, 77, 79, 80, 86, 90, 
99, 112, 135, 152, 154, 
159, 168, 170, 173, 182, 
183, 185, 191, 198, 201, 
206, 210, 224, 230, 234, 
238, 240, 241, 245, E i. 
8, 15, 19, ii. 2, 3, 12, 14, 
18, 31, 51, 100, 118 

Serpent, sym. sensual pleas- 
ure, G i. 31-36, 47, 48, 
ii. 56, 57 



301 



INDEX 



Servants and Masters, see 

Freedom 
Seth, name = " one who 

drinks water," (r i. 78 ; 

sym. virtuous soul, G i. 

78, 81 
Sheep, as sacrifice, E i. 7, ii. 

32, 101 ; Paschal sheep 

sym. progress, E i. 3, 

7-18 
Shem, sym. good, O i. 88, ii. 

79 
Shoes, sym. road to virtue, 

^i. 19 
Shoulder, sym. labour, G iv. 

98, E ii. 108 
Shoulder-pieces, see High 

Priest 
Shur, name = " wall," G iii. 

27, iv. 59 
Sight, G i. 77, ii. 3, 21, 34, 

iii. 5, 32, 51,iv. 1,3, 11, 

^ii. 3, 39, 31, 52, 82, 112 

(see also Eye) 
Silence, G iv. 108, £" ii. 118 
Silenus, G iv. 99 
Silver, sym. sense-perception, 

E ii. 102 
Similarity and Dissimilarity, 

E ii. 33 
Sin, G i. 65, 68, 73, ii. 14, iii. 

40, 41, iv. 60, 65, QQ, 70, 

73,92, 152,190,245,^1. 

8, 15, 32, ii. 41 
Sinai, name — " inacces- 
sible," £' ii. 45 ; as scene 

of revelation, E ii. 27-49 
Sin-oifering, see Sacrifice 
Sirens, G iii. 3 
Skeptics, G iii. 33 
Slavery, see Freedom 
Sleep and Sleeplessness, lit. 



and fig., G i. 24, iii. 9, 
55, iv. 2, 62, 94, E ii. 15, 
82 

Smell, (? ii. 3, 21, iii. 5, 51, 
iv. 1, 11, 52, 214 (see 
also Nose) 

Smoothness, of Jacob's skin, 
sym. frugality, virtue, G 
iv. 201, 204, 206 

Sobriety, see Drunkenness 

Socrates, quoted, G ii. 3, iii. 3 
{Phaedr. 246 e) (see also 
Plato) 

Sodom, name = " blindness," 
G ii. 43, iv. 23, 31 ; name 
= " sterility," G iv. 23, 
31 ; sym. sense-percep- 
tion, G iv. 52 

Sodomites, sym. bad traits, 

G iv. 36, 38, 51, 52 ■ ■ q 

Sojourn, usu. of mind or soul 
in body, G iii. 10, 45, iv. 
42, 45, 59, 74, 178, 185, 
187, 195, ^ii. 2 

Solstice, see Equinox 

Sons of God, see Angels 

Sophists and Sophistry, G 
iii. 19, 23-25, 27, 33, 35, 
iv. 87, 88, 92, 95, 104, 
107, 221 

Soul, gen., Gi. 10, 11, 78, ii. 
29, iii. 42, 48, 54, iv. 1, 
214, 230, 243, £^ i. 17, ^ 
ii. 35, 39, 71, 80; body 
and soul, see Body ; 
eightfold soul (reason, 
five senses, organ of re- 
production, speech — as 
in Stoic theory), G i. 75, 
ii. 12, iii. 4, iv. 110 ; five- 
fold soul (rational, iras- 
cible, appetitive, nutri- 



302 



INDEX 



tive, sense-perceptive — 
as in Aristotelian theory), 
G iv. 186 ; harmony of 
soul, E ii. 20, 38 ; in- 
corporeal soul, see Incor- 
poreality ; migration of 
soul, E ii. 40 ; moved by 
itself only, E ii. 120; 
origin of soul in wis- 
dom, E ii. 36 ; threefold 
soul (rational, appetitive, 
spirited — as in Platonic 
theory), 6^ ii. 59, iv. 216, 
E \. 12 ; twofold soul 
(rational and irrational), 
G iv. 112, 117, 159, 218, 
220, E i. 23, 33, 53 (see 
also Mind, Sense-per- 
ception) 

South, E'ii. 101 ; south celes- 
tial sphere, E ii. 79 

Span (measure), ^ ii. Ill n. 

Speech (incl. logos prophori- 
kos), G i. 32, 77, ii. 42, 
60, iii. 43, iv. 8, 13, 85, 
88-90, 96, 102, 107, 108, 
120, 132, 140, 210, 214, 
221,i!;i. 17, ii. 5, 16,34, 
44, 110, 111, 116, 118; 
speech as composed of 
letters, syllables, words, 
discourses, ^ ii. Ill 

Spirit, divine spirit, G i. 90, 
ii.28,59,iv.5,Z!;ii.33n.; 
holy spirit, E ii. 33 (?) ; 
vital spirit, G ii. 8, iii. 3 

Spring (of water), see Foun- 
tain 

Spring (season), see Equinox, 
Time 

Square, see Number-sym- 
bolism 



Staehle, K., G ii. 5 n., iii. 

12 n., 38 n., 49 n., iv. 

92 n., llOn., ^ii. 84 n., 

97 n., 100 n.. Appendix 

A passim 
Staff, sym. rule, £" i. 19 
Stars, see Heaven 
Statecraft, 6' iv. 165, 218, 

236, E ii. 42, 44 
Statins, E ii. 76 n. {Theh. iv. 

225) 
Stein, Edmund, E ii. 62 n. 
Sterility, see Barrenness, 

Sodom 
Stoics, G iii. 3 n., iv. 26 n., 

46 n., 85 n., 145 n., 196 

n., E ii. 110 n., 120, 

124 n. 
Stole, see High Priest 
Stone Tablets, ^ ii. 41 
Stones, of altar at Sinai, E ii. 

30 ; of shoulder-pieces 

of high priest, see High 

Priest 
Strabo, G iv. 1 n. 
Strangers, see Foreigners 
Sublunary World, see Ele- 
ments 
Sulphur, (t iv. 51, 52 
Summer, see Equinox and 

Solstice, Time 
Sun, sym. wisdom, G i. 10, 

57, 84, ii. 40, iii. 14, iv. 

1, 51, 94, 140, 158, ^ii. 

32, 51 ; movements of, 

<7iii. 3, ^i. 1, ii. 75, 76, 

112 
Supplanter, see Jacob 
Surface (in geometry), E ii. 

61, 121 
Sword, G i. 57 
Symbolism, gen., G^ E pas- 



SOS 



INDEX 



sim ; nature of, E ii. 52, 
71 
Sympathy, see Nature, har- 
mony in 

Tabernacle, sym. corporeal 
and sense - perceptible 
world, E ii. 49-106 ; 
eternity of, E ii. 53; 
parts and furniture, see 
Altar, Ark, Bar, Cur- 
tains, Holy of Holies, 
Holy Place, Lampstand, 
Pillar, Table, Veils 

Table in Tabernacle, sym. 
corporeality and sense- 
perception, E ii. 69-72, 
83, 95 ; its censers, E 
ii. 71 ; its ladles, sym. 
drink, jE ii. 71 ; its cups, 
sym. food, ^ ii. 71 ; its 
libation-bowls, £" ii. 71 ; 
its wreathed wave, sym. 
change, E ii. 70 

Tablets, for writing, E ii. 
41 

Talent (weight), sym. unity, 
E ii. 81 

Tartarus, G iv. 234, E ii. 40 

Tassels, see High Priest 

Taste, G i. 35, 77, ii. 3, 21, 
iii. 5, 51, iv. 1, 11, 52 

Taurus, E ii. 76 

Teaching, see Education 

Temple and Temple-service, 
G iv. 151, E i. 10, 12, ii. 
30, 83, 105 

Tenses of Verbs, G iv. 166 

Tension and Relaxation, G 
iv. 29 

Tent of Testimony, see Taber- 
nacle 



Testament, E ii. 106 (see 
also Covenant) 

Testimonies, placed in Ark, 
E ii. 59, 68, 106 

Testimony, in court, E ii. 9 

Tetrad, see Number- sym- 
bolism 

Thanksgiving to God (incl. 
Thank-offering), G i. 64, 
ii.50,53,iv.26, 113, 130, 
194, ^i. 7, ii. 31,69, 72, 
83 99 102 

Theatre, G iv. 69, 172, 201, 
204 

Theodoret, Appendix A pas- 
sim 

Theologians, see Philosophy 

Thigh, sym. stability, G iv. 86 

Thought (Gr. logos endia- 
thetos), E ii. 110, HI, 
116 (see also Mind) 

Tigris, sym. rage, G \. 12, 13, 
iv. 243 

Time, gen., G i. 100, ii. 47, 
iii. 60, iv. 122, 189, ^ ii. 
20 ; came into being 
with creation of world, 
^ i. 1 ; as measured by 
days, months, years, 
seasons, G ii. 14, 17, 33, 
55, iii. 3, 5, 13, iv. 1, 12, 
30, 51, 90, 150, 189, E 
i. 1, 8, ii. 5%, 73, 76, 
77, 112, 113; various 
systems of chronology. 
El. 1 

Titans, G ii. 82 

Tithes, G iii. 39, 5Q, iv. 1 10 n. 

Tongue, G iii. 32, E \\. 118 
(see also Speech, Taste) 

Touch, (?i. 77, ii. 3, 21, iii. 5, 
51, iv. 1, 11 



304 



INDEX 



Training of Body, O ii. 63, iii. 
12, iv. 29, 210, 238, E 
i. 6, ii. 103 (see also 
Athletic Contests) 

Trance, see Sleep 

Tree of Knowledge, G \. II 

Tree of Life, (? i. 10, 55 

Triad, see Number-symbo- 
lism 

Tribes of Israel, E ii. 80 (see 
also Patriarchs) 

Trojan War, E ii. 102 

Truth, O iv. 69, 115, 125, 172, 
194, 204, 206, 224, E i. 
20, ii. 5, 9, 101, 107, 
111, 116; truth of 
Scripture, G iv. 168 (see 
also Opinion) 

Tunic, of Adam and Eve, G 
i. 53 

Turner's Art, see Arts 

Unbounded, E i. 23 

Undergarment of high priest, 
see High Priest 

Understanding, see Mind 

Unity and Separateness, E 
ii. 33, 88, 118 

Unleavened Bread, sym. hu- 
mility, E \. 15 ; festival 
of ^i. 1 n. 

Uplifters, see Lampstand 

Urim and Thummim, see 
High Priest 

Valley, sym. state of soul, G 
iv. 195 

Veils of Tabernacle, veil be- 
tween Holy Place and 
Holy of Holies, sym. 
four elements, E ii. 91- 
95,106: veil at entrance 



to Tabernacle (called 
"covering"), E ii. 96, 97 

Venison, sym. character, G 
iv. 167, 222 

Venus (planet), E ii. 75 

Virginity, lit. and fig., G iv. 
95, 99, 111, 119, 132,' 
143, 242, ^ ii. 3 ; vir- 
ginity of number seven, 
see Number-symbolism 

Virgo, E ii. 76 

Virtue and Virtuous Man, 
gen., G^i. 51,75, 97, 100, 
ii. 12, 38-40, 59, 71, 76, 
79, iii. 1, 8, 19-22, 27, 
30,40,48,51,54,60,61, 
iv. 2,6-16,20,22,45, 61, 
63, 69, 73, 80, 84, 92, 
116, 129, 133, 134, 144- 
148, 152, 157, 166, 167, 
172, 204, 206, 215, 217, 
222, 225, 228, 231, 241, 
243, E i. 6, 7, ii. 13, 23, 
27, 38, 53, 54, 71, 103, 
116; cardinal virtues 
(incl. two or more), G i. 
12, 13, 99, ii. 23, iii. 53, 
iv. 11, 157, 159, 214, E 
i. 4, 8, ii. 12, 17, 112; 
beauty of virtue, G iv. 
99 ; is motherless, G iv. 
68 ; is older than vice, 
G^ iv. 51 ; is sister or 
brother of wisdom, G iv. 
60, QQ, 162 

Vision of God, see Sight 

Voice, see Speech ; voice of 
God, see God 

Voluntary and Involuntary 
Acts, (? i. 21, 66, 68, ii. 
45, 50, 69, 79, iii. 51,56, 
iv. 1, 34, 37, 64, Q5, 70, 



305 



INDEX 



73, 133, 180, 204, 211, 
231, ^i. 4, ii. 27,36, 50 
Vowels, G^iii. 43, iv. 117 

Wall, sym. protection, G iii. 

27 (see also Shur) 
War, see Peace 
Wasp, sym. divinely sent 

power, E ii. 24 
Water, gen., E ii. 56, 85, 

88, 90, 117-120; sym. 

icosahedron, G iii. 49 ; 

sym. health, E ii. 18 ; 

sym. passion, G ii. 37 ; 

sym. purification, G iv. 

5 ; sym. wisdom, G iv. 

94, 98, 102, 104-107 (see 

also Elements) 
Water-jar, sym. education, 

(?iv. 98, 100, 107; sym. 

grace, G iv. 102 
Weaving, sym. elements, E 

ii. 86 
Weight, E ii. 56, 57, 81, 118 
Wells, see Fountain 
Wendland, P., G ii. 64 n., iv. 

68 n., 88 n., 145 n., E ii. 

21 n., 49 n., Appendix 

A passim 
West, G i. 7, E ii. 101 
Wheat, for sacrifice, E ii. 

99 
Whiteness, see Laban 
Whole Burnt - offering, see 

Sacrifice 
Widows, E ii. 3, 4 
Wild Goat, permitted for 

food, E ii. 101 
Wilderness, E ii. 83 ; sym. 

search for virtue, G iii. 

27, iv. 31, E ii. 100 
Will, see Voluntary Acts 



Wine, G ii. 67, 68, iv. 9, 82, 
^ii. 15, 18, 71, 118; as 
offering to God, E ii. 
102 (see also Drunken- 
ness) 

Wings, of powers of God, 
E ii. 64 

Winter, see Equinox, Time 

Wisdom, gen., O i. 1 1, 56, 57, 
90, ii. 12, 23, 40, 41, 44, 
72, 75, 76, iii. 1, 21, 23- 
25, 28, 29, 33, 35, 39, 
42-44, 61, iv. 1, 2, 6, 8, 
11, 14,25,28,29,33,35, 
41,46,47,51,53,59,60, 
62, 66-68, 70, 73-76, 91, 
93, 94, 101, 103, 104, 
108, 116, 121, 125, 134, 
138-140, 143, 158, 159, 
165, 172, 182, 184, 188, 
193, 194, 198, 201, 217, 
218, 232, 233, 243, E i. 
4,8, 15, 23, ii. 12, 13, 15, 
23, 36, 38, 44, 103, 108 ; 
is beautiful, G iv. 99 ; 
is daughter of God, G 
iv. 97 ; is motherless, 
G iv. 145 ; is mother of 
all things, G iv. 47 ; is 
spiritual light, ^ ii. 7 ; 
is virgin, E ii. 3 

Wolfson, H. A., G \. 100 n., 
iv. 90 n., 125 n., 137 n., 
147 n., 160n., Ei. 23n., 
90 n., 105 n. 

Woman, contrasted with man 
as symbol of sense con- 
trasted with symbol of 
mind, G i. 25-29, 33, 37, 
43, 45, 47, 52, ii. 14, 26, 
49, iii. 3, 18, 47, iv. 15, 
38, 52, 148, 160, E i. 7, 



306 




INDEX 



female as imperfect 
male, E i. 7 

Wood, of ark, sym. incor- 
ruption, E ii. 53, 57 

Word of God, see God, Logos 

World, see Creation, Ele- 
ments, Nature 

Wreathed Wave, see Ark, 
Table 

Writing, JE' ii. 41 

Year, name == " contains 
everything within it- 



self," E i. 8, ii. 67 (see 
also Time) 
Youth, see Life 

Zillah, G i. 77 

Zodiac, G iv. 164, E ii. 75-78, 
109, 112-114 (see also 
under names of Con- 
stellations) 

Zoor (Bibl. Zoar), name = 
" mountain," G iv. 50 : 
sym. salvation or de- 
struction, G iv. 50 



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Benner and F. H. Fobes. 

Apollodorus. Sir James G. Frazer. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 

Apollonius Rhodius. R. C. Seaton. {4ith Imp.) 

The Apostolic Fathers. Kirsopp Lake. 2 Vols. (Vol. 1 
8th Imp., Vol. II 6th Imp.) 

Appian's Roman History. Horace White. 4 Vols. (Vol. I 
3rd Imp., Vols. II, 111 and IV 2nd Imp.) 

Aratus. Cf. Callimachus. 

Aristophanes. Benjamin Bickley Rogers. 3 Vols. (Vols. 
I and II 5th Imp., Vol. Ill 4th Imp.) Verse trans. 

Aristotle: Art of Rhetoric. J. H. Freese. (3rd Imp.) 

Aristotle : Athenian Constitution, Eudemian Ethics, 
Virtues and Vices. H. Rackham. (Srd Imp.) 

Aristotle : Generation of Animals. A. L. Peck. {2nd 
Imp.) 

Aristotle: Metaphysics. H.Tredennick. 2 Vols. {Srd Imp.) 

Aristotle: Meteorologica. H. D. P. Lee. 

Aristotle : Minor Works. W. S. Hett. " On Colours," 
" On Things Heard," " Physiognomies," " On Plants," 
" On Marvellous Things Heard," " Mechanical Problems," 
" On Indivisible Lines," " Situations and Names of 
Winds," "On Melissus, Xenophanes, and Gorgias." {2nd 
Imp.) 

Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics. H. Rackham. {5th 
Imp. revised.) 

Aristotle: Oeconomica and Magna Moralia. d. C. 
Armstrong. (With Metaphysics, Vol. 11.) {3rd Imp.) 

Aristotle: On the Heavens. W. K. C. Guthrie. {Srd Imp.) 

Aristotle : On the Soul, Parva Naturalia, On Breath. 
W. S. Hett. {2nd Imp. revised.) 

Aristotle : Organon. H. P. Cooke and H. Tredennick. 
3 Vols. Vol. 1. {2nd Imp.) 

Aristotle : Parts of Animals. A. L. Peck ; Motion and 
Progression of Animals. E. S. Forster. {3rd Imp.) 

Aristotle: Physics. Rev. P. Wicksteed and F. M. Corn- 
ford. 2 Vols. (\'ol. 1 2nd Imp., \\)1. II 3rd Imp.) 

Aristotle : Poetics and Longinus. W. Hamilton Fyfe ; 
Demetrius on Style. W. Rhys Roberts. {5th Imp. re- 
vised.) 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

Aristotle: Politics. II. Rackham. {4th Imp.) 
Aristotle: Problems. W. S. HetL 2 Vols. (\'ol. I 2nd 

Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle : Rhetorica ad Alexandrum. H. Rackham. 

(With Problems, Vol. II.) 
Arrian : History of Alexander and Indica. Rev. E 

Iliffe Robson. 2 Vols. {2nd Imp.) 
Athenaeus : Deipnosophistae. C. B. Gulick. 7 Vols 

(Vols. I, V and VI 2nd Imp.) 
St. Basil : Letters. R. J. Deferrari. 4 Vols. {2nd Imp.) 
Callimachus and Lycophron. a. W. Mair; Ahatus. 

G. R. Mair. {2nd Imp.) 
Clement of Alexandria. Rev. G. W. Butterworth. {Srd 

Imp.) 

COLLUTHUS. Cf. OpPIAN. 

Daphnis and Chloe. Cf. Longus. 

Demosthenes I : Olynthiacs, Philippics and Minor 

Orations : I-XVII and XX. J. H. Vince. {2nd Imp.) 
Demosthenes II : De Corona and De Falsa Legatione. 

C. A. Vince and J. H. Vince. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Demosthenes III : Meidias, Androtion, Aristocrates, 

TiMocRATES, Aristogeiton. J. H. Vincc. 
Demosthenes IV-VI : Private Orations and In Neaeram. 

A. T. Murray. (Vol. IV 2nd Imp.) 
Demosthenes VII : Funeral Speech, Erotic Essay, 

Exordia and Letters. N. W. and N. J. DeWitt. 
Dio Cassius : Roman History. E. Cary. 9 Vols. (Vols. 

I and II 2nd Imp.) 
Dio Chrysostom. 5 Vols. Vols I and H. J. W. Cohoon. 

Vol. III. J. W. Cohoon and H. Lamar Crosby. Vols. IV 

and V. H. Lamar Crosby. (Vols. I-lII 2nd Imp.) 
DiODORUs SicuLus. 12 Vols. Vols. I-VI. C. H. Oldfather. 

Vol. \^II. C. L. Sherman. Vols. IX and X. Russel M. 

Geer. (Vols. I-III 2nd Imp.) 
Diogenes Laertius. R. D. Hicks. 2 Vols. (Vol. I Uh 

Imp., Vol. n Srd Imp.) 
Dionysius of Halicarnassus : Roman Antiquities. Spel- 

man's translation revised by E. Cary. 7 Vols. (Vols. 

I-IV 2nd Imp.) 
Epictetus. W. a. Oldfather. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Euripides. A. S. Way. 4 Vols. (Vols. I and II 7th Imp., 

Vol. HI 6th Imp., Vol. IV 5th Imp.) Verse trans. 



I 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

EusEBius : Ecclesiastical History. Kirsopp Lake and 

J.E. L.Oulton. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 3rd /mp., Vol. II 4<A /mp.) 
Galen: On THE Natural Faculties. A. J. Brock. {4thlmp.) 
The Greek Anthology. W. R. Paton. 5 Vols. (Vols. I 

and II 5th Imp., Vol. Ill Uh Imp., Vols. IV and V 3rd 

Imp.) 
The Greek Bucolic Poets (Theocritus, Bion, Moschus). 

J. M. Edmonds. {7th Imp. revised.) 
Greek Elegy and Iambus with the Anacreontea. J. M. 

Edmonds. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 3rd Imp., \'ol. II 2nd Imp.) 
Greek Mathematical Works. Ivor Thomas. 2 Vols. 

(2nd Imp.) 
Herodes. Cf. Theopiirastus : Characters. 
Herodotus. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. (Vols. I-III 4^A /wp., 

Vol. IV 3rd Imp.) 
Hesiod and the Homeric PIymns. H. G. Evelyn White. 

{Ith Imp. revised and enlarged.) 
Hippocrates and the Fragments of Heracleitus. W. H. S. 

Jones and E. T. Withington. 4 Vols. (Vols. I, II and 

1\' 3rd Imp., Vol. Ill 2nd Imp.) 
Homer : Iliad. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. {6th Imp.) 
Homer : Odyssey. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. {7th Imp.) 
IsAEUS. E. S. Forster. (2nd Imp.) 
Isocrates. George Norlin and LaRue Van Hook. 3 Vols. 

(\o]s. I and III 2)id Imp.) 
St. John Damascene : Barlaam and Ioasaph. Rev. G. R. 

Woodward and Harold Mattingly. (2nd hnp. revised.) 
JosEPHUS. H. St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus. 9 Vols. 

Vols. I-VII. (Vol. V 3rd Imp., Vols. I and VI 2nd Imp.) 
Julian. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. (Vol. I 2nd Imp., 

Vol. II 3rd Imp.) 
LoNGus : Daphnis and Chloe. Thornley's translation 

revised by J. M. Edmonds ; and Parthenius. S. Gaselee. 

(3rd Imp.) 
LuciAN. A. M. Harmon. 8 Vols. Vols. I-V. (Vols. I, II 

and III 3rd Imp., Vol. IV 2nd Imp.) 
Lycophron. Cf. Callimachus. 
Lyra Graeca. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. (Vol. I 4^/< Imp., 

Vols. II and III 3rd Imp.) 
Lysias. W. R. M. Lamb. {2nd Imp.) 
Manetho. W. G. Waddell ; Ptolemy : Tetrabiblos. P\ \i. 

Bobbins. (2nd Imp. ) 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

Marcus Aurelius. C. R. Haines. (4<th Imp. revised.) 

Menander. F, G. Allinson. (Srd Imp. revised.) 

Minor Attic Orators. 2 Vols, K. J. Maidment and 

J. O. Burtt. (Vol. I 2nd Imp.) 
NoNNos : DioNYsiACA. W. H. D. Rouse. 3 Vols. (Vol. 

Ill 2nd Imp.) 
Oppian, Colluthus, Tryphiodorus. A. W. Mair. 
Papyri. Non-Literary Selections. A. S. Hunt and C. C. 

Edgar. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 2nd Imp.) Literary Selections. 

Vol. I (Poetry). D. L. Page. (Srd Imp.) 

PaRTHENIUS. Cf. LONGUS. 

Pausanias : Description of Greece. W. H. S. Jones. 5 

Vols, and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 

(Vols. I and III 2nd Imp.) 
Philo. 10 Vols. Vols. I-V. F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 

Whitaker; Vols. VI-IX. F. H. Colson. (Vols. Mil, 

V-IX 2nd Imp., Vol. IV Srd Imp.) 

Two Supplementary Vols, from the Armenian Text. 
Ralph Marcus, 
Philostratus : The Life of Apollonius of Tyana. F. C. 

Conybeare. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 4>th Imp., Vol. H Srd 

Imp.) 
Philostratus : Imagines ; Callistratus : Descriptions. 

A. Fairbanks. 
Philostratus and Eunapius : Lives of the Sophists. 

Wilmer Cave Wright. {2nd Imp.) 
Pindar. Sir J. E. Sandys. (7th Imp. revised.) 
Plato I : Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Phaedrus. 

H. N. Fowler. {9th Imp.) 
Plato II: Theaetetus and Sophist. H. N. Fowler. {4th 

Imp.) 
Plato III: Statesman, Philebus. H. N. Fowler; Ion. 

W. R. M. Lamb. {4th Imp.) 
Plato IV : Laches, Protagoras, Meno, Euthydemus. 

W. R. M. Lamb. {3rd Imp. revised.) 
Plato V : Lysis, Symposium, Gorgias. W. II. M. Lamb. 

{4th Imp. revised.) 
Plato VI : Cratylus, Parmenides, Greater Hippias, 

Lesser Hippias. H. N. Fowler. {Srd Imp.) 
Plato VII : Timaeus, Critias, Clitopho, Menexenus, Epi- 

stulae. Rev. R. G. Bury. {Srd Imp.) 
Plato VIII : Charmides, Alcibiades, Hipparchus, The 

8 



THE JLOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

Lovers, Theages, Minos and Epinomis. W. R. M. Lamb. 

{^nd Imp.) 
Plato : Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols, {^rd Imp.) 
Plato : Republic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. (Vol. I Uh Imp , 

Vol. II 3rd Imp.) 
Plutarch : Mohalia. 14 Vols. Vols. I-V. F. C. Babbitt ; 

Vol.VL W.C.Helmbold; Vol.X. H. N. Fowler. (Vols. 

I, III and X 2nd Imp.) 
Plutarch: The Parallel Lives. B. Perrin. 11 Vols. 

(Vols. I, II, III and VII 3rd Imp., Vols. IV, VI, VIII-XI 

2nd Imp.) 
PoLYBius. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. 
Procopius : History of the Wars. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 

(Vol. I 2nd Imp.) 
Ptolemy : Tetrabiblos. Cf. Manetho. 
QuiNTUs Smyrnaeus. a. S. Way. (2nd Imp. ) Verse trans. 
Sextus Empiricus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. (Vols. I and 

HI 2nd Imp.) 
Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 9th Imp., Vol. U 6th 

Imp.) Verse trans. 
Strabo : Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. (Vols. I 

and VIII 3rd Imp., Vols. II, V and VI 2nd Imp.) 
Theophrastus : Characters. J.M.Edmonds; Herodes, 

etc. A. D. Knox. {3rd Imp.) 
Theophrastus : Enquiry into Plants. Sir Arthur Hort. 

2 Vols. {2nd Imp.) 
Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. {3rd Imp. ) 
Tryphiodorus. Cf. Oppian. 
Xenophon : Cyropaedia. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 

3rd Imp., Vol. II 4th Imp.) 
Xenophon : Hellenica, Anabasis, Apology, and Sympo 

siuM. C. L. Brownson and O J. Todd. 3 Vols. (Vols. I 

and III 3rd Imp., Vol. II 4<th Imp.) 
Xenophon : Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. Mar- 
chant. {3rd Imp.) 
Xenophon: Schipta Minora. E. C. Marchant. {2nd Imp). 



{For Volumes in Preparation see next page ) 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 
VOLUMES IN PREPARATION 



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GREEK AUTHORS 



Aristotle : De Mundo, etc. D. Furley and E. S. Forster. 
Aristotle : History of Animals. A. L. Peck. 
Plotinus. a. H. Armstrong. 



LATIN AUTHORS 

St. Augustine : City of God. 

fCiCEBO :] Ad Herennium. H. Caplan. 

Cicero : Pro Sestio, In Vatinium, Pro Caelio, De Pro- 

viNciis CoNSULARiBUS, Pro Balbo. J. H. Frecsc and R. 

Gardner. 
Phaedrus and other Fabulists. B. E. Perry. 

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